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24-Week study on the use of collagen hydrolysate as a dietary supplement in athletes with activity-related joint pain

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Abstract

Collagen hydrolysate is a nutritional supplement that has been shown to exert an anabolic effect on cartilage tissue. Its administration appears beneficial in patients with osteoarthritis. To investigate the effect of collagen hydrolysate on activity-related joint pain in athletes who are physically active and have no evidence of joint disease. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted at Penn State University in University Park, Pennsylvania. Parameters including joint pain, mobility, and inflammation were evaluated with the use of a visual analogue scale during a 24-week study phase. Between September 2005 and June 2006, 147 subjects who competed on a varsity team or a club sport were recruited. Data from 97 of 147 subjects could be statistically evaluated. One hundred and forty-seven subjects (72 male, 75 female) were randomly assigned to two groups: a group (n = 73) receiving 25 mL of a liquid formulation that contained 10 g of collagen hydrolysate (CH-Alpha) and a group (n = 74) receiving a placebo, which consisted of 25 mL of liquid that contained xanthan. The primary efficacy parameter was the change in the visual analogue scales from baseline during the study phase in relation to the parameters referring to pain, mobility, and inflammation. When data from all subjects (n = 97) were evaluated, six parameters showed statistically significant changes with the dietary supplement collagen hydrolysate (CH) compared with placebo: joint pain at rest, assessed by the physician (CH vs. placebo (-1.37 +/- 1.78 vs. -0.90 +/- 1.74 (p = 0.025)) and five parameters assessed by study participants: joint pain when walking (-1.11 +/- 1.98 vs. -0.46 +/- 1.63, p = 0.007), joint pain when standing (-0.97 +/- 1.92 vs. -0.43 +/- 1.74, p = 0.011), joint pain at rest (-0.81 +/- 1.77 vs. -0.39 +/- 1.56, p = 0.039), joint pain when carrying objects (-1.45 +/- 2.11 vs. -0.83 +/- 1.71, p = 0.014) and joint pain when lifting (-1.79 +/- 2.11 vs. -1.26 +/- 2.09, p = 0.018). When a subgroup analysis of subjects with knee arthralgia (n = 63) was performed, the difference between the effect of collagen hydrolysate vs. placebo was more pronounced. The parameter joint pain at rest, assessed by the physician, had a statistical significance level of p = 0.001 (-1.67 +/- 1.89 vs. -0.86 +/- 1.77), while the other five parameters based on the participants' assessments were also statistically significant: joint pain when walking (p = 0.003 (-1.38 +/- 2.12 vs. -0.54 +/- 1.65)), joint pain when standing (p = 0.015 (-1.17 +/- 2.06 vs. -0.50 +/- 1.68)), joint pain at rest with (p = 0.021 (-1.01 +/-1.92 vs. -0.47 +/- 1.63)), joint pain when running a straight line (p = 0.027 (-1.50 +/- 1.97 vs. -0.80 +/- 1.66)) and joint pain when changing direction (p = 0.026 (-1.87 +/- 2.18 vs. -1.20 +/- 2.10)). This was the first clinical trial of 24-weeks duration to show improvement of joint pain in athletes who were treated with the dietary supplement collagen hydrolysate. The results of this study have implications for the use of collagen hydrolysate to support joint health and possibly reduce the risk of joint deterioration in a high-risk group. Despite the study's size and limitations, the results suggest that athletes consuming collagen hydrolysate can reduce parameters (such as pain) that have a negative impact on athletic performance. Future studies are needed to support these findings.

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... Since a short-term increase in degradation can be assumed during or immediately after exercise [5], the positive effect of collagen peptides was also tested in activity-related joint complaints involving non-diseased subjects. According to the results of Clark et al. (2008), the daily intake of 10 g of collagen peptides over 24 weeks supports joint health and reduces pain, with the main effect in the knee joint [38]. A follow-up study by Zdzieblik et al. (2017) confirmed the results of Clark et al. (2008). ...
... Since a short-term increase in degradation can be assumed during or immediately after exercise [5], the positive effect of collagen peptides was also tested in activity-related joint complaints involving non-diseased subjects. According to the results of Clark et al. (2008), the daily intake of 10 g of collagen peptides over 24 weeks supports joint health and reduces pain, with the main effect in the knee joint [38]. A follow-up study by Zdzieblik et al. (2017) confirmed the results of Clark et al. (2008). ...
