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Why It Pays to Get Inside the Head of Your Opponent The Differential Effects of Perspective Taking and Empathy in Negotiations

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Abstract

The current research explored whether two related yet distinct social competencies -- perspective taking (the cognitive capacity to consider the world from another individual's viewpoint) and empathy (the ability to connect emotionally with another individual) -- have differential effects in negotiations. Across three studies, using both individual difference measures and experimental manipulations, we found that perspective taking increased individuals' ability to discover hidden agreements and to both create and claim resources at the bargaining table. However, empathy did not prove nearly as advantageous and at times was detrimental to discovering a possible deal and achieving individual profit. These results held regardless of whether the interaction was a negotiation in which a prima facie solution was not possible or a multiple-issue negotiation that required discovering mutually beneficial trade-offs. Although empathy is an essential tool in many aspects of social life, perspective taking appears to be a particularly critical ability in negotiations.

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... These concepts have typically been defined as opposite ends of a continuum with an intrinsic orientation considered a positive religious identity. Fowler's (1981) stages of faith are an important theoretical framework to consider in regards to the development of a religious identity. According to Fowler (1981), the Intuitive-Projective Stage (Stage 1) occurs in early childhood, where faith is a reflection of the impressions that children make based on what they see their parents and other adults doing. ...
... Fowler's (1981) stages of faith are an important theoretical framework to consider in regards to the development of a religious identity. According to Fowler (1981), the Intuitive-Projective Stage (Stage 1) occurs in early childhood, where faith is a reflection of the impressions that children make based on what they see their parents and other adults doing. The Mythic-Literal stage (Stage 2) develops in middle childhood, but may be representative of adults as well, and is characterized by concrete, literal thinking. ...
... "Indeed, in disparate domains of research, psychologists have increasingly discovered that at high levels, positive effects begin to turn negative" (Grant & Schwartz, 2011, p. 62). A number of studies confirm the notion that it is possible to have too much of a good thing, whether it is too much happiness (Martin et al., 2002;Oishi, Diener, & Lucas, 2007), too much self-efficacy or self-esteem (Baumeister, Campbell, Krueger, & Vohs, 2003;Vancouver & Kendall, 2006), too much empathy (Galinsky, Maddux, Gilin, & White, 2008;Gino & Pierce, 2009) or too much of a justice virtue (Bolino & Turnley, 2005). In developing a PII, it would therefore be important to consider moderation as a key component in whatever one does. ...
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Identity development has been studied from a variety of perspectives within social and developmental psychology, with positive psychology most recently adding to this literature. Finding and moving forward with a unified sense of self has been the primary focus. This search embodies the different social contexts to which we belong-in other words, our group affiliations. Although religion is one factor that provides a sense of belonging and purpose to many people, the development of a religious identity has not been explored as much as other social identities. In this chapter, we begin by providing an overview of Islam and wellbeing, including a mapping of the VIA Classification of Strengths and Virtues to verses from the Quran that form the basis of a framework of Islamic virtues. We review frameworks of identity development, including stages of the development of faith. We also look at the link between religious identity and wellbeing and provide a proposed model of religious identity development for what we term, a "Positive Islamic Identity".
... For instance, inducing people to recognize, reappraise, and challenge their own habitual thoughts and emotions, whether through lab experiments or through field experiences 22,[29][30][31][32][33] , is a process of epistemic humility that can reduce intergroup biases. Similarly, the conflict management literature has speculated on the importance of "going to the balcony" (observer's viewpoint 34 ), a process of contextualism, and "stepping to the other side" (perspective taking 35 ), a process of perspectivism, for resolving conflicts. However, the positive effects of these processes individually may not generalize broadly when taken apart from the integrated wise reasoning process. ...
... Perspective taking alone, for example, can vary in effectiveness depending on region or culture 36 and it can improve dominant groups' attitudes toward disadvantaged groups but not vice-versa 37 . The process itself can be egocentrically biased [38][39][40] or used for intentionally selfish or malicious aims 35,41 . In contrast, because wise reasoning is an integrative, self-decentering process 25 , we speculated that it would show more consistency and broad generalizability, showing an inverse relationship with intergroup bias if and when engaged, despite differences in culture, group membership, or status. ...
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We hypothesized that a wisdom-based reasoning process comprised of epistemic humility, accounting for context, and integrating different perspectives and interests, would be helpful in overcoming intergroup bias and attitude polarization in societal conflicts. Here we test the hypothesis using both the Situated Wise Reasoning Scale and experimental induction. In each study, we recruited participants who self-identified as members of a group implicated in an ongoing intergroup situation. In five correlational studies (Studies 1-5) we examined the relations between measured wise reasoning and intergroup positivity and attitude polarization. In two experiments, we tested the effects of a brief online wise-reasoning thought exercise on intergroup positivity and polarization (Studies 6-7), and charitable behaviors to an outgroup (Study 6). We found that wise reasoning relates to more positivity toward outgroups and less attitude polarization across different groups and conflicts. The results have implications for theory and may also have implications for future research on interventions to improve intergroup relations.
... To discover and realize the integrative potential in negotiations, research suggests different types of value-creating strategies as a promising approach (e.g., [32,41,81,168]). In bilateral negotiations, creating value refers to all types of problem-solving approaches that support agents to discover mutually beneficial outcomes for the parties at the table [168,169]. ...
... To discover and realize the integrative potential in negotiations, research suggests different types of value-creating strategies as a promising approach (e.g., [32,41,81,168]). In bilateral negotiations, creating value refers to all types of problem-solving approaches that support agents to discover mutually beneficial outcomes for the parties at the table [168,169]. In common resource dilemmas revolving around sustainability issues, problem-solving must go beyond the search for integrative solutions at the table and consider various types of externalities. ...
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Current sustainability challenges often reflect common resource dilemmas where peoples’ short-term self-interests are at odds with collective interests in the present and future. In this article, we highlight the key role of joint decision-making processes in negotiations to facilitate the management of common resource dilemmas and to promote the transition toward sustainability. By reflecting on psychological drivers and barriers, we argue that the limited availability, the restricted accessibility, and the dynamic alterability of resources in negotiations on common resource dilemmas may cause a myopic mindset that fosters value claiming strategies and, ultimately, results in distributive-consumptive negotiation outcomes. To promote value creation in negotiations on common resource dilemmas, we argue that agents must perform a mindset shift with an inclusive social identity on a superordinate group level, an embracive prosocial motivation for other parties’ interests at and beyond the table, and a forward-looking cognitive orientation towards long-term consequences of their joint decisions. By shifting their mindset from a myopic towards a holistic cognitive orientation, agents may explore negotiation strategies to create value through increasing the availability, improving the accessibility, and using the alterability of resources. Applying these value creation strategies may help achieve integrative-transformative negotiation outcomes and promote sustainable agreements aimed at intersectional, interlocal, and intergenerational justice. We conclude by discussing additional psychological factors that play a pivotal role in negotiations on common resource dilemmas as well as further developments for future research.
... In comparison, the proposed ERU task mimics the minimal human communication process in an embodied manner, which requires a mutual understanding of both verbal and nonverbal messages signaled by the sender. Recognizing references in an embodied setting also introduces new challenges, such as visual perspective-taking [13]: The referrers need to consider the perception from the counterpart's perspective for effective verbal and nonverbal communication, requiring a more holistic visual scene understanding both geometrically and semantically. In this paper, to study the reference understanding that echoes the above characteristics, we collect a new dataset containing natural reference scenarios with both language and gestures. ...
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We study the understanding of embodied reference: One agent uses both language and gesture to refer to an object to another agent in a shared physical environment. Of note, this new visual task requires understanding multimodal cues with perspective-taking to identify which object is being referred to. To tackle this problem, we introduce YouRefIt, a new crowd-sourced dataset of embodied reference collected in various physical scenes; the dataset contains 4,195 unique reference clips in 432 indoor scenes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first embodied reference dataset that allows us to study referring expressions in daily physical scenes to understand referential behavior, human communication, and human-robot interaction. We further devise two benchmarks for image-based and video-based embodied reference understanding. Comprehensive baselines and extensive experiments provide the very first result of machine perception on how the referring expressions and gestures affect the embodied reference understanding. Our results provide essential evidence that gestural cues are as critical as language cues in understanding the embodied reference.
... Although the empirical negotiation literature has provided deep insights into how parties resolve conflicts via negotiation (e.g., Galinsky et al., 2008;Kelley et al., 1970;Pinkley et al., 1995), the literature focused predominantly on classic transaction negotiation tasks in which a buyer and a seller have to exchange their exclusive resources in order to resolve the conflict (e.g., Pruitt & Lewis, 1975). Importantly, by now, the negotiation literature has failed to systematically investigate the unique negotiation processes over contributions and distributions of shared resources. ...
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Negotiations that involve contributions or distributions of shared resources are ubiquitous. However, the empirical literature has predominantly focused on how parties negotiate the exchange of exclusive resources in transaction negotiations (e.g., buyer-seller negotiations) and ignored shared-resource negotiations. We develop a novel negotiation task to investigate how parties resolve conflicts over the contribution versus distribution of resources via negotiations. We propose that when parties negotiate the allocations of shared resources, their exclusive ownership becomes the dominant reference point in the negotiation which induces reference-dependent frames throughout the negotiation process. Whereas negotiating contributions should induce give frames that highlight losses, negotiating distributions should induce take frames that highlight gains. These different allocation frames should, therefore, distinctly affect parties’ tradeoff aversion (i.e., willingness to trade off exclusive resources against shared resources), their allocation behaviors, and the quality of the final negotiation agreements. We further predict that these effects of give and take frames should be reversed when negotiating burdens. Across two preliminary and one preregistered, incentivized, and interactive negotiation experiments, we show that parties reach less integrative agreements when they have to contribute their own benefits to the shared ownership (i.e., inducing a give frame that highlights losses) than when they have to distribute benefits into their exclusive ownership (i.e., inducing a take frame that highlights gains). For negotiating the allocations of burdens, this finding reversed and parties reached less integrative agreements when they had to distribute burdens to the exclusive ownership (i.e., inducing a take frame that highlights losses) than when they had to contribute own burdens to shared ownership (i.e., inducing a give frame that highlights gains). Our findings suggest that parties’ aversion against tradeoffs prevents negotiators from reaching integrative agreements. The present studies are among the first to systematically elucidate negotiation processes over the contribution versus distribution of shared resources and point towards future research pathways to overcome reference-dependent biases.
