The Prevalence and Correlates of Workplace Depression in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication

Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.63). 05/2008; 50(4):381-90. DOI: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e31816ba9b8
Source: PubMed


To review evidence on the workplace prevalence and correlates of major depressive episodes, with a particular focus on the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, the most recent national survey to focus on these issues.
Nationally representative survey of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th Revision Mental Disorders.
A total of 6.4% of employed National Comorbidity Survey Replication respondents had 12-month major depressive disorder. An additional 1.1% had major depressive episodes due to bipolar disorder or mania-hypomania. Only about half of depressed workers received treatment. Fewer than half of treated workers received care consistent with published treatment guidelines.
Depression disease management programs can have a positive return-on-investment from the employer perspective, but only when they are based on best practices. Given the generally low depression treatment quality documented here, treatment quality guarantees are needed before expanding workplace depression screening, outreach, and treatment programs.

Full-text preview

Available from:
    • "On the other hand, conventional antidepressants have a long list of side effects, categorized into gastrointestinal (nausea and vomiting), central nervous system (insomnia, agitation, fatigue, sedation , headaches), sexual dysfunction, and weight gain, which cause poor patient compliance that could result in treatment failure (Vanderkooy et al., 2002; Papakostas, 2008). A survey in America indicated that about 50% of patients fail to receive antidepressant therapy (Kessler et al., 2008). This proportion is even higher in developing countries (Wang et al., 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Depression is a major mental disease that is ranked as the fourth leading cause of disability. In order to avoid unwanted adverse reactions, as well as improve efficacy, current researches are seeking alternatives to conventional antidepressants. Phytochemicals provide an extensive research area in antidepressant therapies. The aim of the present study is to comprehensively review neurological evidences demonstrating the efficacy of phytochemicals in depression. For this purpose, electronic databases were searched to collect all data on the antidepressant mechanisms of phytochemicals from 1966 up to 2015. Plant metabolites from different categories including polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignanes, coumarins), alkaloids, terpenes and terpenoids, saponins and sapogenins, amines, and carbohydrates were found to possess antidepressant activity. Naringenin, quercetin derivatives, eugenol, piperine, diterpene alkaloids, berberine, hyperforin, riparin derivatives, ginsenosides, as well as β-carboline alkaloids are among the most relevant ones. Naringenin has represented its antidepressant effect by elevation of serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glucocorticoid receptors. Piperine demonstrated inhibition of monoamine oxidase enzymes, elevation of brain 5-HT and BDNF levels, and modulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. The serotonergic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic effect of berberine has been proven in several studies. Quercetin derivatives have revealed antidepressant potential via elevating pro-opiomelanocortin and neuroprotective properties, as well as reduction of proinflammatory cytokines. Assessing the structure-activity relationship of highly potent antidepressant phytochemicals is suggested to find future natural, semisynthetic, or synthetic antidepressants. Further clinical studies are also necessary for confirmation of natural antidepressant efficacy and completion of their safety profile.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Reviews in the neurosciences
  • Source
    • "While effective treatment exists in the form of medication and psychotherapy (American Psychiatric Association , 2000; Hepner et al., 2007), most working individuals diagnosed with major depression do not receive sufficient treatment (Kessler et al., 2008). In fact, when examined against national guidelines for the treatment of major depression, the studies of large-scale community indicate that only 22% -26% of adults with major depression receive minimally adequate treatment (Kessler et al., 2003; Young, Klap, Sherbourne, & Wells, 2001), and many adults delay treatment (Ki et al., 2014). "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Open Journal of Depression
  • Source
    • "Mood disorders are quite common in the working population. The 12-month prevalence rate varies between 3.4 and 6.0% for mood disorders in European countries (Alonso et al., 2004; Bijl, Ravelli, & van Zessen, 1998) and is 6.4% for major depressive disorder (MDD) in the United States (Kessler, Merikangas, & Wang, 2008). Recent research has estimated the economic burden of mood disorders in Europe at €113.4 billion (US$ 150.4 billion 1 ) for 2010 (Gustavsson et al., 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of work-related cognitive-behavioral treatment (W-CBT) with that of cognitive-behavioral treatment as usual (CBT-AU) for employees on sick leave as a result of a major depressive disorder (MDD). We collected data for 26 matched outpatients at pre- and posttreatment, as well as at 1-year follow-up. Outcome measures were the days of incapacity to work (DIW) as well as self-report measures (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI], Symptom Checklist 90-R [GSI], Life Satisfaction Questionnaire [FLZ]). We analyzed data with hierarchical linear modeling in a 2-level model. Therapy effects were defined in 3 ways: effect size (ES), response (based on the reliable change index), and remission compared with the general population's symptom level. The DIW were reduced significantly after both types of treatment, but employees showed even fewer DIW after W-CBT. At follow-up, significantly more employees were working as a result of W-CBT than with CBT-AU. Significant improvements on scores of self-rating measures corresponded with moderate-to-large effect sizes for both treatment types. Approximately 2 thirds of the treated employees were categorized as unimpaired on BDI scores at posttreatment and at follow-up. At least 1 half of the employees were classified as unimpaired on GSI scores at both assessment points. In future research, a randomized controlled trial should be conducted using a larger sample size to investigate the impact of moderators (e.g., employees at different branches of the company). Findings provided support for using common CBT techniques to enhance return to work without losing expected improvements at the symptom level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
Show more