Independent and Joint Effects of Socioeconomic, Behavioral, and Neighborhood Characteristics on Physical Inactivity and Activity Levels Among US Children and Adolescents

ArticleinJournal of Community Health 33(4):206-16 · August 2008with10 Reads
DOI: 10.1007/s10900-008-9094-8 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
This study examines the independent and joint associations between several socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics and physical activity (PA) and inactivity prevalence among 68,288 US children aged 6-17 years. The 2003 National Survey of Children's Health was used to estimate PA prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds of activity and inactivity and adjusted prevalence, while least squares regression was used to model mean number of days of physical inactivity (PIA) in past month. The prevalence of PA varied substantially by socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, with older, female, non-English speaking, and metropolitan children and those with lower socioeconomic status (SES) and neighborhood social capital having higher inactivity and lower activity levels. Children who watched television >or=3 h/day had 60% higher adjusted odds of PIA and 30% lower odds of PA than those who watched television <3 h/day. Children experiencing inadequate sleep during the entire week had 55% higher odds of PIA and 29% lower odds of PA than those who experienced >or=5 nights of adequate sleep during the week. Children whose both parents were physically inactive had 147% higher odds of PIA and 46% lower odds of PA than children whose parents were both physically active. Differentials in PIA by ethnicity, SES, television viewing, and parental inactivity were greater for younger than for older children. Subgroups such as older, female adolescents, children from socially disadvantaged households and neighborhoods, and those in metropolitan areas should be targeted for the promotion of regular physical activity and reduced television viewing time.
    • "We also found that children complained about bad sleep habits demotivating them from doing recess PA. In line with our study, other studies on children have found associations between inadequate sleep and sedentary time [67] as well as physical inactivity [68]. The least physically active children's temporal perspective showed that recess time was perceived as speeded up when they were enjoying themselves and slowed down when they were feeling bored. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Increasing recess physical activity has been the aim of several interventions, as this setting can provide numerous physical activity opportunities. However, it is unclear if these interventions are equally effective for all children, or if they only appeal to children who are already physically active. This study was conducted to explore the least physically active children’s “lived experiences” within four existential lifeworlds linked to physical activity during recess: space, body, time, and relations. Methods The study builds on ethnographic fieldwork in a public school in Denmark using a combination of participatory photo interviews and participant observation. Thirty-seven grade five children (11–12 years old) were grouped in quartiles based on their objectively measured daily physical activity levels. Eight children in the lowest activity quartile (six girls) were selected to participate in the study. To avoid stigmatising and to make generalisations more reliable we further recruited eight children from the two highest activity quartiles (four girls) to participate. Results An analysis of the least physically active children’s “lived experiences” of space, body, time and relations revealed several key factors influencing their recess physical activity: perceived classroom safety, indoor cosiness, lack of attractive outdoor facilities, bodily dissatisfaction, bodily complaints, tiredness, feeling bored, and peer influence. Conclusion We found that the four existential lifeworlds provided an in-depth understanding of the least physically active children’s “lived experiences” of recess physical activity. Our findings imply that specific intervention strategies might be needed to increase the least physically active children’s physical activity level. For example, rethinking the classroom as a space for physical activity, designing schoolyards with smaller secluded spaces and varied facilities, improving children’s self-esteem and body image, e.g., during physical education, and creating teacher organised play activities during recess.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
    • "Still, studies examining the relationship between sleep and physical activity in children are scarce and their results equivocal (Garaulet et al., 2011; Gupta et al., 2002; Martinez-Gomez et al., 2011; Olds et al., 2011; Ortega et al., 2010, 2011; Pesonen et al., 2011; Singh et al., 2008). In addition, although objective assessment of sleep has been repeatedly advocated (Chen et al., 2008; Guidolin & Gradisar, 2012; Marshall et al., 2008; Patel & Hu, 2008), most of these studies relied on subjective assessment of sleep (Garaulet et al., 2011; Martinez-Gomez et al., 2011; Ortega et al., 2010) or both physical activity and sleep (Olds et al., 2011; Ortega et al., 2011; Singh et al., 2008). Yet, both sleep and physical activity tend to be over-estimated when reported by a parent or selfreported (Adamo et al., 2009; Short et al., 2012). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Objective methods were used to evaluate children's sleep and physical activity over several days in order to test the hypotheses that: (1) low average sleep duration and/or sleep efficiency are linked to a low amount of physical activity; and (2) a reduction in sleep quantity and/or sleep efficiency during the night is followed by a decrease in physical activity the following day. Methods: This is a multi-centre, observational study involving 276 children, aged 10.5-12 years, from diverse urban settings in Croatia, Slovenia and the US. Sleep and activity were monitored for 2-6 days (median = 4) using the Sensewear Armband™ multi-sensor body monitor. Results: While average sleep duration and efficiency were unrelated to physical activity, within-subjects associations revealed that an extra hour spent in bed during the night was followed by a 16-minute decrease in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (p < 0.001). This was accompanied by a 4.5 kJ/kg and 5.9 kJ/kg lower total daily energy expenditure in boys and girls, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study found no evidence for a link between short sleep and low or reduced physical activity.
    Article · Jul 2014
    • "There are numerous factors that influence physical activity. In the pediatric population, several socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics have been identified that suggest that older, female, non-English speaking, metropolitan children, and those with lower socioeconomic status (SES) and neighborhood social capital, have lower physical activity levels (Singh, Kogan, Siahpush, & van Dyck, 2008). Adults' physical activity levels appear to be influenced by additional factors such as the availability of physical activity equipment and connectivity of trails with active commuting (Wendel-Vos, Droomers, Kremers, Brug, & van Lenthe, 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Less than half of US adults and two-thirds of US high school students do not meet current US guidelines for physical activity. We examined which factors promoted physicians' and medical students' confidence in counseling patients about physical activity. We established an online exercise survey targeting attending physicians, resident and fellow physicians, and medical students to determine their current level of physical activity and confidence in counseling patients about physical activity. We compared their personal level of physical activity with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines of the US Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). We administered a survey in 2009 and 2010 that used the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A total of 1,949 individuals responded to the survey, of whom 1,751 (i.e., 566 attending physicians, 138 fellow physicians, 806 resident physicians, and 215 medical students) were included in this analysis. After adjusting for their BMI, the odds that physicians and medical students who met USDHHS guidelines for vigorous activity would express confidence in their ability to provide exercise counseling were more than twice that of physicians who did not meet these guidelines. Individuals who were overweight were less likely to be confident than those with normal BMI, after adjusting for whether they met the vigorous exercise guidelines. Physicians with obesity were even less likely to express confidence in regards to exercise counseling. We conclude that physicians and medical students who had a normal BMI and met vigorous USDHHS guidelines were more likely to feel confident about counseling their patients about physical activity. Our findings suggest that graduate medical school education should focus on health promotion in their students, as this will likely lead to improved health behaviors in their students' patient populations.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014
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