... It consists of 39 open-ended questions investigating the interviewee's understanding of their own and others' perspectives (e.g., "Do you notice when others feel good?" "Do others notice when you feel good?"). The interpersonal reactivity index (IRI) questionnaire is used in many perspective-taking studies to measure attitudes in perspective-taking (Galinsky et al., 2008;Van der Graaff et al., 2014;Vilardaga et al., 2012;Barbero-Rubio et al., 2016;Kavanagh et al., 2018). It contains nine items for assessing the test taker's "spontaneous" perspective-taking ability (e.g., "When I'm upset at someone, I usually try to 'put myself in his shoes' for a while"), indicated using a scale from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree." ...
Article
Perspective taking has been studied extensively using a wide variety of experimental tasks. The theoretical constructs that are used to develop these tasks and interpret the results obtained from them, most notably theory of mind (ToM), have conceptual shortcomings from a behavior-analytic perspective. The behavioral approach to conceptualizing and studying this class of behavior is parsimonious and pragmatic, but the body of relevant research is currently small. The prominent relational frame theory (RFT) approach to derived perspective taking asserts that “deictic framing” is a core component of this class of behavior, but this proposal also appears to be conceptually problematic. We suggest that in many cases perspective taking is problem solving; when successful, both classes of behavior involve the emission of context-appropriate precurrent behavior that facilitates the appropriate response (i.e., the “solution”). Conceptualizing perspective taking in this way appears to have many advantages, which we explore herein.
... Powerful actors may show less concern, adjustment, and awareness toward less powerful perspectives, unless they are primed to experience a greater sense of responsibility toward them (Galinsky et al., 2016). However, in negotiations, cognitive perspective-taking can enhance individual and joint outcomes (Galinsky et al., 2008). Harnessing the social-psychological benefits of perspective-taking thus depends on shaping appropriate interaction contexts, goals, and addressing perceived differences in status, esteem, and power (Ku et al., 2015). ...
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Perspective-taking, or engaging with the viewpoints of others, has been linked to a range of positive and negative interpersonal outcomes. However, it has only been researched infrequently in organizations, and questions remain about how it might be developed as a multidimensional cooperative process and problem-solving capability more widely. To better understand this, this article presents findings from a 2-year change intervention with 10 US hospitals. Interview data from three time points (393 interviews, 197 staff members) reveal dimensions and levels of understanding underpinning the development of organizational perspective-taking. Actors’ accounts suggested several major interrelated dimensions of perspective-taking operating at local and system levels, through affective concern, cognitive understanding, and motivational efforts to improve the sharing and interpretation of diverse perspectives. The study has implications for how organizations can better foster perspective-taking by building ecological structures and processes that assemble perspectives supportively, holistically, and frequently.
... However, cognitive empathy also seems to play an important role. For example, in three studies, Galinsky at al. [Galinsky et al. 2008] have shown that perspective taking (understanding others' interests and motives) was more useful in negotiation processes than affective empathy. Thus, it is important to understand which empathic dimension and under which circumstances they arise, to establish the relationship with prosocial behaviours. ...
... Empathy and empathic concern. Ingram and Zou (2008) additionally stress the role of empathy, which is defined as the ability to form an emotional connection with another individual (Galinsky et al., 2008), as an affective component of workplace friendship and argue that it aids communication. Empathic concern describes the motivational component of empathy and constitutes a central factor in strengthening social connections in the workplace, above and beyond the conceptually similar cognitive component of perspective-taking (Longmire & Harrison, 2018). ...
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Friendship may help to bridge differences between people, such as between age-diverse employees. Oftentimes, age diversity in employee interactions cultivates interpersonal tensions. Age-diverse workplace friendship—a relationship between coworkers of different ages, who like each other and who are engaged in a balanced social exchange—may help to overcome these interpersonal tensions because having something in common can de-escalate age-related difficulties and reduce negative feelings between diverse individuals. Despite the relevance of the topic, literature focusing on age-diverse workplace friendship is rare. To address this gap and direct future research, we aim to integrate research on related topics such as workplace friendship and (age) diversity at work into a systematic literature review. Concentrating primarily on the formation and maintenance of age-diverse workplace friendship, we identified similarity-attraction theory, social identity theory, and socioemotional selectivity theory as the three dominant theories referenced in the literature and utilize them to embed and connect our findings into existing theory. More specifically, we review and summarize the findings of our systematic literature review into an integrated framework depicting the antecedents, formation and maintenance processes, and outcomes of age-diverse workplace friendship. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings and point out directions for future research.
... To combat this dilemma, some analyses of best practices for instituting diversity policies propose an inclusion for all approach to negotiate the oft-divergent goals and motivations of both marginalized and dominant group members (Brannon et al., 2018;Stevens et al., 2008). Drawing on literature from negotiation practices, an inclusion for all approach may be especially useful in the context of organizational diversity efforts because it considers the interests of both sides to maximize joint outcomes and minimize "zerosum" perceptions, that is, perceptions that better treatment of one group means poorer treatment for another (Fisher & Ury, 1987;Galinsky et al., 2008). One example of an inclusion for all diversity practice is the all-inclusive multiculturalism model, which seeks to reconcile limitations of race-neutral and multicultural approaches to diversity by specifically including European Americans within an organizational definition of diversity (Stevens et al., 2008). ...
Article
Three experiments investigated how framing diversity as all-inclusive affects recognition of racial injustice. Among Whites, viewing a company mission statement that specifically included Whites/European Americans when defining diversity or made no mention of diversity led to increased recognition of unfair treatment of racial minorities relative to viewing a standard multicultural diversity statement (Experiment 1). Decreased concern about losing out on resources to racial minorities mediated these effects. Among racial minorities, viewing a company statement that included Whites/European Americans or made no mention of diversity similarly increased recognition of unfair treatment of racial minorities, an effect mediated by minorities’ reduced feelings of inclusion (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 replicated these effects using a more subtle manipulation of the all-inclusive diversity statement. These studies suggest defining diversity as inclusive of Whites/European Americans increases Whites’ sensitivity to racial injustice against minorities but simultaneously increases racial minority Americans’ concerns about exclusion and unfair treatment.
... Empathy, the capacity to relate to others, has been credited as a vital factor in improved relationships and outcomes based on research in several disciplines, including industry and organizational psychology, leadership development, social psychology, negotiations, neuroscience, and mental health [37]- [39]. It is a complex, multidimensional and high-order social intelligence skill. ...
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The concept of empathy is vital in human-agent systems as it contributes to mutual understanding, problem-solving and sustained relationships. Despite the increasing adoption of conversational systems as one of the most significant events in the recent decade, the emotional aspects require considerable improvements, particularly in effectively displaying empathy. This paper provides a critical review of this rapidly growing field by examining the current advances in four dimensions: (i) conceptual empathy models and frameworks, (ii) the adopted empathy-related concepts, (iii) the datasets and algorithmic techniques developed, and (iv) the evaluation strategies. The review findings show that the most studies centred on the use of the EMPATHETICDIALOGUES dataset, and the text-based modality dominated research in this field. Moreover, studies have focused mainly on extracting features from the messages of both users and the conversational systems, with minimal emphasis on user modelling and profiling. For implementation in variegated real-world domain settings, we recommend that future studies address the gaps in detecting and authenticating emotions at the entity level, handling multimodal inputs, displaying more nuanced empathetic behaviours, and encompassing additional dialogue system features.
... Future research may also explore additional outcomes of age-diverse friendships, such as creativity, problem-solving, decision-making, and task performance. In this respect, selfexpansion resulting from age-diverse friendships may trigger perspective taking and cognitive expansion, which have been shown to increase cognitive performance (Galinsky et al., 2008;Grant & Berry, 2011). Engaging with diverse others encourages employees to consider other perspectives and helps employees to move away from simplistic modes of information processing by reducing a reliance on stereotypes and heuristic thinking (Hodson et al., 2018). ...
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This research investigates age-diverse friendship and its complex relation to job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Based on self-expansion theory, we argue that age-diverse friendship can lead younger and older employees to perceive oneness (i.e., a sense of merged identity) with a colleague from the respective other age-group and that this perceived oneness has consequences. On the positive side, we hypothesize perceived oneness to facilitate motivation to cooperate, which should increase job satisfaction and decrease turnover intentions. On the negative side, we hypothesize perceived oneness to provoke interrole conflict, which should decrease job satisfaction and increase turnover intentions. We found support for our hypotheses in a two-wave dyadic study consisting of 93 German age-diverse employee dyads (N = 186 individuals). Results showed that perceived oneness resulting from age-diverse friendship was related to motivation to cooperate (positive path) and interrole conflict (negative path). In turn, interrole conflict was linked to lower job satisfaction and higher turnover intentions. Motivation to cooperate was however not significantly linked to job satisfaction and turnover intentions. By considering age-diverse friendships, this research provides an age-specific lens on the beneficial and detrimental effects of workplace friendship and contributes to the literatures on age diversity, cross-group friendship, and workplace friendship.
