Renin-angiotensin system, natriuretic peptides, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension: An integrated view in humans
The obesity pandemic is closely related to hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Visceral adipose tissue plays a key role in the metabolic and cardiovascular complications of being overweight. The pathophysiological link between visceral adiposity and cardiometabolic complications focuses on insulin sensitivity, sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and, only recently, on cardiac natriuretic peptide system (CNPS). RAAS and CNPS are endogenous antagonistic systems on sodium balance, cardiovascular system, and metabolism. The circulating RAAS is dysregulated in obese patients, and adipose tissue has a full local renin-angiotensin system that is active at local and systemic level. Adipocyte biology and metabolism are influenced by local renin-angiotensin system, with angiotensin II acting as a 'growth factor' for adipocytes. CNPS induces natriuresis and diuresis, reduces blood pressure, and, moreover, has powerful lipolytic and lipomobilizing activity in humans but not in rodents. In obesity, lower plasmatic natriuretic peptides levels with increasing BMI, waist circumference, and metabolic syndrome have been documented. Thus, reduced CNPS effects coupled with increased RAAS activity have a central role in obesity and its deadly complications. We propose herein an integrated view of the dysregulation of these two antagonistic systems in human obesity complicated with hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and increased cardiovascular risk.
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