... According to the results of Clark et al. (2008), the daily intake of 10 g of collagen peptides over 24 weeks supports joint health and reduces pain, with the main effect in the knee joint [38]. A follow-up study by Zdzieblik et al. (2017) confirmed the results of Clark et al. (2008). The results imply that the intake of 5 g of specific collagen peptides for 12 weeks is sufficient to significantly reduce pain intensity during physical activity. ...
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First evidence indicates that the supplementation of specific collagen peptides is associated with a significant reduction in activity-related joint pain in young adults. The purpose of the current investigation was to confirm the efficacy of the same collagen peptides in a comparable study population. In total, 180 active men and women aged between 18 and 30 years with exercise-related knee pain but no diagnosed joint disease completed the trial over a period of 12 weeks. Participants were randomly assigned to the group receiving 5 g of specific collagen peptides (CP-G) or to the placebo group (P-G). For the primary outcome, changes in pain during or after exercise from pre- to post-intervention were assessed by the participants using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). These changes were additionally evaluated by the examining physician by means of anamnesis and physical examination of the affected knee joint. As secondary outcomes, pain under resting conditions and after 20 squats were compared between the study groups. In addition, the mobility of the knee joint and the use of alternative therapies (e.g., ointments or physiotherapy) were recorded. The supplementation of specific collagen peptides derived from type I collagen with a mean molecular weight of 3 kDa led to a significantly (p = 0.024) higher reduction of exercise-induced knee pain (−21.9 ± 18.3 mm) compared with the placebo group (−15.6 ± 18.5 mm). These findings were consistent with the physician’s evaluation (−23.0 ± 19.2 mm vs. −14.6 ± 17.9 mm, p = 0.003). The decrease in pain under resting conditions and after squats did not significantly differ between the groups, as only a small number of participants suffered from pain under these conditions. Due to the clinically unremarkable baseline values, the mobility of the knee joint did not change significantly after the intervention. In conclusion, the current investigation confirmed that the oral intake of bioactive collagen peptides used in the current investigation led to a statistically significant reduction of activity-related joint pain in young active adults suffering from knee joint discomfort.
... Fifteen studies were included, of these 8 used collagen peptides or collagen hydrolysate in doses of 5-15 g/day (Clark et al. 2008;Zdzieblik et al. 2015;Zdzieblik et al. 2017;Dressler et al. 2018;Praet et Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4 for more detail). The supplements were provided in either a capsule or powdered form, consumed with water. ...
... There were a total of 656 participants, with 325 males and 276 females; one study did not report the number of male and female participants (Lugo et al. 2013). Twelve studies had recreationally active participants (average age: 30 ± 10 years) who experienced joint-related discomfort (Clark et al. 2008;Zdzieblik et al. 2017;Dressler et al. 2018;Praet et al. 2019;Oertzen-Hagemann et al. 2019;Kirmse et al. 2019;Clifford et al. 2019;Oikawa et al. 2020a;Shaw et al. 2017;Lis and Baar 2019;Lugo et al. 2013;Lopez et al. 2015), 2 studies were in an elderly population; 1 in men experiencing onset of sarcopenia (age 72 ± 5 years) (Zdzieblik et al. 2015) and the other in healthy, older women (age 69 ± 3 years) (Oikawa et al. 2020b), and 1 study was in untrained pre-menopausal women (age 40 ± 8 years) (Jendricke et al. 2019). Twelve studies reported funding sources, but none of the studies reported conflicts of interest. ...
... The studies used 40 mg, 5 g and 10 g per day doses of COL. One study was conducted over 3 months (Zdzieblik et al. 2017), one over 4 months (Lugo et al. 2013), and three studies over 6 months (Clark et al. 2008;Dressler et al. 2018;Praet et al. 2019). Clark and colleagues (2008) noted an effect size (ES) of 0.36 for 'joint pain when walking', but in a knee arthralgia sub-group, the ES was slightly higher (0.45), indicative of a small beneficial effect of COL (< 0.2 = weak effect; > 0.8 = strong effect). ...