... Perspective-taking is a person's ability to interpret the world from other points of view, and it enables them to predict other individuals' behaviors and reactions [12,13]. Studies show that perspective-taking is effective in reducing racial prejudice [14,15] and promoting prosocial behavior towards outgroup members [16][17][18]. ...
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This study examines the effect of perspective-taking via embodiment in virtual reality (VR) in improving biases against minorities. It tests theoretical arguments about the affective and cognitive routes underlying perspective-taking and examines the moderating role of self-presence in VR through experiments. In Study 1, participants embodied an ethnic minority avatar and experienced workplace microaggression from a first-person perspective in VR. They were randomly assigned to affective (focus on emotions) vs. cognitive (focus on thoughts) perspective-taking conditions. Results showed that ingroup bias improved comparably across both conditions and that this effect was driven by more negative perceptions of the majority instead of more positive perceptions of minorities. In Study 2, participants experienced the same VR scenario from the third-person perspective. Results replicated those from Study 1 and extended them by showing that the effect of condition on ingroup bias was moderated by self-presence. At high self-presence, participants in the affective condition reported higher ingroup bias than those in the cognitive condition. The study showed that in VR, the embodiment of an ethnic minority is somewhat effective in improving perceptions towards minority groups. It is difficult to clearly distinguish between the effect of affective and cognitive routes underlying the process of perspective-taking.
... Prior research has examined the role of perspective taking in different contexts. For example, perspective taking led to more favorable outcomes for both parties involved and the targets of the perspective taking experienced greater satisfaction with the way they were treated in a negotiation context (e.g., Galinsky et al., 2008). Furthermore, this type of cognitive exercise of perspective taking was expected to lead to empathy, which involves greater understanding and sensitivity (Parker & Axtell, 2001). ...
... As stated above, high levels of perspective taking are associated with the ability to negotiate and successfully resolve interpersonal conflicts (Galinsky et al., 2015). This resonates with the assumption that high perspective takers may be able to prevent the escalation of bullying. ...
Article
This study investigated the experiences of workplace bullying among primary and postprimary school staff in Ireland. A sample of 630 teachers and members of the Senior Management Team (SMT) completed an online survey inquiring about their own experiences of bullying in the workplace, as targets, bystanders, and perpetrators. Information about respondents' perspective taking, empathic concern, personal distress, and demographic background was also collected. Results of the ordinal regression analysis showed a negative association of perspective taking with victimisation and bystander behaviour. In addition, respondents belonging to an SMT reported experiencing victimisation more frequently than teachers, while victimisation experiences and witnessing bullying were more common in postprimary than primary schools. Findings are discussed in terms of the importance of providing awareness and training programmes to school staff.
... This mutually beneficial effect of perspective-taking is highlighted in one study which found that in a negotiation between two participants, secretly instructing one participant to take the perspective of the other led to greater joint gains and mutually beneficial solutions. Additionally, the target who felt understood also showed greater satisfaction with how they were treated in the negotiation (Galinsky, Maddux, Gilin, & White, 2008). ...
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Autonomy involves a sense that one’s behaviour is authentic, volitional and aligned with inner beliefs. Though extant literature describes the importance of both autonomy satisfaction and autonomy support from others with whom one interacts, little work has been conducted to understand what specific qualities comprise autonomy satisfaction and its support. In other words, we know little of how and why autonomy matters for individuals’ well-being. In two empirical chapters, I describe an understudied aspect of autonomy satisfaction: whether self-expression is congruent (autonomy satisfying) or incongruent (autonomy-thwarting) with the self. Therefore, in a first empirical chapter (Chapter 3), I investigated two types of self-expression: authentic self-expression (that supports autonomy) and inauthentic self-expression (that may undermine autonomy). I developed a new scale to assess these constructs and show they are distinct from, but closely linked with, the internal experience of feeling authentic and that they foster feelings of agency. In Chapter 4, I further examined what happens when people think of in-group others’ undermined self-expression. Specifically, I tested whether vicariously undermining autonomous self-expression can elicit a reactive response to reassert one’s own autonomy through self-expression. In two final empirical chapters, I studied autonomy support from close others within samples of individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB; with transgender and related communities, LGBT+). Disadvantaged individuals, such as those who are LGBT+, are known to have worse well-being than the general population and may benefit more from autonomy support. Therefore, understanding autonomy support for this minority group is an important step in rectifying health disparities. Chapter 5 uses a large pre-existing dataset to analyse the importance of specific components of autonomy support within close relationships in an LGB sample, whilst Chapter 6 further explored the components of autonomy support and their relation to well-being in LGBT+ individuals.
... To combat this dilemma, some analyses of best practices for instituting diversity policies propose an inclusion for all approach to negotiate the oft-divergent goals and motivations of both marginalized and dominant group members (Brannon et al., 2018;Stevens et al., 2008). Drawing on literature from negotiation practices, an inclusion for all approach may be especially useful in the context of organizational diversity efforts because it considers the interests of both sides to maximize joint outcomes and minimize "zerosum" perceptions, that is, perceptions that better treatment of one group means poorer treatment for another (Fisher & Ury, 1987;Galinsky et al., 2008). One example of an inclusion for all diversity practice is the all-inclusive multiculturalism model, which seeks to reconcile limitations of race-neutral and multicultural approaches to diversity by specifically including European Americans within an organizational definition of diversity (Stevens et al., 2008). ...
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Seven experiments explore whether organizational diversity initiatives heighten White Americans’ concerns about the respect and value afforded toward their racial group and increase their perceptions of anti-White bias. The presence (vs. absence) of organizational diversity initiatives (i.e., diversity awards, diversity training, diversity mission statements) caused White Americans to perceive Whites as less respected and valued than Blacks and to blame a White man’s rejection for a promotion on anti-White bias. Several moderators were tested, including evidence that Whites were clearly advantaged within the organization, that the rejected White candidate was less meritorious than the Black candidate, that promotion opportunities were abundant (vs. scarce), and individual differences related to support for the status hierarchy and identification with Whites. There was little evidence that these moderators reduced Whites’ perceptions of diversity initiatives as harmful to their racial group.
... The participants then completed the tour guides' service quality perception measurement scale, the tourist's pro-tour guide tendency measurement scale, and the newly added tourist empathy measurement scale. The measurement of empathy refers to the empathy level manipulation test proposed by Galinsky, Maddux, Gilin, and White (2008). The high empathy manipulation test items were "I have learned about the current life situation of the tour guide and fully understand the emotions and feeling of the tour guide" and "I can answer the question from the perspective of the tour guide and I am able to put myself in the position of the tour guide"; the low empathy control test item was "I am not interfered by other factors, and have objectively answered the above questions" (7-point Likert scale, 1 means "extremely disagree" and 7 means "extremely agree"). ...
Article
Although the issue of occupational stigma has adverse effects on tour guides in China, there has been minimal scholarly discussion on this topic. This study attempts to analyze the de-stigmatization process to the occupation of tour guides based on the Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes Map (BIAS Map) model. We conducted three experiments to investigate the effect of tour guides' service quality on tourists' tour guide stigma judgment and the mediating role of tourists' pro-tour guide tendency and the moderating role of tourists' empathy in the relationship. The following conclusions are drawn: (1) tour guides' service quality can significantly enhance tourists' pro-tour guide tendency and tour guide stigma judgment; (2) tourists' pro-tour guide tendency fully mediates the influence of service quality on tourists' judgment of tour guide stigma; (3) the relationship between tour guides' service quality and tourists' tour guide stigma judgment is moderated by tourists' empathy. Specifically, tour guides’ service quality has a stronger influence on the judgment of tourists with low empathy than on those with high empathy. The above conclusions contribute to the current literature and provide inspiration for de-stigmatizing the occupation of tour guides. Inevitably, some limitations exist in this study, namely the generalization issue resulting from the contextual and scenario-based experiments.
... Though likely important, the findings on the SPT motivations of those adopting roles of lesser or greater power are equivocal (Galinsky et al., 2006;Galinsky et al., 2016;Gordon & Chen, 2013). A number of studies have examined SPT in a negotiation context-frequently supplying SPT motivation to a treatment group whose role is explicitly to take the perspective of the other party (Epley et al., 2006;Galinsky et al., 2008;Gehlbach et al., 2015;Trötschel et al., 2011). The results of these studies are also mixed-sometimes suggesting that interventions to boost participants' SPT motivation would improve relationship outcomes such as compromise (Gehlbach et al., 2015) or the ability to find jointly beneficial solutions Trötschel et al., 2011). ...
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Arguably, social perspective taking—the process through which perceivers discern the thoughts, feelings, and motivations of a target—facilitates interpersonal interactions more than any other human capacity. Thus, this capacity is foundational for relationships, mental health and well-being, behaviors, and much more. Despite its importance to the human experience and substantial research into its precursors and outcomes, little is known about the social perspective taking process itself. How does a social perspective taking attempt actually unfold? We pArguably, social perspective taking—the process through which perceivers discern the thoughts, feelings, and motivations of a target—facilitates interpersonal interactions more than any other human capacity. Thus, this capacity is foundational for relationships, mental health and well-being, behaviors, and much more. Despite its importance to the human experience and substantial research into its precursors and outcomes, little is known about the social perspective taking process itself. How does a social perspective taking attempt actually unfold? We propose that perceivers engage in a process consisting of up to four phases: perception of the target, motivation to engage in social perspective taking, strategy selection, and evaluation of their attempt. Scholars have emphasized two primary outcomes of this process—social perspective taking effort and accuracy. We review the literature in support of these phases, noting the relative maturity of each contributing line of research. In doing so we hope to provide a framework for understanding how existing studies relate to one another, prioritize future investigations, and offer preliminary thoughts into which parts of the process might be most promising for research aimed at improving social perspective taking.ropose that perceivers engage in a process consisting of up to four phases: perception of the target, motivation to engage in social perspective taking, strategy selection, and evaluation of their attempt. Scholars have emphasized two primary outcomes of this process—social perspective taking effort and accuracy. We review the literature in support of these phases, noting the relative maturity of each contributing line of research. In doing so we hope to provide a framework for understanding how existing studies relate to one another, prioritize future investigations, and offer preliminary thoughts into which parts of the process might be most promising for research aimed at improving social perspective taking.
