Outcome of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Adolescents After Natural Disaster

Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran Institute of Psychiatry (Mental Health Research Center), Tehran, Iran.
Journal of Adolescent Health (Impact Factor: 3.61). 06/2008; 42(5):466-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.09.011
Source: PubMed


The authors evaluated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) among adolescents exposed to the 2004 earthquake in Bam, Iran.
Four months after the earthquake, 135 adolescents as a case group and 33 adolescents as a comparison group were evaluated with the Impact of Event Scale Revised (IES-R). Two therapists were trained in CBT in 3-day classes according to a manual provided by mental health services. After conducting CBT in the case group, both groups were evaluated again with IES-R.
The severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms significantly decreased among the subjects given CBT in the case group. The improvement in posttraumatic stress symptoms was attributable to improvement in each of three-symptom categories (intrusion, avoidance, and arousal) and in the total score of posttraumatic stress disorder (p < .05).
The findings demonstrate the efficacy of CBT in alleviating posttraumatic stress symptoms among adolescents after a catastrophic disaster.

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    • "Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) emerges as the best validated therapeutic approach for children and adolescents who experienced trauma-related symptoms, particularly symptoms associated with anxiety or mood disorders [1]. Trauma-focused CBT interventions have been shown to be effective in PTSD [20] [21] and are currently recommended as first line treatments for this condition [22] [23] [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) emerges as the best validated therapeutic approach for children and adolescents who experienced trauma-related symptoms, particularly associated with anxiety or mood disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the CBT efficacy among young people exposed to L'Aquila earthquake, in 2009. one year after the disaster, 39 young subjects as a case group (CBT treated) and 24 as a comparison group (no CBT treated) were evaluated with the Impact of Event Scale Revised (IES-R), the General Health Questionnaire-12 items (GHQ-12) and the Brief Cope. CBT was conducted in 12 sessions (once per week for 3 months). After CBT intervention, both groups were evaluated again with the same psychometric instruments. our results show a significantly decrease in post traumatic symptoms and psychological distress severity in CBT group. It was attributable to an improvement in each of three PTSD dimensions (intrusion, avoidance, and arousal) and in the total score of IES-R (p< 0.04). Among CBT treated group, subjects that adopted "planning/problem solving" coping strategies (p < .02) and "religiosity" (p < .045) show higher improvement in psychological distress. our findings show the efficacy of CBT and the influence of individual coping strategies in the improvement of posttraumatic stress symptoms and psychological distress among young people seeking help from an outpatients service for young people with psychiatric problems (the SMILE) after the catastrophic disaster in L'Aquila.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health
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    • "The Children and War Foundation has pioneered attempts to provide better screening instruments and evidence-based interventions for such situations. The Teaching Recovery Techniques manual developed by the Children and War Foundation (Smith, Dyregrov, & Yule, 1999) has been successfully used after earthquakes (Giannopoulou, Dikaiakou, & Yule, 2006; Shooshtary, Panaghi, & Moghadam, 2008). The manual was adapted for use with adults as well as children, following the Bam earthquake, with 85% reporting that the interventions had alleviated their distress (Yule, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Effective evidence-based intervention for traumatic bereavement is one of the current major research issues in the field of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents. The "Writing for Recovery" group intervention is a new treatment approach developed by the Children and War Foundation for traumatized and bereaved children and adolescents after disasters. The purpose of this project was an empirical examination of this intervention with 12- to 18-year-old war bereaved Afghani refugees. Eighty-eight war bereaved Afghani refugees were screened using the Traumatic Grief Inventory for Children (TGIC). From those with the highest total score, 61 were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n = 29) or control group (n = 32). The experimental group received six sessions of group training on 3 consecutive days in their school. The difference of TGIC scores between the experimental group in pretest and posttest was significant (p = 0.001). Results of analysis of covariance also showed a significant effect of Writing for Recovery on the experimental group (p < 0.001). It is concluded that "Writing for Recovery" is an effective group intervention for bereaved children and adolescents after disasters.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · OMEGA--Journal of Death and Dying
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    • "Sample size was determined in advance based on previous studies of this intervention that found medium to large effect sizes of 0.64–0.97 (Giannopolou et al., 2006;Shooshtary et al., 2008). Power analysis indicated that a sample size of 45 per group gives 80% power to detect an effect size of 0.6 (5% alpha, two-tailed). "
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    ABSTRACT: Uniquely the current study aimed to assess the Teaching Recovery Techniques trauma recovery programme within a context of ‘ongoing violence’. Utilising a randomised control trial N = 133 (11-14 yrs) students in Nablus, Palestine were allocated by class to intervention or wait-list control conditions. Standardized measures assessed trauma exposure, PTSD, grief and depression. Program fidelity and participant experience were measured by adherence questionnaire and focus groups. Analyses involved paired t-tests, ANCOVA and thematic analysis. Intervention students reported significant decreases in PTSD, grief and depression. In conclusion the TRT program has the potential to ameliorate children's trauma symptoms during situations of ongoing violence.
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