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Collagen peptide supplementation (COL), in conjunction with exercise, may be beneficial for the management of degenerative bone and joint disorders. This is likely due to stimulatory effects of COL and exercise on the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, improving structure and load-bearing capabilities. This systematic review aims to evaluate the current literature available on the combined impact of COL and exercise. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines, a literature search of three electronic databases-PubMed, Web of Science and CINAHL-was conducted in June 2020. Fifteen randomised controlled trials were selected after screening 856 articles. The study populations included 12 studies in recreational athletes, 2 studies in elderly participants and 1 in untrained pre-menopausal women. Study outcomes were categorised into four topics: (i) joint pain and recovery from joint injuries, (ii) body composition, (iii) muscle soreness and recovery from exercise, and (iv) muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and collagen synthesis. The results indicated that COL is most beneficial in improving joint functionality and reducing joint pain. Certain improvements in body composition, strength and muscle recovery were present. Collagen synthesis rates were elevated with 15 g/day COL but did not have a significant impact on MPS when compared to isonitrogenous higher quality protein sources. Exact mechanisms for these adaptations are unclear, with future research using larger sample sizes, elite athletes, female participants and more precise outcome measures such as muscle biopsies and magnetic imagery.
... One of the approaches for research is related to the "Type" of collagen. To the best of our knowledge [50][51][52][53], most of the research work is oriented with either one or two of the following categories: (1) use of particular Type collagen hydrolysate aimed to improve/solve any biomedical impairment, (2) extraction of a particular Type of collagen/collagen product using any novel method (e.g., ultraviolet irradiations, UV), (3) extraction of a particular Type of collagen from any novel source, and (4) bio-synthesis or culturing of modified collagen to enhance different properties. The segregation is shown in Figure 2 and described in the following section. ...
... The previous studies reported in this section only consider the effects on non-athletic patients suffering from osteoarthritic pain. Clark et al. presents the significant reduction of an athlete's osteoarthritis symptoms (joint pain) after an oral ingestion of 10 g/day of collagen hydrolysate for 24 weeks [50]. This study is one of the earliest research projects to report a control group for clinical trials along with a placebo and a treated group in the collagen Type II literature [50]. ...
... Clark et al. presents the significant reduction of an athlete's osteoarthritis symptoms (joint pain) after an oral ingestion of 10 g/day of collagen hydrolysate for 24 weeks [50]. This study is one of the earliest research projects to report a control group for clinical trials along with a placebo and a treated group in the collagen Type II literature [50]. Lugo et al. presents 180 days of oral administration of collagen Type II (denatured) hydrolysate extracted from chicken sternum cartilage for decreasing knee osteoarthritis (OA) pain as compared to two groups: (a) glucosamine hydrochloride/chondroitin sulfate (GC), and (b) placebo [68]. ...
Article
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The collagen hydrolysate, a proteinic biopeptide, is used for various key functionalities in humans and animals. Numerous reviews explained either individually or a few of following aspects: types, processes, properties, and applications. In the recent developments, various biological, biochemical, and biomedical functionalities are achieved in five aspects: process, type, species, disease, receptors. The receptors are rarely addressed in the past which are an essential stimulus to activate various biomedical and biological activities in the metabolic system of humans and animals. Furthermore, a systematic segregation of the recent developments regarding the five main aspects is not yet reported. This review presents various biological, biochemical, and biomedical functionalities achieved for each of the beforementioned five aspects using a systematic approach. The review proposes a novel three-level hierarchy that aims to associate a specific functionality to a particular aspect and its subcategory. The hierarchy also highlights various key research novelties in a categorical manner that will contribute to future research.
... Interestingly, changes in proteoglycan content in knee cartilage have been found using magnetic resonance imaging measures among individuals taking CP supplements for 24 weeks (McAlindon et al. 2011). The use of CP supplements is therefore considered as a beneficial strategy to reduce knee pain and discomfort in patients with articular cartilage degradation (Clark et al. 2008;Zdzieblik et al. 2016). Furthermore, it has been suggested that various CP supplements differ in composition of collagen fragments and, therefore, differ in pharmacological efficacy on human synovial fibroblasts and cartilage (Schadow et al. 2013(Schadow et al. , 2017Simons et al. 2018). ...
... To our knowledge the effects of CP supplementation have only been examined in young athletes (Clark et al. 2008) or in patients with diagnosed osteoarthritis (Kumar et al. 2015;Lugo et al. 2016). Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of 12 weeks of CP supplementation on knee pain and knee function in healthy, active, middle-aged to elderly individuals with selfreported knee pain. ...