... Since a direct knowledge of the counterpart's preferences is rare, the negotiator relies on indirect methods. Galinsky, Maddux, Gilin, and White (2008) showed that perspectivetaking reduced impasses by helping negotiators focus on their counterpart's interests, not just their own position. Taken together, these studies suggest that an existing relationship acts as a buffer against a costly impasse. ...
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Although impasses are frequently experienced by negotiators, are featured in newspaper articles, and are reflected in online searches and can be costly, negotiation scholarship does not appear to consider them seriously as phenomena worth explaining. A review of negotiation tasks to study impasses reveals that they bias negotiators toward agreement. We systematically organize past findings on impasses and integrate them in the impasse type, cause, and resolution model (ITCR model). Our fundamental assumption is that a positive bargaining zone does not imply symmetric preferences for an agreement. One or both negotiators may prefer an impasse over an agreement despite a positive bargaining zone. We argue that it is beneficial for management research to distinguish between three impasse types: If both negotiators perceive benefit from an impasse, they are wanted; if one negotiator perceives benefits from an impasse, they are forced; and if both do not perceive benefits from the impasse, they are unwanted. We review structural (e.g., bargaining zone, communication channels), interpersonal (e.g., tough tactics, emotions), and intrapersonal (e.g., biases, available information, and framing) factors as the likely antecedents of the three impasse types. We also examine evidence that suggests that wanted impasses can be resolved by changing the negotiation structure for both parties, forced impasses can be resolved through persuasion, and unwanted impasses can be overcome by debiasing both parties. Finally, we review current methodological guidance and provide updated recommendations on how scholars should deal with impasses in both study designs and data analyses.
... And to see that pride matters, empathy matters. Empathy is key to accurate threat perception, yet it has shockingly little foothold in International Relations theory (Galinsky et al., 2008;Head, 2012;Hoffman, 1990;Welch, 2022). ...
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Most analysts and commentators portray China's conduct in the South China Sea as a series of aggressive norm violations by an emerging peer competitor to the United States. We argue that this narrative misreads both the substance and dynamics of recent Chinese policy. Since 2016, China has strenuously sought – and largely managed – not to be in technical violation of the Philippines Arbitration Tribunal ruling despite having publicly disavowed it and has attempted to position itself as a champion of win–win co-operation. This stands in stark contrast to the previous four years in which China rather shockingly began asserting itself with little regard for either legality or diplomatic nicety – the period in which the “aggressive China” narrative gelled. What explains China's whiplash behaviour? Why has the international community largely failed to notice recent changes and adjust the narrative accordingly? We argue that the answers to these questions lie in an eclectic appeal to bureaucratic struggles, the regime's two-level game balancing domestic and international pressures, and psychological considerations. These do not, however, provide satisfactory accounts either of China's behaviour or of the international response in the absence of recognising the crucial importance of second-order rules for making, interpreting, and applying first-order rules in the international system. Social practices of rule-making, in short, provide vital context. Our analysis suggests a series of takeaways both for International Relations theory and for managing relations with China.
... For instance, cognitive empathy or high perspective-taking encourages a tendency to be aware of others' needs. Furthermore, perspectivetaking often leads to a number of outcomes including facilitating social interactions and interpersonal exchanges (Galinsky et al., 2005(Galinsky et al., , 2008, and the intention to perform social innovation behavior (Van der Graaff et al., 2018). Following these arguments, we hypothesize that: ...
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Social innovation has a great chance to overcome problems in complex environments. Individuals’ concern for environmental, social, and ethical issues has gradually grown, prompting the rise of new types of consumers, who shift their environmental concerns into action. Social entrepreneurship participants mostly act as beneficiaries and initiators in the process of social innovation. Social exchange theory explains the linkage between individual psychological factors and personal social cognitive perceptions that inspire social innovation intention. The current research framework is constructed to inspect the individual mental process of psychological motivation associated with social innovation intention. The purpose is to understand the relationships between the psychological level of moral idealism, ecological concern, and prior experience on cognitive perceptions of social worth; subsequently, social worth, prosocial motivation, perspective-taking, and positive feelings are examined to discover their influence on social innovation behavioral intention. The transmitting role of social worth exercises a transformative function between participants’ psychological motivation, social cognition, and social innovation intention. The research is conducted using partial least squares (PLS) analysis software. The research results reinforce our understanding of theories of individual psychological motivations on social innovation. The findings also offer some suggestions for sustainability education to social enterprise practitioners with respect to recruiting young people and continuing to generate new ideas.
... Perspective in [55] is the point of view from which an issue is analyzed or considered. The perspectives can influence people's perceptions or judgments. ...
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The need for studies connecting machine explainability with human behavior is essential, especially for a detailed understanding of a human’s perspective, thoughts, and sensations according to a context. A novel system called RYEL was developed based on Subject-Matter Experts (SME) to investigate new techniques for acquiring higher-order thinking, the perception, the use of new computational explanatory techniques, support decision-making, and the judge’s cognition and behavior. Thus, a new spectrum is covered and promises to be a new area of study called Interpretation-Assessment/Assessment-Interpretation (IA-AI), consisting of explaining machine inferences and the interpretation and assessment from a human. It allows expressing a semantic, ontological, and hermeneutical meaning related to the psyche of a human (judge). The system has an interpretative and explanatory nature, and in the future, could be used in other domains of discourse. More than 33 experts in Law and Artificial Intelligence validated the functional design. More than 26 judges, most of them specializing in psychology and criminology from Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Spain, Argentina, and Costa Rica, participated in the experiments. The results of the experimentation have been very positive. As a challenge, this research represents a paradigm shift in legal data processing.
... Paired with observed increases in IC when thinking about the outgroup, these findings suggest that the intervention successfully avoided empathic "backfire" effects. In this way, increased perspective-taking can enhance participants' abilities to navigate conflict productively (Galinsky et al., 2008;Todd & Galinsky, 2014). ...
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The present study sought to investigate perspective taking as a means to decrease harmful affective conflict within teams. Previous research has demonstrated that teams often experience unhealthy affective conflict along with the healthy debate that is encouraged in team discussions, when team members misinterpret such debate as personal attacks. By utilizing Olsen and Kenny's dyadic SEM approach (2016) to simultaneously explore all hypothesized actor and partner effects, the present study identified perspective taking and team member schema accuracy as mechanisms that can prevent such misinterpretations and thereby decrease harmful affective conflict among team members. Perspective taking was assessed using a novel higher-order factor approach to capture the complexity of the cognitive process, rather than the traditional single measure self report scale. Results indicated an actor effect such that increased perspective taking led to greater team member schema accuracy. Team member schema accuracy had a negative actor effect and a negative partner effect on affective conflict, which in turn had a negative actor effect on team effectiveness. Additionally, training team members to engage in perspective taking behaviors led to increased team member schema accuracy compared with teams that did not receive training, providing an effective practical solution for the reduction of affective conflict in work teams.
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Objective: The present study aimed to examine the role of positive problem solving in the relation between perspective taking and relationship satisfaction. Participants: One hundred and four college students participated in the present study, if they had been in a romantic relationship for a minimum of six months. Methods: Participants completed measures of relationship satisfaction, perspective-taking relative to romantic couples, and of positive problem-solving in couples. Results: As predicted, both perspective-taking and positive problem-solving were significantly related to relationship satisfaction. In addition, positive problem-solving emerged as a significant partial mediator of the relation between perspective-taking and relationship satisfaction. Conclusions: The benefits of skills training in the areas of perspective-taking and problem-solving in college student health and functioning are discussed.
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Creativity and morality are key attributes that stakeholders demand of organizations. Accordingly, higher education institutions and professional training programs also seek to cultivate these attributes in future leaders. However, research has hitherto shown that, under certain conditions, creativity may conflict with morality. This complicates the development of creative individuals who are also moral. We examined the complex relationship between creativity and moral reasoning with data collected from a group of undergraduate students. By considering the cognitive processes behind creativity and moral reasoning, we propose perspective taking as a moderating factor. Specifically, we found that while creative individuals might not necessarily adopt a lower level of moral reasoning, there was a more nuanced moderating relationship among creativity, perspective taking, and moral reasoning. That is, individuals who were weak in perspective taking tended to adopt a lower level of moral reasoning if they were also creative. Perspective taking was also directly and positively associated with moral reasoning. We explore the implications of our findings for future research and curriculum/program design.
