Visceral Obesity May Affect Oncologic Outcome in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, 90 Chilam-dong, Jinju, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea.
Annals of Surgical Oncology (Impact Factor: 3.93). 08/2008; 15(7):1918-22. DOI: 10.1245/s10434-008-9891-4
Source: PubMed


Obesity is closely related to the development of colorectal cancer as well as other metabolic complications. We investigated the prognostic significance of visceral obesity and body mass index (BMI) in 161 resectable colorectal cancer patients.
Ratios of visceral fat area (VFA) to subcutaneous fat area (SFA) were measured from the digital images of patients' computed tomography taken before the surgery, and patients were divided into those with high and those with low VFA/SFA ratio according to the degree of proportional visceral adiposity, and into an overweight and a normal-weight group according to their preoperative BMI.
The overweight group showed a borderline decrease in cumulative disease-free survival compared to the normal-weight group (P = 0.064). Patients with high VFA/SFA ratio (more than 50 percentiles) had significantly lower cumulative disease-free survival rate compared to patients with low VFA/SFA ratio (P = 0.008). BMI and visceral adiposity showed no influence on overall survival of patients.
Increased visceral adiposity was a significant predictor of disease-free survival in patients with resectable colorectal cancer. The prognostic significance of visceral adiposity should further be determined in a larger set of patients.

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    • "Nevertheless, those studies suggest that increased visceral fat areas, or an increased visceral fat vs subcutaneous fat ratio may increase the risk of recurrence. Visceral adiposity may also unfavourably affect colorectal cancer survival, but again this has only been studied in small populations (50–200 patients) with short follow-up and mostly in patients with metastatic disease [22-24,26]; results were therefore not conclusive. Concluding, the associations of body composition and fat distribution with recurrence and survival of colorectal cancer patients are promising areas of investigation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background There is clear evidence that nutrition and lifestyle can modify colorectal cancer risk. However, it is not clear if those factors can affect colorectal cancer treatment, recurrence, survival and quality of life. This paper describes the background and design of the “COlorectal cancer: Longitudinal, Observational study on Nutritional and lifestyle factors that may influence colorectal tumour recurrence, survival and quality of life” – COLON – study. The main aim of this study is to assess associations of diet and other lifestyle factors, with colorectal cancer recurrence, survival and quality of life. We extensively investigate diet and lifestyle of colorectal cancer patients at diagnosis and during the following years; this design paper focusses on the initial exposures of interest: diet and dietary supplement use, body composition, nutrient status (e.g. vitamin D), and composition of the gut microbiota. Methods/Design The COLON study is a multi-centre prospective cohort study among at least 1,000 incident colorectal cancer patients recruited from 11 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients with colorectal cancer are invited upon diagnosis. Upon recruitment, after 6 months, 2 years and 5 years, patients fill out food-frequency questionnaires; questionnaires about dietary supplement use, physical activity, weight, height, and quality of life; and donate blood samples. Diagnostic CT-scans are collected to assess cross-sectional areas of skeletal muscle, subcutaneous fat, visceral fat and intermuscular fat, and to assess muscle attenuation. Blood samples are biobanked to facilitate future analyse of biomarkers, nutrients, DNA etc. Analysis of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, and analysis of metabolomic profiles are scheduled. A subgroup of patients with colon cancer is asked to provide faecal samples before and at several time points after colon resection to study changes in gut microbiota during treatment. For all patients, information on vital status is retrieved by linkage with national registries. Information on clinical characteristics is gathered from linkage with the Netherlands Cancer Registry and with hospital databases. Hazards ratios will be calculated for dietary and lifestyle factors at diagnosis in relation to recurrence and survival. Repeated measures analyses will be performed to assess changes over time in dietary and other factors in relation to recurrence and survival.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · BMC Cancer
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    • "Excessive weight and obesity are associated with higher risk of many cancers, including colorectal cancer; however, few studies have focused on the association between obesity and outcomes of cancer patients. Moreover, in Asian populations, only two published studies have examined the effect of obesity on prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer [14,18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of body mass index (BMI) on the prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer remains largely unknown, particularly in Asian populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of BMI on clinicopathological characteristics and mortality of Chinese colorectal cancer patients. The study cohort consisted of 525 patients who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and underwent radical surgery at the second hospital of Harbin Medical University between June 2004 and August 2011. Study participants were divided into two BMI categories: normal weight (BMI <23 kg/m2) and overweight (BMI >=23 kg/m2). Of 525 patients, 208 patients (39.6%) were included in the normal-weight group and 317 patients were included in the overweight group. During the mean follow-up period of 48.8 months, 89 patients had disease recurrence and 131 deaths occurred. High BMI was significantly correlated with younger age, presence of diabetes, alcohol consumption, distal colon tumors, amount of lymph node harvested and pathological stage. No statistically significant correlation was found between high BMI and progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) when the total group of patients was considered (P = 0.077 and P = 0.701, respectively). Cigarette-smoking patients had significantly shorter OS than patients who had never smoked (hazard ratio = 1.613, 95% confidence interval = 1.133 to 2.296; P = 0.008), and this difference in OS remained significant in multivariate analysis. Cigarette-smoking patients did not have significantly different PFS compared with patients who had never smoked. There was no significant correlation between obesity and outcomes of patients with colorectal cancer. In addition, our findings support the claims that cigarette smoking may be partially responsible for the divergent mortality of patients with colorectal cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · World Journal of Surgical Oncology
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    • "However, a few studies that have investigated the influence of BMI on the outcomes of colon cancer patients have reported inconsistent findings [6–11]. Despite support for the importance of obesity and metabolic syndrome as risk factors for the development of colorectal cancer, data are equivocal for the effects on colorectal cancer progression and outcome [6–8]. Several studies have reported decreased survival and increased recurrence in patients with insulin resistance or high BMI [7–9], whereas other studies have not [6, 10, 11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: High BMI is a well-known risk factor for the development and recurrence of several solid tumours, including CRC. Obesity is associated with increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Bevacizumab is the main targeted therapy for inhibiting tumour angiogenesis by blocking the VEGF/VEGF receptor pathway. Elevated VEGF in obese patients might provoke resistance to anti-VEGF therapy. We evaluated the efficacy of bevacizumab on TTP among mCRC patients through stratifying them according to their BMI. Patients with mCRC who had been treated with fluoropyrimidine-based combination chemotherapy with bevacizumab were included in the study. Patients were assigned according to their BMI before initiation of therapy (group A: BMI < 25 kg/m(2), group B: BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)). Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the risk of tumour progression. Between April 2007 and June 2011, 80 patients were treated with chemotherapy and bevacizumab as first-line therapy (n = 37 for group A, n = 43 for group B). Tumours in 56.3 % of the patients in group A (n = 21) and 76.3 % of the patients in group B (n = 33) progressed during a median 10-months (3-57 months) follow-up. The median TTP was 11.7 months in the group A and 6 months in the group B (p = 0.004). In a multivariate analysis, high BMI (≥25 kg/m(2)) was associated with significantly shorter TTP (p = 0.01; HR: 4.37). High BMI among mCRC patients treated with bevacizumab is associated with shorter TTP. Further study in larger databases is warranted for confirming the negative prognostic effect of obesity during treatment with anti-VEGF agents.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Medical Oncology
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