... Additionally, in the present study a supplementation duration of 12 weeks was used, while previous studies with a positive outcome used a supplementation period of 24 weeks or longer (Bruyere et al. 2012;Clark et al. 2008;Lugo et al. 2016). This may suggest that long-term supplementation is needed to induce beneficial effects on knee pain, even more so in elderly who may have knee complaints for a long time already. ...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 12 weeks collagen peptide (CP) supplementation on knee pain and function in individuals with self-reported knee pain. Healthy physically active individuals (n = 167; aged 63 [interquartile range = 56–68] years) with self-reported knee pain received 10 g/day of CP or placebo for 12 weeks. Knee pain and function were measured with the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), the Lysholm questionnaire, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Furthermore, we assessed changes in inflammatory, cartilage, and bone (bio)markers. Measurements were conducted at baseline and after 12 weeks of supplementation. Baseline VAS did not differ between CP and placebo (4.7 [2.5–6.1] vs. 4.7 [2.8–6.2], p = 0.50), whereas a similar decrease in VAS was observed after supplementation (−1.6 ± 2.4 vs. −1.9 ± 2.6, p = 0.42). The KOOS and Lysholm scores increased after supplementation in both groups (p values < 0.001), whereas the increase in the KOOS and Lysholm scores did not differ between groups (p = 0.28 and p = 0.76, respectively). Furthermore, CP did not impact inflammatory, cartilage, and bone (bio)markers (p values > 0.05). A reduced knee pain and improved knee function were observed following supplementation, but changes were similar between groups. This suggests that CP supplementation over a 12-week period does not reduce knee pain in healthy, active, middle-aged to elderly individuals. Novelty CP supplementation over a 12-week period does not reduce knee pain in healthy, active, middle-aged to elderly individuals. CP supplementation over a 12-week period does not impact on inflammatory, cartilage, and bone (bio)markers in healthy, active, middle-aged to elderly individuals.
... As functional foods, collagen peptides have been shown to exhibit important physiological functions with a positive impact on health. Numerous studies have shown an improvement in skin elasticity [6], the recovery of lost cartilage tissue [7], reduced activity-related joint pain [8,9], strengthened tendons and ligaments [10][11][12][13], increased lean body mass in elderly men and premenopausal women [14,15], and increased bone mineral density in postmenopausal women [16]. These studies have investigated supplementation with doses of 2.5 to 15 g of bioactive collagen peptides over periods of three to 18 months. ...
... When compared to both the minimum RDAs [30] and the actual dietary protein intakes for both men and women in absolute values [33], the effective daily amounts of functional collagen peptides (2.5 to 15 g) observed in the literature [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] were found to be below the maximum level of collagen that may be incorporated in the standard American diet (Table 4). ...
... Relative to total daily protein intakes, the effective amounts of functional collagen peptides observed in the literature (2.5 g to 15 g) were found to be below the maximum level of collagen that may be incorporated as protein substitution in diets meeting the minimum RDAs for protein [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]. In practice, the daily protein consumption in the standard American diet is above the RDA, having increased slightly over the 10-year period from 1999-2008, from 15.6% to 15.9% (100 g) in men, and from 15.2% to 15.5% (67 g) in women, relative to the total energy intake [33]. ...
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The results of twenty years of research indicate that the inclusion of collagen peptides in the diet can lead to various improvements in health. According to the current protein quality evaluation method PDCAAS (Protein Digestibility-corrected Amino Acid Score), collagen protein lacks one indispensable amino acid (tryptophan) and is therefore categorized as an incomplete protein source. Collagen protein displays a low indispensable amino acid profile, yet as a functional food, collagen is a source of physiologically active peptides and conditionally indispensable amino acids that have the potential to optimize health and address physiological needs posed by aging and exercise. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum level of dietary collagen peptides that can be incorporated in the Western pattern diet while maintaining its indispensable amino acid balance. Iterative PDCAAS calculations showed that a level as high as 36% of collagen peptides can be used as protein substitution in the daily diet while ensuring indispensable amino acid requirements are met. This study suggests that the effective amounts of functional collagen peptides (2.5 to 15 g per day) observed in the literature are below the maximum level of collagen that may be incorporated in the standard American diet.
... Several studies have reported beneficial effects of collagen hydrolysates on joint pains, wound healing, and epidermal barrier function [17,18]. In addition, the functional peptide of proline-hydroxyproline derived from dietary collagens can be transferred to the skin [14]. ...
... Several studies have shown the positive effects of collagen hydrolysates on epidermal barrier function and dermal wound healing [17][18][19][20]. Supplementation of collagen tripeptides improved impairment of epidermal skin barrier in UV-B-exposed hairless mice [22]. ...
