Influence of short- and long-term treadmill exercises on levels of ghrelin, obestatin and NPY in plasma and brain extraction of obese rats
Department of Sports Physiology, Sport Science College, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, 100084, China. Endocrine
(Impact Factor: 3.88).
03/2008; 33(1):77-83. DOI: 10.1007/s12020-008-9056-z
This study aims to clarify the effects of exercise on levels of appetite regulatory hormones in plasma and hypothalamus of obese rats. Diet-induced obese rats undergo short- (40 min) and long-term (40 min, 5 days/week for 8 weeks) exercises. The rats ran at a speed of 20 m/min on a 5 degrees slope treadmill. Rats undergoing short-term exercise were divided into C, E0, E1, E3, E12, and E24. Rats undergoing long-term exercise (LE) were compared to long-term control (LC). Concentrations of ghrelin, obestatin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were measured using radio immuno-assay. Expression of ghrelin receptor (GHSR-1a), putative obestatin receptor (GPR-39), and NPY in the hypothalamus was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. After short-term exercise, the plasma concentrations of ghrelin and obestatin were not changed, but NPY decreased. Ghrelin and obestatin in the hypothalamus decreased, and recovered 12 until 24 h. NPY increased and recovered after 24 h. Expression of GHSR-1a and NPY was not changed and GPR-39 was not observed. In LE, these changes are different in plasma and hypothalamus. It would be concluded appetite and body weight of obese rats are decreased by exercise through reduced level of ghrelin in the hypothalamus. Obestatin seems to have no effect in exercise-induced change in appetite.
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- "Ayrıca plazma obestatin konsantrasyonunun açlık ve yeniden beslenme (Guo ve ark., 2008), yüksek karbonhidratlı yemek (Sedlackova ve ark., 2008), kilo kaybı (Fontenot ve ark., 2007) ve obezite (Guo ve ark., 2007; Xu ve ark., 2007) tarafından düzenlendiği görülmüştür. Obestatin ile ghrelin aynı gen ürünü olmasına rağmen obestatin besin alımını baskılamakta, jejunal kasılmaları inhibe etmekte ve her iki peptid aynı anda verildiğinde ghrelinin etkilerini antagonize etmektedir (Wang ve ark., 2008). Bu nedenle enerji homeostazisinin düzenlenmesinde ve vücut ağırlığı kontrolünde ghrelin ve obestatin dengesinin çok iyi ayarlanması gerektiği ileri sürülmektedir. "
- "In experimental obesity, ghrelin level is elevated and is associated to anxiety-like behaviours. Short or longterm exercise training result in reduction of hypothalamic ghrelin in rats  and in humans  . Intravenous injection of synthetic ghrelin increased ACTH and cortisol level [61, 62] in volunteers, indicating an association of this peptide with stress conditions. "
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ABSTRACT: Coronary heart disease is the major cause of global cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Lifestyle behaviour contributes as a risk factor: unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, tobacco, alcohol, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and psychosocial stress. Atherosclerosis pathologic mechanisms involving oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, inflammation and senescence are associated with arterial wall damage and plaque formation. Stress reduction was observed in several types of meditation. After meditation, hormonal orchestration modulates effects in the central nervous system and in the body. All types of meditation are associated with blood pressure control, enhancement in insulin resistance, reduction of lipid peroxidation and cellular senescence, independent of type of meditation. This review presents scientific evidence to explain how meditation can produce beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, and particularly regarding vascular aspects.
Available from: Seyed Morteza Tayebi
- "It should be noted that information concerning the effect of exercise training on skeletal muscle, particularly soleus muscle ghrelin concentrations , is lacking. However, in a study by Wang et al , a short-(acute) and long-term (8 weeks) treadmill exercise training regimen (20 m/min, 5 degrees of grade, and 40 minutes per session) reduced hypothalamic total ghrelin and obestatin in rats. In the present study, the level of total ghrelin was significantly lower in trained rat soleus muscle at the end of the 6-week treadmill exercise program (25 m/min, 60 minutes per session). "
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ABSTRACT: Ghrelin and agouti-related protein (AgRP) are orexigenic peptides secreted from stomach mucosa and the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, respectively. Both peptides affect feeding behavior and play a role in energy balance, glucose homeostasis, and adiposity. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of moderate-term (6 weeks) running regimen on resting levels of ghrelin, AgRP, adenosine triphosphate, and glycogen in soleus muscle as well as plasma concentrations of the orexigenic hormones. Eighteen adult Wistar male rats (12 weeks old, 235-255 g) were randomly assigned to training (n = 10) and control (n = 8) groups. The training group ran for 60 min/d, 5d/wk at 25 m/min and 0% grade for 6 weeks. Forty-eight hours after the last exercise session, rats were killed; and soleus muscle and plasma were collected and frozen in liquid nitrogen for later analysis. Results demonstrated that 6 weeks of treadmill exercise reduced ghrelin and increased AgRP levels in plasma. Trained rat soleus muscle had higher levels of glycogen but not adenosine triphosphate or AgRP compared with untrained controls. Data indicate that training lowers ghrelin levels in rat soleus and plasma, which is accompanied by higher plasma AgRP and soleus glycogen content.
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