Reduced carbohydrate intake in citrin-deficient subjects. J Inherit Metab Dis

Department of Molecular Metabolism and Biochemical Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, Japan.
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease (Impact Factor: 3.37). 07/2008; 31(3):386-94. DOI: 10.1007/s10545-008-0752-x
Source: PubMed


Citrin is the liver-type aspartate-glutamate carrier that resides within the inner mitochondrial membrane. Citrin deficiency (due to homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the gene SLC25A13) causes both adult-onset type II citrullinaemia (CTLN2) and neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis (NICCD). Clinically, CTLN2 is characterized by hyperammonaemia and citrullinaemia, whereas NICCD has a much more varied and transient presentation that can include multiple aminoacidaemias, hypoproteinaemia, galactosaemia, hypoglycaemia, and jaundice. Personal histories from CTLN2 patients have repeatedly described an aversion to carbohydrate-rich foods, and clinical observations of dietary and therapeutic outcomes have suggested that their unusual food preferences may be directly related to their pathophysiology. In the present study, we monitored the food intake of 18 Japanese citrin-deficient subjects whose ages ranged from 1 to 33 years, comparing them against published values for the general Japanese population. Our survey confirmed a marked decrease in carbohydrate intake, which accounts for a smaller proportion of carbohydrates contributing to the total energy intake (PFC ratio) as well as a shift towards a lower centile distribution for carbohydrate intake relative to age- and sex-matched controls. These results strongly support an avoidance of carbohydrate-rich foods by citrin-deficient patients that may lead to worsening of symptoms.

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    • "One of the most unusual features of citrin deficiency is that all patients tested to date show a unique food predilection; they dislike carbohydrate-rich foods and prefer protein-and fat-rich foods [8] [9]. A detailed nutritional assessment of 18 Japanese citrin-deficient patients (ranging from 1 to 33 years of age) clearly demonstrated a significant reduction in their intake of carbohydrates, with compensatory increases in protein and fat, compared to established age-and gender-matched norms for the general Japanese population [23]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The citrin/mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD) double-knockout mouse displays phenotypic attributes of both neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis and adult-onset type II citrullinemia, making it a suitable model of human citrin deficiency. In the present study, we investigated metabolic disturbances in the livers of wild-type, citrin (Ctrn) knockout, mGPD knockout, and Ctrn/mGPD double-knockout mice following oral sucrose versus saline administration using metabolomic approaches. By using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry, we found three general groupings of metabolite changes in the livers of the double-knockout mice following sucrose administration that were subsequently confirmed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry or enzymatic methods: a marked increase of hepatic glycerol 3-phosphate, a generalized decrease of hepatic tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, and alterations of hepatic amino acid levels related to the urea cycle or lysine catabolism including marked increases in citrulline and lysine. Furthermore, concurrent oral administration of sodium pyruvate with sucrose ameliorated the hyperammonemia induced by sucrose, as had been shown previously, as well as almost completely normalizing the hepatic metabolite perturbations found. Overall, we have identified additional metabolic disturbances in double-KO mice following oral sucrose administration, and provided further evidence for the therapeutic use of sodium pyruvate in our mouse model of citrin deficiency.
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    ABSTRACT: Citrin deficiency is a common congenital metabolic defect not only in East Asian populations but also in other populations around the world. It has been shown that although liver transplantation is ultimately required in many patients to prevent neurological decompensation associated with hyperammonaemia, arginine is effective in lowering ammonia in hyperammonaemic patients, and a high-protein low-carbohydrate diet may provide some benefit to infants in improving failure to thrive. In the present study, the clinical symptoms and laboratory findings are reported for a 13-year-old citrin-deficient girl in the early stage of adult-onset type II citrullinaemia (CTLN2), and the therapeutic effect of orally administered arginine and sodium pyruvate was investigated. The patient complained of anorexia, lethargy, fatigue and poor growth, and showed laboratory findings typical of CTLN2; elevated levels of plasma citrulline, threonine-to-serine ratio, and serum pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor. Oral administration of arginine and sodium pyruvate for over 3 years improved her clinical symptoms and has almost completely normalized her laboratory findings. It is suggested that the administration of arginine and sodium pyruvate with low-carbohydrate meals may be an effective therapy in patients with citrin deficiency in order either to prolong metabolic normalcy or to provide a safer and more affordable alternative to liver transplantation.
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