Article
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Collagen hydrolysates have been suggested as a favorable antiaging modality in skin photoaged by persistent exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV). The current study evaluated the beneficial effect of collagen hydrolysates (fsCH) extracted from Pangasius hypophthalmus fish skin on wrinkle formation and moisture preservation in dorsal skin of hairless mice challenged with UV-B. Inter-comparative experiments were conducted for anti-photoaging among fsCH, retinoic acid (RA), N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (NAG), and glycine-proline-hydroxyproline (GPH). Treating human HaCaT keratinocytes with 100−200 μg/mL fsCH reciprocally ameliorated the expression of aquaporin 3 (AQP3) and CD44 deranged by UV-B. The UV-B-induced deep furrows and skin thickening were improved in parched dorsal skin of mice supplemented with 206–412 mg/kg fsCH as well as RA and GPH. The UV-B irradiation enhanced collagen fiber loss in the dorsal dermis, which was attenuated by fsCH through enhancing procollagen conversion to collagen. The matrix metalloproteinase expression by UV-B in dorsal skin was diminished by fsCH, similar to RA and GPH, via blockade of collagen degradation. Supplementing fsCH to UV-B-irradiated mice decreased transepidermal water loss in dorsal skin with reduced AQP3 level and restored keratinocyte expression of filaggrin. The expression of hyaluronic acid synthase 2 and hyaluronidase 1 by UV-B was remarkably ameliorated with increased production of hyaluronic acid by treating fsCH to photoaged mice. Taken together, fsCH attenuated photoaging typical of deep wrinkles, epidermal thickening, and skin water loss, like NAG, RA, or GPH, through inhibiting collagen destruction and epidermal barrier impairment.
... A collective of people with activity-related joint discomfort (ArJD) but without any diagnosed knee joint diseases is a potential cohort for observation and evaluation of joint health. Some research groups already worked with people with ArJD and their research showed promising results [6,7]. However, in these cases, pain was only evaluated under daily life activity and regular sporting activity. ...
... Aim of the present study was to set up a stress test with focus on joint health to assess joint discomfort and joint function parameters. In literature, different approaches are described in healthy subjects with joint discomfort like pain during intensive soccer play, change of pain intensity during activity or an aerobic step test with consecutive training at alternating days but with focus to endpoints of cartilage turn over [7,6,24]. To our knowledge, for none of these approaches, the reliability of tests was evaluated for the target population of subjects with ArJD. ...
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Background The assessment of improvement or maintenance of joint health in healthy subjects is a great challenge. The aim of the study was the evaluation of a joint stress test to assess joint discomfort in subjects with activity-related knee joint discomfort (ArJD). Results Forty-five subjects were recruited to perform the single-leg-step-down (SLSD) test (15 subjects per group). Subjects with ArJD of the knee (age 22–62 years) were compared to healthy subjects (age 24–59 years) with no knee joint discomfort during daily life sporting activity and to subjects with mild-to-moderate osteoarthritis of the knee joint (OA, Kellgren score 2–3, age 42–64 years). The subjects performed the SLSD test with two different protocols: (I) standardization for knee joint discomfort; (II) standardization for load on the knee joint. In addition, range of motion (ROM), reach test, acute pain at rest and after a single-leg squat and knee injury, and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) were assessed. In OA and ArJD subjects, knee joint discomfort could be reproducibly induced in a short time interval of less than 10 min (200 steps). In healthy subjects, no pain was recorded. A clear differentiation between study groups was observed with the SLSD test (maximal step number) as well as KOOS questionnaire, ROM, and reach test. In addition, a moderate to good intra-class correlation was shown for the investigated outcomes. Conclusions These results suggest the SLSD test is a reliable tool for the assessment of knee joint health function in ArJD and OA subjects to study the improvements in their activities. Further, this model can be used as a stress model in intervention studies to study the impact of stress on knee joint health function.
... Clark and colleagues performed a 24-week clinical study on the use of collagen hydrolyzates as a dietary supplement in 147 healthy athletes with activity-related joint pain who were physically fit, active, and had no evidence of joint disease [52]. The study design involved 72 males and 75 females randomly assigned to two groups. ...
... This was the first clinical trial that used a healthy population as a study group and showed improvement in joint discomfort and pain in the group given an oral supplement containing collagen hydrolyzates. Despite the small sample size and limitations of the study, the results suggested that athletes perceived a benefit from consuming collagen hydrolyzates [52]. ...
