Runoff of pharmaceuticals and personal care products following application of biosolids to an agricultural field. Sci Total Environ

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, Canada ON N5V 4T3.
Science of The Total Environment (Impact Factor: 4.1). 07/2008; 396(1):52-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.02.011
Source: PubMed


Municipal biosolids are a source of nutrients for crop production. Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) can be used to minimize the risk of contamination of adjacent water resources with chemical or microbial agents that are of public or environmental health concern. In this field study, we applied biosolids slurry at a commercial rate using either subsurface injection or broadcast application followed by incorporation. Precipitation was simulated at 1, 3, 7, 22, 36 and 266 days post-application on 2 m(2) microplots to evaluate surface runoff of 9 model pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), atenolol, carbamazepine, cotinine, gemfibrozil, naproxen, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole and triclosan. In runoff from the injected plots, concentrations of the model PPCPs were generally below the limits of quantitation. In contrast, in the broadcast application treatment, the concentrations of atenolol, carbamazepine, cotinine, gemfibrozil, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole and triclosan on the day following application ranged from 70-1477 ng L(-1) in runoff and generally declined thereafter with first order kinetics. The total mass of PPCPs mobilized in surface runoff per m(2) of the field ranged from 0.63 microg for atenolol to 21.1 microg for ibuprofen. For ibuprofen and acetaminophen, concentrations in runoff first decreased and then increased, suggesting that these drugs were initially chemically or physically sequestered in the biosolids slurry, and subsequently released in the soil. Carbamazepine and triclosan were detected at low concentrations in a runoff event 266 days after broadcast application. Overall, this study showed that injection of biosolids slurry below the soil surface could effectively eliminate surface runoff of PPCPs.

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    • "Comparable to pesticides (Schulz, 2004), human and veterinary pharmaceuticals (VPs) can be mobilized from these fields during heavy precipitation and may enter surface water bodies via edge-of-field runoff (Kemper 2008). Although the research focused mainly on the remobilization of antibiotics, this phenomenon was reported for various classes of pharmaceuticals, with peak concentrations directly following the rainfall event (e.g., Davis et al., 2006; Kreuzig et al., 2005; Kuchta and Cessna, 2009; Topp et al., 2008). According to the "
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    • "The former is handled and applied as a liquid , whereas the latter is applied as a solid. The LMB is typically surface applied followed by incorporation, or injected directly into the soil profile (Topp et al., 2008b). The DMB is typically surface applied followed by incorporation, but equipment exists (Terratec Environmental Ltd., dewatered biosolids direct injection system) that can deposit extruded DMB directly into the soil profile (Edwards et al., 2009). "
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    • "As an example, amoxicillin, sulfamethazine and trimethoprim, three antibiotics, show half-lives in soils of 1, 18.6 and 103 d, respectively (Boxall, 2008). Both sorption and degradation processes are also strongly influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature, redox potential, pH, soil type, organic carbon content, clay minerals and soil bacteria (Topp et al., 2008). "
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