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The aim of this experiment was to examine the effect of different instructional strategies on student teachers’ confirmation bias. Confirmation bias refers to the selectivity in finding and using evidence that fits one’s own beliefs or hypotheses while neglecting evidence that is opposite to one’s own beliefs or hypotheses (Nickerson, 1998). Dutch student teachers (n = 141) took a confirmation bias pre-test and were then randomly assigned to three conditions; teaching on video (TOV), preparing to teach (PTT) and re-study (CC). All participants received text-based instruction on confirmation bias and how it can be mitigated. They also practised with confirmation bias tasks and they received feedback on their answers. Subsequently, participants in the TOV and PTT conditions prepared a lesson about the instructional content and in the TOV condition they taught this lesson on video. After the learning phase, TOV and PTT participants completed a social presence questionnaire. All participants completed an arousal questionnaire and a confirmation bias post-test and a transfer test. The results showed that confirmation bias was reduced to a similar extent in all conditions. Results also showed that the quality of the prepared lesson was highest for TOV participants suggesting they had gained better understanding of the confirmation bias than PTT participants. Furthermore, in contrast to our expectations, PTT participants reported highest social presence scores. TOV participants experienced higher arousal levels compared to CC participants. Transfer scores did not differ between conditions. We discuss theoretical explanations of the findings from the present study.
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Research has identified humor as a communication technique that can help sellers be more effective during their sales pitches. However, the most developed theory of humor – that is, the arousal-safety (or relief) theory – posits some relieving power of humor but has never been applied to the selling context, although such a power could reveal interesting for sellers. Therefore, in this research, we adopt a seller’s perspective and apply this theory to investigate how sellers’ feelings of relief following their use of humor can positively affect their performance during negotiations. More specifically, we investigate the serial process whereby feelings of relief that emerge from humor increase relationship quality and ultimately performance. Finally, we identify empathy as a boundary condition for the effects of humor and subsequent responses, with humor prompting greater feelings of relief when sellers have little empathy with the purchaser. Using a sample of 200 trained students in B2B sales management and a sample of 157 professional sellers, we empirically test and support these predictions, which serve as a basis for managerial recommendations.
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When reviewers write online reviews, they differ in the focus of their attention: some focus on their own experiences, whereas some direct their attention to others—prospective consumers who may read the reviews in the future. This paper explores how, why, and when reviewers’ attentional focus can influence the helpfulness evaluation of reviews beyond the impact of substantive review content. Drawing on the attentional focus and persuasion literatures, we develop a theoretical model proposing that reviewers’ attentional focus may influence consumers’ perception of review helpfulness through opposing processes, and that its overall effect is contingent on the review’s two-sidedness. Results of one archival analysis and five controlled experiments provide consistent support for our hypotheses. This work challenges the predominant view of the positive impact of other-focus (vs. self-focus), explores the interpersonal impact of a reviewer’s attentional focus on prospective consumers who are total strangers, and reveals an important, context-specific boundary condition.
Chapter
Communication is a fundamental ability of humans, and much of our daily energy is used in producing, sharing, receiving, and understanding information and messages. As part of our capacities as information communicators and receivers, we often infer and evaluate the mental states of those people with whom we are interacting. Here we describe research from social psychology, communication, behavioral economics, and neuroscience that highlights the role of mentalizing in communication and decision-making more broadly. In this chapter, we give particular focus to the neuroscientific evidence, which shows that the mentalizing network, a set of cortical brain regions thought to preferentially process social information, is commonly activated by communicators and audiences, and facilitates successful information transfer between communicators and receivers. We close with future directions for research in psychology and neuroscience that further elucidates the role of mentalizing in communication and decision-making.
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People infer the internal characteristics (attitude, intent, thoughts, ability, relationship, etc.) of others (interpersonal cognition, IC) from the impressions they form from the personality or attributes of those others (impression formation). Studies premised on interpersonal communication in a seated condition have confirmed that, regardless of whether the communication is in the real world or in a media environment, the appearance of the other person affects IC and the outcome of the communication. People also develop relationships based on impressions or images of the other party. The psychological relationship manifests in physical relationships, that is, the relative positions of the body or the movement. In this study, we evaluate the effects of the appearance of the opponent’s avatar on the players’ IC in whole-body interaction taking place in a virtual reality (VR) space. Moreover, we examine the feasibility of constructing a method of changing the players’ relationship in interpersonal interactions that accompany the control and interference of the entire body, “whole-body interaction,” by manipulating their appearances. In this study, we selected the party game Twister as a case model of whole-body interaction and developed a system that allows users to play Twister in VR space. Using this system environment, we conducted an experiment to evaluate the players’ IC based on the gender and realism of the opponent’s avatar. The results showed that differences in the appearance of the opponent’s avatar affected the IC of male players. We also indicated that changes in IC observed in the experiment can affect the players’ relationship, thus identifying issues that must be resolved in order to realize the method.
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Precise asking-prices (e.g., $249,800), compared with round ones (e.g., $250,000), are stronger anchors, leading buyers to counter closer to the asking-price. This ‘precision effect’ is driven by (i) higher evaluation of the seller's competence, and (ii) buyers using a finer-grained numerical scale when the asking-price is precise compared with round. But are buyers more susceptible to precise anchors, the more they take the seller's perspective? If so, what are the underlying mechanisms leading to this increased susceptibility? We examine the potential moderating role of trait (Experiment 1) and manipulated (Experiment 2) perspective-taking on the price precision effect and its underlying mechanisms. We test the prediction that the more buyers take the seller's perspective, the more they will evaluate a precise-opening seller as competent, which in turn will increase buyers' susceptibility to precise prices (H1). We further test two competing predictions regarding the moderating role (H2a) of perspective-taking versus lack thereof (H2b) on buyers' use of a finer-grained numerical scale when countering a precise asking-price. Results revealed that precise asking-prices lead to counteroffers closer to the asking-price. This price precision effect was driven by the scale granularity, but not the perception of seller's competence mechanism. Further, perspective-taking did not moderate the price precision effect. Exploratory analyses revealed that perspective-taking leads to higher perception of seller's competence, which in turn leads to counteroffers that are closer to the asking-price. Overall, both price precision and perspective-taking shape counteroffers (but not in an interaction), making the two factors important in negotiation processes.
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In two experimental studies, we investigate how being sick with a common cold in a selection context influences the appraisals that evaluators form and how, in turn, people appraisal dimensions influence evaluators’ hiring recommendations and leadership evaluations. Grounded in people appraisal theory (Cuddy et al., 2008; Fiske et al., 2007), we assess the universal evaluative dimensions of warmth and competence to explain detriments in hiring recommendations and leadership evaluations for applicants with a common cold. Further, we investigate whether a theoretically‐grounded individual difference variable, namely the degree to which evaluators take others’ perspective, influences the appraisals and subsequent judgments of sick applicants. Results across the two experimental studies, using students and professionals with selection experience, suggest that showing signs of being sick (i.e., presenteeism) had a negative impact on competence appraisals but not warmth appraisals. In addition, attending a job interview while sick had a significantly stronger negative effect on competence appraisals when the rater had a low as opposed to a high level of perspective‐taking. These effects in turn predicted hiring recommendations and leadership evaluations. We discuss the implications of our findings for theory and practice.
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Describes technological methods and tools for objective and quantitative assessment of quality of life (QoL) Appraises technology-enabled methods for incorporating QoL measurements in medicine Highlights the success factors for adoption and scaling of technology-enabled methods
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While the construct of moqi (默契, pronounced ‘mò-chee’) is ubiquitously understood and finds itself in everyday conversations around the home and workplace in China, the theoretical development of moqi has been scarce. In this article, we expand on prior work on moqi and conceptualize moqi as a dyadic level construct that describes a situated state of shared contextualized understanding without saying a word between two counterparties. We further articulate a broader view of moqi as a dyadic communication construct that is both target-specific and situation-specific. We propose a nomological network of moqi that shows how shared contextualized understandings between counterparties are informed by several different layers, including ‘capability’ (a) a generalized proclivity to be able to form such understandings with others, and ‘contributing factors’, (b) how those understandings are formed either (i) through interactions or (ii) without them through overlaps in background characteristics or experiences, and (c) how other factors accentuate the capability and inclination to ultimately achieve moqi . We then discuss several potential consequences of moqi in organizational settings. Finally, we discuss why moqi is a powerful form of effective communication that is meaningful beyond the Chinese cultural context.
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People may behave differently in a shared physical context due to the mere presence of others. The study examined whether individual moral judgments were subject to the confederate’s presence. Experiment 1 supported the hypothesis that the confederate’s presence, relative to the control group, increased deontological judgment, disapproving of sacrificing a person’s lifetime or interest for preserving the greater good of others. Experiment 2 investigated whether the results extend to mental space. The result revealed that simulating a positive interaction with the confederate significantly increased the preference for deontological judgments relative to the control group. However, the effect disappeared if the participants were required to simulate only the person from the scenario that did not include any additional background contexts. These results demonstrated that the confederate’s physical presence and simulated confederate’s presence always preferred deontological judgments over utilitarian judgments. The findings suggested that the asymmetric moral effect occurred in the physical realm and mental space.
Chapter
Similar to the concept of general well-being for individuals and societies, researchers have proposed various approaches to the concepts of personal beliefs and quality of life (QoL). In this chapter, QoL is discussed from an individual, subjective, cognitive and behavioral perspective with a focus on personal beliefs. More specifically, we present stress management as an endeavor in which yoga and personal beliefs can be applied to improve QoL. Stress management is recognized as a major health factor influencing an individual’s QoL. Empowered behavior to manage stress is discussed using a four-step model (involving thoughts, beliefs, emotions and behavior), that describes how human behavior is shaped by habits formed through individual experiences that unconsciously influence one’s thoughts, belief systems and emotions. Interventions such as yoga and meditation lead practitioners to question and alter thoughts in ways that can lead to improvements in QoL. Studies have indicated that when yoga and meditation are practiced regularly, the body implements stress-reducing processes automatically and unconsciously when a stressful situation arises. Therefore, this chapter contributes to the literature by demonstrating how yoga and meditation intervene in the mechanisms by which thoughts, beliefs and feelings shape behavior, as have been detailed in recent studies. In addition to the implementation of yoga and meditation, the possible use of technology and other tools for the quantitative assessment of states as a means of facilitating self-empowered behavior is discussed.