Article
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Purpose of Review Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common forms of arthritis in the general population, accounting for more pain and functional disability than any other musculoskeletal disease. There are currently no approved disease modifying drugs for OA. In the absence of effective pharmacotherapy, many patients with OA turn to nutritional supplements and nutraceuticals, including collagen derivatives. Collagen hydrolyzates and ultrahydrolyzates are terms used to describe collagens that have been broken down into small peptides and amino acids in the presence of collagenases and high pressure. Recent Findings This article reviews the relevant literature and serves as a White Paper on collagen hydrolyzates and ultrahydrolyzates as emerging supplements often advertised to support joint health in OA. Collagen hydrolyzates have demonstrated some evidence of efficacy in a handful of small scale clinical trials, but their ability to treat and reverse advanced joint disease remains highly speculative, as is the case for other nutritional supplements. Summary The aim of this White Paper is to stimulate research and development of collagen-based supplements for patients with OA and other musculoskeletal diseases at academic and industrial levels. This White Paper does not make any treatment recommendations for OA patients in the clinical context, but simply aims to highlight opportunities for scientific innovation and interdisciplinary collaboration, which are crucial for the development of novel products and nutritional interventions based on the best available and published evidence.
... Collagen hydrolysate (also referred to as gelatin hydrolysate or collagen peptide) is prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of gelatin and is widely used as a food supplement for its effects on health and beauty. Oral ingestion of collagen hydrolysate is reported to have various beneficial effects, such as enhancement of bone strength (Konig et al., 2018;Wu et al., 2004), attenuation of joint pain (Benito-Ruiz et al., 2009;Clark et al., 2008), improvement of skin conditions (Oba et al., 2013;Proksch et al., 2014) and reduction of blood lipids (Lin et al., 2012;Saito et al., 2009;Tak et al., 2019;Woo et al., 2018). The above reports include clinical studies evaluating bone (Konig et al., 2018), joint (Benito-Ruiz et al., 2009;Clark et al., 2008), skin (Proksch et al., 2014) and lipid metabolism (Tak et al., 2019). ...
... Oral ingestion of collagen hydrolysate is reported to have various beneficial effects, such as enhancement of bone strength (Konig et al., 2018;Wu et al., 2004), attenuation of joint pain (Benito-Ruiz et al., 2009;Clark et al., 2008), improvement of skin conditions (Oba et al., 2013;Proksch et al., 2014) and reduction of blood lipids (Lin et al., 2012;Saito et al., 2009;Tak et al., 2019;Woo et al., 2018). The above reports include clinical studies evaluating bone (Konig et al., 2018), joint (Benito-Ruiz et al., 2009;Clark et al., 2008), skin (Proksch et al., 2014) and lipid metabolism (Tak et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Collagen hydrolysate has various beneficial effects, such as bone strengthening, joint/skin protection and lipid metabolism regulation. In this study, the anti-obesity activity of ginger protease-degraded collagen hydrolysate (GDCH) was evaluated in BALB/c mice fed diets containing 14% casein (control group) or 10% casein + 4% GDCH (GDCH group) for 10 weeks. In the GDCH group, triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CHO) levels in blood and adipocyte size in white adipose tissue were significantly decreased compared with those of the control group. Further, gene expression related to fatty acid synthesis, such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase, was decreased in the liver and white adipose tissue of GDCH-fed mice. On the other hand, single oral administration of GDCH did not result in decrease in blood TG and CHO compared with vehicle and casein in ICR mice pre-administered soybean oil. These results suggest that the GDCH-induced decreases in tissue and blood lipids occur through long-term alterations in lipid metabolism, not transient inhibition of lipid absorption. The lipid-lowering effects exhibited by partial substitution of casein with GDCH imply the possibility that daily supplementation of GDCH contributes to prevention/attenuation of obesity and hyperlipidemia.
... A significant body of scientific knowledge has been published on nutritional strategies and ergogenic aids to improve sports performance [3][4][5][6]. However, limited research is available about the role of nutrition in reducing the risk of injury and improving the recovery process following injuries in athletes [7][8][9][10][11]. This is because, for athletes who are intent on returning to their sport as quickly as possible, the uncertainties about injury diagnosis and doubts regarding the efficacy of the treatment received are the main concerns of such players. ...
... Collagen also plays a protective role in joint and connective tissue health, as well as reducing joint pain. For example, consuming 25 mL of liquid collagen containing 10 g of hydrolyzed collagen per day for 24 weeks improved joint health and reduced the risk of joint degeneration and joint pain compared with a placebo [8]. In athletes with chronic ankle injuries, significant reductions in the number of ankle injuries were observed following ingestion of 5 g of collagen peptide for 6 months [11]. ...
