Treatment of Hypertension in Patients 80 Years of Age or Older

Care of the Elderly, Division of Medicine, Imperial College London, United Kingdom.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 55.87). 06/2008; 358(18):1887-98. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa0801369
Source: PubMed


Whether the treatment of patients with hypertension who are 80 years of age or older is beneficial is unclear. It has been suggested that antihypertensive therapy may reduce the risk of stroke, despite possibly increasing the risk of death.
We randomly assigned 3845 patients from Europe, China, Australasia, and Tunisia who were 80 years of age or older and had a sustained systolic blood pressure of 160 mm Hg or more to receive either the diuretic indapamide (sustained release, 1.5 mg) or matching placebo. The angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor perindopril (2 or 4 mg), or matching placebo, was added if necessary to achieve the target blood pressure of 150/80 mm Hg. The primary end point was fatal or nonfatal stroke.
The active-treatment group (1933 patients) and the placebo group (1912 patients) were well matched (mean age, 83.6 years; mean blood pressure while sitting, 173.0/90.8 mm Hg); 11.8% had a history of cardiovascular disease. Median follow-up was 1.8 years. At 2 years, the mean blood pressure while sitting was 15.0/6.1 mm Hg lower in the active-treatment group than in the placebo group. In an intention-to-treat analysis, active treatment was associated with a 30% reduction in the rate of fatal or nonfatal stroke (95% confidence interval [CI], -1 to 51; P=0.06), a 39% reduction in the rate of death from stroke (95% CI, 1 to 62; P=0.05), a 21% reduction in the rate of death from any cause (95% CI, 4 to 35; P=0.02), a 23% reduction in the rate of death from cardiovascular causes (95% CI, -1 to 40; P=0.06), and a 64% reduction in the rate of heart failure (95% CI, 42 to 78; P<0.001). Fewer serious adverse events were reported in the active-treatment group (358, vs. 448 in the placebo group; P=0.001).
The results provide evidence that antihypertensive treatment with indapamide (sustained release), with or without perindopril, in persons 80 years of age or older is beneficial. ( number, NCT00122811 [].).

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    • "In most cases, it accounts for subsequent organ damage or many other manifestations of cardiovascular diseases [2] [3]. Adequate treatment of hypertension is important especially in older populations, as has been confirmed by the HYVET study [4]. Moreover, older populations often experience pain, both chronic and acute. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nowadays NSAIDs are the most frequently used groups of drugs, especially because of their availability. Their consumption is high among older people, who are much more sensitive to the side effects, and who are often also taking other drugs which can interact with them. Moreover, the majority of the older population is suffering from hypertension. This could well explain the commonly encountered experience of drug interaction between NSAIDs and antihypertensive drugs, which is very common in clinical practice. The severity of this drug interaction is classified as class C, with a recommendation to monitor therapy. However, even a minor long-term increase in blood pressure can significantly increase the risk of cardiovascular mortality, while mortality rates can possibly be reduced by sufficiently effective treatment of hypertension. Therefore, in clinical practice, this type of interaction should not be overlooked as a major cause of failure of hypertension treatment in older patients, as well in many cases in general. The present article focusses on the mechanism and the degree of influence on the blood pressure of particular types of antihypertensive agents used in combination with NSAID. Not all groups of antihypertensive drugs are affected to the same degree; some are more affected, and others, such as calcium channel blockers, are not affected at all. Similarly, not every NSAID increases blood pressure. Many studies, some of which are analyzed in this article, present evidence of the degree of the influence NSAIDs have on blood pressure.
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    • "However, more importantly, although addition of HCTZ to renin angiotensin system inhibitors has been shown to effectively reduce BP levels, and decreasing BP to recommended targets improves the cardiovascular prognosis, a reduction in outcomes using low doses of HCTZ as add-on therapy has not yet been demonstrated.20 In contrast, although head-to-head clinical outcomes trials comparing the effects of indapamide or chlorthalidone with HCTZ are not available, indirect comparisons and post hoc analyses suggest that the use of chlorthalidone or indapamide is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular events.42,73,74,77 On the other hand, the benefits of indapamide with regard to cardiovascular outcomes have been shown only when indapamide is combined with perindopril, but not with other antihypertensive drugs. "
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    ABSTRACT: Combined therapy is required in the majority of patients with hypertension to achieve blood pressure (BP) targets. Although different antihypertensive drugs can be combined, not all combinations are equally effective and safe. In this context, the combination of a renin angiotensin system inhibitor with a diuretic, usually a thiazide, particularly hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) or thiazide-like diuretics, such as chlorthalidone or indapamide, is recommended. However, not all diuretics are equal. Although HCTZ, chlorthalidone, and indapamide as add-on therapy effectively reduce BP levels, the majority of studies have obtained greater BP reductions with chlorthalidone or indapamide than with HCTZ. Moreover, there are data showing benefits with chlorthalidone or indapamide beyond BP. Thus, chlorthalidone seems to have pleiotropic effects beyond BP reduction. Moreover, compared with placebo, chlorthalidone has small effects on fasting glucose and total cholesterol, and compared with HCTZ, chlorthalidone achieves significantly lower total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Similarly, indapamide has demonstrated no negative impact on glucose or lipid metabolism. More importantly, although head-to-head clinical trials comparing the effects of indapamide or chlorthalidone with HCTZ are not available, indirect comparisons and post hoc analyses suggest that the use of chlorthalidone or indapamide is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular events. Despite this, the most frequent diuretic used in clinical practice as add-on therapy for hypertension is HCTZ. The purpose of this review is to update the published data on the efficacy and safety of HCTZ, chlorthalidone, and indapamide as add-on therapy in patients with hypertension.
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    • "On the one hand, the HYVET landmark trial30 demonstrated substantial reduction in fatal and non-fatal stroke, all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular disease in octogenarians treated who had a sustained SBP ≤160 mmHg. On the other hand, another meta-analysis31 showed only reduction of stroke risk, cardiovascular events, and heart failure, while all-cause mortality remained high. "
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