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Cognitive perspective-taking research has primarily been conducted under the rubric of theory of mind (ToM), with the core skill believed to involve the correct attribution of mental states to oneself and others as a means of explaining and predicting behavior. Relational frame theory (RFT) has provided a behavioral account of performances on true and false belief protocols by appealing to the three perspective-taking (deictic) relations. The current research sought to investigate the relative strength of cognitive perspective-taking abilities within the context of a false belief vignette and related IRAP. Experiment 1 investigated the impact of block order presentation and vignette stimuli order on IRAP performances. That is, across four conditions, rule order presentations (i.e., vignette consistent vs. vignette inconsistent) and vignette stimuli presentation were manipulated. Results indicated that vignette consistent responding was observed to varying degrees across conditions. To decrease this variability across conditions, Experiment 2 presented a vignette before each block of trials but again the IRAP showed only limited sensitivity to the vignette. The current findings and considerations for future research are discussed in terms of a recently published conceptual analysis of false belief by Kavanagh et al. (2020).
Article
Innovation management research has recently pointed out that competitive advantage depends on the ability to connect knowledge at both intra- and inter-organisational levels through multiplex boundary work. Resource-based view (RBV) and knowledge-based view (KBV) can provide valuable and complementary insights to understand which individual-level determinants enable knowledge exchange through collaborative boundary work. Based on these arguments, we adopt a microfoundational approach to explore, through a multiple-embedded case study of seven small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs), the individual characteristics that make organisational members able to connect across boundaries and perform effective multiplex boundary work for collaborative innovation. Our findings show the relevance of three sets of individual determinants (i.e., openness to others, assertiveness, and balancing skills). This study extends the RBV and the KBV by identifying the main individual determinants that represent an essential resource base for leveraging internal and external knowledge in SMEs' engaging in multiplex boundary work for collaborative innovation.
Article
Este artículo analiza las principales funciones que desempeñan la repetición y la (re)formulación dialógica en las intervenciones de los operadores jurídicos en el interrogatorio judicial. Desde el Análisis de la Conversación y teniendo en cuenta la estructura secuencial en la que se enmarcan, se clasifican en dos categorías principales (Persson, 2020): las reparaciones heteroiniciadas (Schegloff et al., 1977) y los registros (Schegloff, 1997). Los resultados muestran que la primera función tiende a realizarse mediante (re)formulaciones del discurso del interrogado y la segunda, a través de repeticiones o reformulaciones leves. Asimismo, se ha abordado la caracterización de una tercera función, minoritaria pero presente en el corpus examinado, en la que estos recursos se emplean para expresar comprensión empática (Rogers, 1975), para establecer una conexión con el testigo que facilita su colaboración con la construcción de la narrativa pretendida por el interrogador. En las tres funciones identificadas, la recuperación del discurso del interlocutor tiende a ponerse al servicio de propósitos estratégicos propios de la argumentación en sede judicial: encuadrar la narrativa del testigo en las categorías jurídicas que fundamentan la versión de los hechos defendida por el interrogador y cuestionar la credibilidad del interrogado para desacreditar su testimonio.
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While most international relations (IR) scholars tend to minimize the effect of relations between statespersons on foreign policy, this article argues that interpersonal relationships have more weight than the literature suggests. On the basis of twenty-one interviews conducted with senior Israeli statespersons, we propose a two-level model-linking positive interaction between statespersons and actual consequences at the state level. At the personal level, positive interactions can create receptiveness, build trust, facilitate accessibility and availability, and advance personal commitment. Translating these outcomes into consequences at the state level is mediated either by persuasion or by commitment. If persuasion is effective or there exists a high level of personal commitment, statespersons are more likely to succeed in mobilizing international support, removing obstacles to agreements, gathering sensitive information, and diffusing interstate tension. We conclude by discussing the limitations and advantages of good personal relations between statespersons and their implications for IR practice and theory.
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Objectives: Many children are exposed to their peers being bullied, which negatively impacts individuals and the society as a whole. We investigated the effects of elementary school children’s emotional empathy and social problem-solving skills on their defending behaviors. We evaluated the direct and indirect effects of these personal characteristics, mediated through their perceived peer acceptance among classmates. Gender differences were also tested.Methods: The study participants were 386 fourth- and fifth-graders (M = 10.4 yrs.) from six elementary schools in the metropolitan Seoul area of South Korea. Children’s perceived social acceptance, emotional empathy, and problem-solving skills were measured using self-reported questionnaires. Defending behavior was measured using peer nomination. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling were conducted using SPSS 21.0 and MPLUS 6.12.Results: Bystanders‘ emotional empathy and social problem-solving skills had significant effects on defending behaviors. Social problem-solving skills directly affected defending behaviors of boys and girls. Girls’ peer acceptance mediated both emotional empathy and social problem-solving skills for defending behaviors, while no mediation effect was found in boys.Conclusion: For children, feeling accepted by classmates is important for defending bullied peers. For girls, peer acceptance magnifies their socio-emotional and socio-cognitive skills, empowering them to defend the bullied peers. However, for boys, having competent socio-cognitive skills alone is sufficient. Based on this study’s findings, it is recommended that interventions are needed to enhance bystanders’ emotional empathy and social problem-solving skills, and thereby, empowering them to be competent defenders against school bullying.
Article
While the creative approach of idea exploration (e.g., consideration of multiple alternatives, doing in-depth research) has been identified to be important in the creative process, another approach, idea harmonization (e.g., avoidance of disruptive ideas, endorsement of co-worker ideas), has been largely overlooked. This study is the first to examine both approaches. We propose that, to engage in both idea exploration and harmonization, employees need to seek to understand co-workers’ thoughts and feelings. Thus, organizations desiring both creative approaches from their employees may consider crafting the workplace to promote employees’ relational skills, especially perspective-taking. One way to do so is to enhance social and task interdependence among employees. Through a mixed-level longitudinal design, we showed that both social and task interdependence were positively related to employee perspective-taking and that perspective-taking was positively related to both idea exploration and harmonization. Crucially, we also found evidence that creative requirement attenuated this sequence. Altogether, this study highlights a new work design pathway to potentially promote creativity: greater social and task interconnections amongst employees are associated with more engagement in perspective-taking, especially when creativity is not explicitly demanded. Greater perspective-taking, in turn, is related to employees more fully exploring and harmonizing ideas.
Chapter
This chapter argues that the successful reimagining of former enemies as co-citizens and ultimately, the achievement of civil peace as peaceful cooperation depends on two things: discursive civility and safe discursive spaces. Discursive civility is a universal feature of self-sustainable civil peace which aims to ensure dignity-as-respectfulness in civil engagement. It is a minimal communicative requirement for civil engagement defined by three principles: emotional forbearance, perspective-taking and a requirement for reasonableness. A safe discursive space is a space, place or location in which language and behaviour in civil engagement are governed by these three principles of discursive civility. Discursive civility acts as a guarantor for safety in civil engagement with former enemies and thereby provides a real possibility for the safe and effective reimagining of former enemies as co-citizens.
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Describes the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and its relationships with measures of social functioning, self-esteem, emotionality, and sensitivity to others. 677 male and 667 female undergraduates served as Ss. Each of the 4 IRI subscales displayed a distinctive and predictable pattern of relationships with these measures, as well as with previous unidimensional empathy measures. Findings provide evidence for a multidimensional approach to empathy. (29 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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Thesis--University of Texas at Austin. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 209-219).
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The impact of cognitive and affective perspective taking on empathic arousal and altruistic responding was investigated in an American, working adult, ethnically diverse population. Altruistic helping, operationalized as the number of hours a participant volunteered to help counsel other adult students, depended on the type of perspective induced. Cognitive and affective perspectives were induced by instructing participants to pay attention to and discern (a) the thoughts of the stimulus person, (b) the feelings of the stimulus person, or (c) distracting, irrelevant details that provided a comparison condition. Participants in the affective perspective-taking condition reported greater empathic arousal than control participants. Participants in the affective perspective-taking condition also offered more help than did those in the cognitive perspective-taking condition or in the control condition.
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Three experiments explored the role of first offers, perspective-taking, and negotiator self-focus in determining distributive outcomes in a negotiation. Across 3 experiments, whichever party, the buyer or seller, made the 1st offer obtained a better outcome. In addition, 1st offers were a strong predictor of final settlement prices. However, when the negotiator who did not make a 1st offer focused on information that was inconsistent with the implications of the opponent's 1st offer, the advantageous effect of making the 1st offer was eliminated: Thinking about one's opponent's alternatives to the negotiation (Experiment 1), one's opponent's reservation price (Experiment 2), or one's own target (Experiment 3) all negated the effect of 1st offers on outcomes. These effects occurred for both face-to-face negotiations and E-mail negotiations. Implications for negotiations and perspective-taking are discussed.
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Five experiments document biases in the way people predict the outcomes of interdependent social situations. Participants predicted that situational constraints would restrain their own behavior more than it would the behavior of others, even in situations where everyone faced identical constraints. When anticipating the effects of deadlines on outcomes of negotiations, participants predicted that deadlines would hinder their performance more than it would hinder the performance of others. The results shed light on the psychological processes by which people predict the outcomes of and select strategies in strategic social interaction. They extend prior findings, such as people believing themselves to be below average on difficult tasks, to highly interdependent situations. Furthermore, the article shows both how focusing can account for these effects and also how perspective taking can reduce their biasing influence.