Article
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Sports participation is not without risk, and most athletes incur at least one injury throughout their careers. Combat sports are popular all around the world, and about one-third of their injuries result in more than 7 days of absence from competition or training. The most frequently injured body regions are the head and neck, followed by the upper and lower limbs, while the most common tissue types injured are superficial tissues and skin, followed by ligaments and joint capsules. Nutrition has significant implications for injury prevention and enhancement of the recovery process due to its effect on the overall physical and psychological well-being of the athlete and improving tissue healing. In particular, amino acid and protein intake, antioxidants, creatine, and omega-3 are given special attention due to their therapeutic roles in preventing muscle loss and anabolic resistance as well as promoting injury healing. The purpose of this review is to present the roles of various nutritional strategies in reducing the risk of injury and improving the treatment and rehabilitation process in combat sports. In this respect, nutritional considerations for muscle, joint, and bone injuries as well as sports-related concussions are presented. The injury risk associated with rapid weight loss is also discussed. Finally, preoperative nutrition and nutritional considerations for returning to a sport after rehabilitation are addressed.
... In this sense, researchers have investigated the effect of specific collagen peptides (SCP) by their biological properties (98,99), some of them related to joint soreness. Clark et al. (100), pioneered the analysis of the effect of SCP supplementation in sportsmen's joint soreness. A 24-week prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind study was conducted with 147 athletes. ...
... They consumed 10 g of a collagen hydrolysate or placebo. The results showed that a daily treatment of 10 g of a collagen hydrolysate was able to reduce joint discomfort, both at rest and during movement (100). ...
Article
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Nutrition and sport play an important role in achieving a healthy lifestyle. In addition to the intake of nutrients derived from the normal diet, some sport disciplines require the consumption of supplements that contribute positively to improved athletic performance. Protein intake is important for many aspects related to health, and current evidence suggests that some athletes require increased amounts of this nutrient. On the other hand, society's demand for more environmentally friendly products, focus on the search for alternative food sources more sustainable. This review aims to summarize the latest research on novel strategies and sources for greener and functional supplementation in sport nutrition. Alternative protein sources such as insects, plants or mycoproteins have proven to be an interesting substrate due to their high added value in terms of bioactivity and sustainability. Protein hydrolysis has proven to be a very useful technology to revalue by-products, such as collagen, by producing bioactive peptides beneficial on athletes performance and sport-related complications. In addition, it has been observed that certain amino acids from plant sources, as citrulline or theanine, can have an ergogenic effect for this target population. Finally, the future perspectives of protein supplementation in sports nutrition are discussed. In summary, protein supplementation in sports nutrition is a very promising field of research, whose future perspective lies with the search for alternatives with greater bioactive potential and more sustainable than conventional sources.
... Collagen is an abundant structural protein present in connective tissue. Besides its nutritional value as a protein source, dietary supplementation with collagen-derived peptide sources has been suggested to provide beneficial effects in patients with tendinopathy [5][6][7], chronic joint instability [8], osteoarthritis (OA) [3,[9][10][11][12], and activity-related joint pain [13,14]. Thus, nutritional interventions focusing on increasing the amino acid (AA) components of collagen have been suggested to improve collagen synthesis of collagen-rich tissues such as ligaments and bones [5] and potentially slow the degenerative process in OA affected joints [11]. ...
... In addition, ingestion of EHC led to significantly higher plasma concentrations of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline compared to non-hydrolyzed collagen. Notably, these AAs have been connected with the potential beneficial effects of collagen supplementation on tendinopathy and articular joint pain experienced in both OA patients and athletes [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]21,22]. As net collagen synthesis is negative in OA patients, enhancing collagen synthesis has been proposed to help regeneration of cartilage [11,22]. ...
Article
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Collagen is characterized by its high content of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline, and is found to exert beneficial effects on joint pain related to activity and osteoarthritis. However, to exert any beneficial effects it is essential that collagen is optimally absorbed. This study aimed to investigate the postprandial absorption of collagen and elucidate the impact of an exogenous enzymatic hydrolysis on absorption rate and bioavailability. A randomized, blinded, cross-over study was conducted where ten healthy male subjects received either 35 g enzymatically hydrolyzed collagen protein (EHC), 35 g non-enzymatically hydrolyzed collagen protein (NC) or placebo (250 mL water) on three nonconsecutive days. Blood samples were drawn before, and up to 240 min following, ingestion and the blood metabolome was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics. A significant increase in the plasma concentration of nearly all amino acids (AAs) was observed over a 240 min period for both EHC and NC. In addition, the absorption rate and bioavailability of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline were significantly higher for EHC (p < 0.05). In conclusion, ingestion of collagen hydrolysates increases postprandial plasma concentrations of AAs over a period of 240 min, and an enzymatic hydrolysis increases the absorption rate and bioavailability of the collagen-rich AAs glycine, proline and hydroxyproline.