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Group members often reason egocentrically, believing that they deserve more than their fair share of group resources. Leading people to consider other members' thoughts and perspectives can reduce these egocentric (self-centered) judgments such that people claim that it is fair for them to take less; however, the consideration of others' thoughts and perspectives actually increases egoistic (selfish) behavior such that people actually take more of available resources. A series of experiments demonstrates this pattern in competitive contexts in which considering others' perspectives activates egoistic theories of their likely behavior, leading people to counter by behaving more egoistically themselves. This reactive egoism is attenuated in cooperative contexts. Discussion focuses on the implications of reactive egoism in social interaction and on strategies for alleviating its potentially deleterious effects.
Book
This monograph gives a systematic overview of the theory of strategies, a new area of enquiry developed over the past two decades by the author and his team. The projects described have clearly defined research objectives and are based on plausible and realistic assumptions about the environment in which the programming systems will work, and about the constraints and requirements they have to satisfy. The resulting systems are fairly general purpose as well as robust with regard to the assumptions made. The applications of the different systems range over various aspects of air traffic control, automatic verification and validation of discrete-event simulation models, econometric model building, distributed planning systems for manufacturing, control of traffic lights, and others. The book is aimed at researchers, teachers and students in computer science, management science and certain areas of engineering. The reader should have a certain level of maturity in computer science and mathematics, and some familiarity with the basic concepts of artificial intelligence.
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Two studies demonstrated that strategic behavioral mimicry facilitates negotiations. In Study 1 negotiators who mimicked their opponents secured better individual and joint outcomes. In Study 2, mimicry increased the likelihood of an interest-based deal in a negotiation with a negative bargaining zone. Interpersonal trust was found to mediate this effect.
Article
To facilitate a multidimensional approach to empathy the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) includes 4 subscales: Perspective-Taking (PT) Fantasy (FS) Empathic Concern (EC) and Personal Distress (PD). The aim of the present study was to establish the convergent and discriminant validity of these 4 subscales. Hypothesized relationships among the IRI subscales between the subscales and measures of other psychological constructs (social functioning self-esteem emotionality and sensitivity to others) and between the subscales and extant empathy measures were examined. Study subjects included 677 male and 667 female students enrolled in undergraduate psychology classes at the University of Texas. The IRI scales not only exhibited the predicted relationships among themselves but also were related in the expected manner to other measures. Higher PT scores were consistently associated with better social functioning and higher self-esteem; in contrast Fantasy scores were unrelated to these 2 characteristics. High EC scores were positively associated with shyness and anxiety but negatively linked to egotism. The most substantial relationships in the study involved the PD scale. PD scores were strongly linked with low self-esteem and poor interpersonal functioning as well as a constellation of vulnerability uncertainty and fearfulness. These findings support a multidimensional approach to empathy by providing evidence that the 4 qualities tapped by the IRI are indeed separate constructs each related in specific ways to other psychological measures.
Article
The chameleon effect refers to nonconscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors of one's interaction partners, such that one's behavior passively rind unintentionally changes to match that of others in one's current social environment. The authors suggest that the mechanism involved is the perception-behavior link, the recently documented finding (e.g., J. A. Bargh, M. Chen, & L. Burrows, 1996) that the mere perception of another' s behavior automatically increases the likelihood of engaging in that behavior oneself Experiment 1 showed that the motor behavior of participants unintentionally matched that of strangers with whom they worked on a task. Experiment 2 had confederates mimic the posture and movements of participants and showed that mimicry facilitates the smoothness of interactions and increases liking between interaction partners. Experiment 3 showed that dispositionally empathic individuals exhibit the chameleon effect to a greater extent than do other people.
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In addition to to the millions of ‘mundane’ tasks in business, engineering and scientific calculations, computers have also been used in discovering, modifying and verifying scientific theories. Let us discuss briefly and informally what is meant by a scientific theory and how can it be computer-based. This area is probably the most controversial in Artificial Intelligence and is closely related to the philosophical problem of how machines can manifest creativity and originality. Further, I note that the epistemological relation between theory and program is held by some people as (i) a possibly complete identity, or (ii) the appropriate program is considered as the model of a theory, or (iii) the program is taken as a heuristic tool in theory formation but with no formal connection to theory. I am not a philosopher and it is not my intention to cover such questions in this book. In forming one’s opinion, the empirical observations are obviously strongly affected by attitude and perception. The following informal discussion should be regarded simply as a guide to orient the reader before embarking on the main topics.
Article
Information exchange is a significant factor in the achievement of integrative agreements in negotiation. However, it is not clear what factors govern information exchange. While tutoring negotiators in information exchange has clearly been shown to be effective, the experiment reported here was concerned with less directive interventions. Negotiators were either (a) alerted to the possibility that the other party's issue priorities were not the same as their own—and hence the problem not fixed pie in nature—(Priority condition); or (b) made aware of the need to look at problems from another's perspective (Perspective condition). Interest was in how these interventions would effect negotiators' spontaneous exchange of potential outcome information, their understanding of the integrative nature of the problem, and their joint outcome from their negotiated agreement, as compared with a control condition. In addition, the role of negotiator firmness in the achievement of integrative agreements was examined. It was found that Priority negotiators engaged in more information exchange, tended to be more accurate in their understanding of the nature of the bargaining problem, and achieved higher joint profits in their agreements than did control negotiators. Pairs whose summed perspective-taking ability was higher made agreements with higher joint profits than those with lower perspective-taking ability. Negotiator firmness was higher for the Priority condition than for the control condition. It was concluded that (a) spontaneous exchange of outcome information does occur when negotiators are cued to doubt the fixed pie hypothesis about possible outcomes of negotiation; (b) this exchange is associated with higher joint profits, i.e., with more integrative bargaining; but (c) firmness as well as information exchange appears to play an important role in integrative bargaining; in addition, (d) perspective-taking does seem to encourage integrative bargaining, but it is difficult to induce, and how it operates is unclear.
Article
Results of 2 experiments supported the proposal that empathy-induced altruism can lead one to act in a way that violates the moral principle of justice. In each experiment, participants were asked to make an allocation decision that affected the welfare of other individuals. Participants who were not induced to feel empathy tended to act in accord with a principle of justice; participants who were induced to feel empathy were significantly more likely to violate this principle, allocating resources preferentially to the person for whom empathy was felt. High-empathy participants who showed partiality agreed with other participants in perceiving partiality to be less fair and less moral (Experiment 1). Overall, results suggested that empathy-induced altruism and the desire to uphold a moral principle of justice are independent prosocial motives that sometimes cooperate but sometimes conflict. Implications of this independence are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Proposes a 2-stage model of empathic mediation of helping behavior, which holds that taking the perspective of a person in need increases empathic emotion; this in turn increases helping. Ss in 2 experiments learned of another person's need from taped radio broadcasts and were subsequently given an opportunity to offer help to that person. The experiments used different strategies for manipulating empathic emotional response to the other's plight. In Exp I, using 44 male and female undergraduates, the empathic emotion of some Ss was experimentally reduced by a misattribution of arousal technique; in Exp II, using 33 female undergraduates, the empathic emotion of some Ss was experimentally increased by a false feedback of arousal technique. Results of each experiment support the proposed model. Ss who experienced the most empathic emotion also offered the most help. Results of Exp I indicate that perspective taking did not directly affect helping; it affected helping only through its effect on empathic emotion. Motivational implications are discussed. (31 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article examines the ability of the individual differences, motivational, and cognitive approaches of negotiation to account for empirical research on dyadic negotiation. Investigators have typically focused on objective, economic measures of performance. However, social-psychological measures are important because negotiators often do not have the information necessary to make accurate judgments of the bargaining situation. Negotiators' judgments are biased, and biases are associated with inefficient performance. Personality and individual differences appear to play a minimal role in determining bargaining behavior; their impact may be dampened by several factors, such as homogeneity of S samples, situational constraints, and self-selection processes. Motivational and cognitive models provide compelling accounts of negotiation behavior. A psychological theory of negotiation should begin at the level of the individual negotiator and should integrate features of motivational and cognitive models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Three experiments examined how a poker player's models or mental representations of the game influence his or her play in a modified version of 5-card stud. In Exp I, experienced poker players judged the likelihood of beating pairs of poker hands each described by the upcards in the hand, the amount bet on the hand by the opponent, and the playing style of the opponent. Results indicate that the subjective likelihood of beating a pair of poker hands is a multiplicative function of the subjective likelihoods of beating each of the hands individually and that Ss bet proportionally to their subjective likelihood of winning. Exps II and III examined the evaluation mechanisms through which Ss combine information to arrive at the subjective likelihood of beating a particular hand. These mechanisms include assessing the objective threat of upcards, combining this with information from opponents bets, and discounting for possible opponent bluffs. Results show a nonmonotonic relationship between the amount of the bet and the objective threat of the upcards and support an averaging rule for 2 of 7 Ss and an adding rule for the other 5 Ss. (38 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Can empathy-induced altruism motivate a person to cooperate in a prisoner's dilemma? To answer this question, 60 undergraduate women were placed in a 1-trial prisoners dilemma, and empathy for the other person was manipulated. Regardless of whether the dilemma was framed as a social exchange or as a business transaction, cooperation was significantly higher among those women led to feel empathy for the other than among those not led to feel empathy. Among those not led to feel empathy, the business frame reduced cooperation, lending support to the idea of an exemption on moral motivation in business transactions. Lack of a business exemption on empathy-induced altruism supported the suggestion that altruism is not simply a type of moral motivation, but is a distinct form of prosocial motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
What if participants in a one-trial prisoner's dilemma know before making their decision that the other person has already defected? From the perspective of classic game theory, a dilemma no longer exists. It is clearly in their best interest to defect too. The empathy-altruism hypothesis predicts, however, that if they feel empathy for the other, then a dilemma remains: self-interest counsels defection; empathy-induced altruism counsels not. This motivational conflict should lead at least some empathically aroused individuals not to defect. To test this prediction, we placed 60 undergraduate women in a one-trial prisoner's dilemma in which they knew the other had already defected. Among those not induced to feel empathy, very few (0.05) did not defect in return. Among those induced to feel empathy for the other, almost half (0.45) did not defect. These results underscore the power of empathy-induced altruism to affect responses in a prisoner's dilemma. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Many negotiations provide opportunities for integrative agreements in which parties can maximize joint gains without competing for resources in a direct win-lose fashion. However, negotiators often settle for suboptimal compromise agreements rather than search for mutually beneficial, or integrative, agreements. We hypothesized that misperceptions of the other party's interests are a primary cause of suboptimal outcomes. Two studies examined the role of social perception in negotiation and the relationship between judgment accuracy and negotiation performance. Results indicated that: most negotiators enter negotiation expecting the other party's interests to be completely opposed to their own; negotiators learn about the potential for joint gain during negotiation; most learning occurs within the first few minutes of interaction; accurate perception of the other party's interests leads to better negotiation performance; negotiators who learn about the other party's interests in the early stages of negotiation earn higher payoffs than do those who learn during the later stages of negotiation; a substantial number of negotiators fail to realize when they have interests that are completely compatible with those of the other party and settle for suboptimal agreements; and the two types of judgment error, Fixed Sum Error and Incompatibility Error, appear to be unrelated, distinct judgment errors. We discuss the role of social judgment in negotiation and the generalizability of the results to real world negotiations.
Article
We discuss the importance of appropriate measures of dyadic performance in negotiations research. We review how the quality of negotiated agreements has been measured in recent experimental research on mixed-motive, dyadic negotiations. We argue that impasse rates have been largely ignored as a dependent variable and that failure to take account of impasse rates may bias experimental results. In addition, we show that impasse rates can vary across experimental treatments as a result of differences in the balance of power. Pareto efficiency is argued to be a better measure of the quality of dyadic agreements than is joint profit, the more commonly used measure. We discuss the theoretical implications of these two measurements and show when they would lead to different conclusions. Finally, we evaluate alternative operationalizations of Pareto efficiency.
Article
When time is limited, researchers may be faced with the choice of using an extremely brief measure of the Big-Five personality dimensions or using no measure at all. To meet the need for a very brief measure, 5 and 10-item inventories were developed and evaluated. Although somewhat inferior to standard multi-item instruments, the instruments reached adequate levels in terms of: (a) convergence with widely used Big-Five measures in self, observer, and peer reports, (b) test–retest reliability, (c) patterns of predicted external correlates, and (d) convergence between self and observer ratings. On the basis of these tests, a 10-item measure of the Big-Five dimensions is offered for situations where very short measures are needed, personality is not the primary topic of interest, or researchers can tolerate the somewhat diminished psychometric properties associated with very brief measures.
Article
In adversarial problem solving (APS), one must anticipate, understand and counteract the actions of an opponent. Military strategy, business, and game playing all require an agent to construct a model of an opponent that includes the opponent's model of the agent. The cognitive mechanisms required for such modeling include deduction, analogy, inductive generalization, and the formation and evaluation of explanatory hypotheses. Explanatory coherence theory captures part of what is involved in APS, particularly in cases involving deception.
Conference Paper
This paper employs ideas from genetics to study the evolution of strategies in games. In complex environments, individuals are not fully able to analyze the situation and calculate their optimal strategy. Instead they can be expected to adapt their strategy over time based upon what has been effective and what has not. The genetic algorithm is demonstrated in the context of a rich social setting, the environment formed by the strategies submitted to a prisoner’s dilemma computer tournament. The results of the evolutionary process show that the genetic algorithm has a remarkable ability to evolve sophisticated and effective strategies in a complex environment.
Article
Two experiments investigated the hypothesis that strategic behavioral mimicry can facilitate negotiation outcomes. Study 1 used an employment negotiation with multiple issues, and demonstrated that strategic behavioral mimicry facilitated outcomes at both the individual and dyadic levels: Negotiators who mimicked the mannerisms of their opponents both secured better individual outcomes, and their dyads as a whole also performed better when mimicking occurred compared to when it did not. Thus, mimickers created more value and then claimed most of that additional value for themselves, though not at the expense of their opponents. In Study 2, mimicry facilitated negotiators’ ability to uncover underlying compatible interests and increased the likelihood of obtaining a deal in a negotiation where a prima facie solution was not possible. Results from Study 2 also demonstrated that interpersonal trust mediated the relationship between mimicry and deal-making. Implications for our understanding of negotiation dynamics and interpersonal coordination are discussed.
Article
Since this is the first chapter in the Annual Review 0/ Psychology to be devoted exclusively to personality and social development, a brief historical note seems appropriate. The general topic has long interested psychologists, although little progress was made in the early years due to its being dominated by grand theorists such as Freud, and the early social interactionists like Cooley and Mead, whose views had appeal because they encompassed so much but which did not lend themselves very well to research. By the early 1950s the need for testable hypotheses of modest scope was recognized, and the stage appeared set for new advances to be made. However, owing perhaps to the national concern about the need for scientific talent which was heightened by Sputnik, the attention to developmental psychology was preempted by the cognitive domain. The interest in cognitive development was additionally reinforced by the War on Poverty and the inauguration of Head Start, and cognitive development continues to be a major focus of research effort. The past few years, however, have seen a rebirth of interest in social development, and here, too, societal rather than purely scientific concerns seem to have provided the major impetus. It is probably more than coincidence that the student activism of the 1960s, the rising crime rate, and such heavily publicized events as Watergate and ·the street murder of Kitty Genovese have their parallels in the intensification of research on internalization of moral norms, a topic of long-standing interest, and in the emergence of new areas of study such as empathy , role-taking, altruism, and the impact of television violence on children. The women's movement has, no doubt, contributed to the renewal of interest in sex role development. And the very recent research on equity and other forms of distributional justice may in part reflect a sensitivity to the rising demands of poor people and poor nations for a greater share of the earth's resources. Each of the above topics is now the object of intensive research that is more or less interrelated and cumulative and guided by theoretical models that are con­ stantly being revised on the basis of the findings. Consequently there is reason to
Article
A selective review of various conceptual positions within a historic framework is used to address four issues: whether an empathic response is an understanding or sharing of affect; whether an empathic response is a response to an object, another’s affect, and/or circumstance; which mechanisms explain empathy, and is self-other differentiation required by various definitions. This discussion is related to an examination of representative, predictive and situational measures. Comments are made regarding the reliability and construct validity of certain measures. The implications of this evidence for the use and the development of measures are advanced. A cognitive theoretical perspective is applied, in which variables that influence empathic learning are discussed with several applications of data, to assist in our understanding of empathy.Copyright © 1975 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article
The construct of empathy may be located conceptually at several different points in the network of interpersonal cognition and emotion. We discuss one specific form of emotional empathy--other-focused feelings evoked by perceiving another person in need. First, evidence is reviewed suggesting that there are at least two distinct types of congruent emotional responses to perceiving another in need: feelings of personal distress (e.g., alarmed, upset, worried, disturbed, distressed, troubled, etc.) and feelings of empathy (e.g., sympathetic, moved, compassionate, tender, warm, softhearted, etc.). Next, evidence is reviewed suggesting that these two emotional responses have different motivational consequences. Personal distress seems to evoke egoistic motivation to reduce one's own aversive arousal, as a traditional Hullian tension-reduction model would propose. Empathy does not. The motivation evoked by empathy may instead be altruistic, for the ultimate goal seems to be reduction of the other's need, not reduction of one's own aversive arousal. Overall, the recent empirical evidence appears to support the more differentiated view of emotion and motivation proposed long ago by McDougall, not the unitary view proposed by Hull and his followers.
Article
The chameleon effect refers to nonconscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors of one's interaction partners, such that one's behavior passively and unintentionally changes to match that of others in one's current social environment. The authors suggest that the mechanism involved is the perception-behavior link, the recently documented finding (e.g., J. A. Bargh, M. Chen, & L. Burrows, 1996) that the mere perception of another's behavior automatically increases the likelihood of engaging in that behavior oneself. Experiment 1 showed that the motor behavior of participants unintentionally matched that of strangers with whom they worked on a task. Experiment 2 had confederates mimic the posture and movements of participants and showed that mimicry facilitates the smoothness of interactions and increases liking between interaction partners. Experiment 3 showed that dispositionally empathic individuals exhibit the chameleon effect to a greater extent than do other people.
Article
This study investigates whether the ability of negotiators to adopt the perspective of their opponents is a key to success in negotiating under conventional and final-offer arbitration. The authors tested this question in an experiment in which 80 pairs of students engaged in two sets of negotiations. The results suggest that both the perspective-taking ability of the negotiators and the type of arbitration affect negotiations-as measured by concession rate, number of issues resolved, and outcome success (the dollar value of the contract obtained)-and such attitudes as perceived agreement with and control over the outcome. The authors also find that negotiating experience affects various process and outcome measures of the negotiation as well as perceived control over and agreement with the outcome. (Abstract courtesy JSTOR.)
Texoil Negotiation and de-cision making exercises [CD]. Evanston, IL: Northwestern Uni-versity
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Goldberg, S. (2000). Texoil. In J.M. Brett (Ed.), Negotiation and de-cision making exercises [CD]. Evanston, IL: Northwestern Uni-versity, Dispute Resolution Research Center.
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