... Indeed, several studies have indicated that collagen peptide (CP) ingestion relieves muscle and joint pain in diseases such as osteoarthritis (Kumar et al. 2015;Flechsenhar and McAlindon 2016;Woo et al. 2017). Some recent studies also indicated reductions in self-reported joint pain in physically active but otherwise healthy individuals (Clark et al. 2008;Zdzieblik et al. 2017). One study has also reported that CP attenuated creatine kinase (CK) activity following muscle-damaging exercise, indicative of enhanced muscle recovery (Lopez et al. 2015). ...
... Irrespective of the precise reason, these findings are consistent with several other studies measuring the effects of CP on subjective muscle soreness. Indeed, CP has consistently been shown to reduce muscle and joint pain in osteoarthritic patients and those with actively related joint pain (Kumar et al. 2015;Woo et al. 2017;Clark et al. 2008;Zdzieblik et al. 2017). Nonetheless, a similarly designed study did not report a pain reduction with CP after EIMD, but perhaps this was due to the small dose (3 g) provided in that study (Lopez et al. 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined whether consuming collagen peptides (CP) before and after strenuous exercise alters markers of muscle damage, inflammation and bone turnover. Using a double-blind, independent group's design, 24 recreationally active males consumed either 20 g day −1 of CP or a placebo control (CON) for 7 days before and 2 days after performing 150 drop jumps. Maximal isometric voluntary contractions, countermovement jumps (CMJ), muscle soreness (200 mm visual analogue scale), pressure pain threshold, Brief Assessment of Mood Adapted (BAM +) and a range of blood markers associated with muscle damage, inflammation and bone turnover C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (β-CTX) and N-terminal propeptides of type 1 pro-collagen (P1NP) were measured before supplementation (baseline; BL), pre, post, 1.5, 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Muscle soreness was not significantly different in CP and CON (P = 0.071) but a large effect size was evident at 48 h post-exercise, indicative of lower soreness in the CP group (90.42 ± 45.33 mm vs. CON 125.67 ± 36.50 mm; ES = 2.64). CMJ height recovered quicker with CP than CON at 48 h (P = 0.050; CP 89.96 ± 12.85 vs. CON 78.67 ± 14.41% of baseline values; ES = 0.55). There were no statistically significant effects for the other dependent variables (P > 0.05). β-CTX and P1NP were unaffected by CP supplementation (P > 0.05). In conclusion, CP had moderate benefits for the recovery of CMJ and muscle soreness but had no influence on inflammation and bone collagen synthesis.
... Indeed, several studies have indicated that collagen peptide (CP) ingestion relieves muscle and joint pain in diseases such as osteoarthritis (Kumar et al. 2015;Flechsenhar and McAlindon 2016;Woo et al. 2017). Some recent studies also indicated reductions in self-reported joint pain in physically active but otherwise healthy individuals (Clark et al. 2008;Zdzieblik et al. 2017). One study has also reported that CP attenuated creatine kinase (CK) activity following muscle-damaging exercise, indicative of enhanced muscle recovery (Lopez et al. 2015). ...
... Irrespective of the precise reason, these findings are consistent with several other studies measuring the effects of CP on subjective muscle soreness. Indeed, CP has consistently been shown to reduce muscle and joint pain in osteoarthritic patients and those with actively related joint pain (Kumar et al. 2015;Woo et al. 2017;Clark et al. 2008;Zdzieblik et al. 2017). Nonetheless, a similarly designed study did not report a pain reduction with CP after EIMD, but perhaps this was due to the small dose (3 g) provided in that study (Lopez et al. 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined whether consuming collagen peptides (CP) before and after strenuous exercise alters markers of muscle damage, inflammation and bone turnover. Using a double-blind, independent group’s design, 24 recreationally active males consumed either 20 g day⁻¹ of CP or a placebo control (CON) for 7 days before and 2 days after performing 150 drop jumps. Maximal isometric voluntary contractions, countermovement jumps (CMJ), muscle soreness (200 mm visual analogue scale), pressure pain threshold, Brief Assessment of Mood Adapted (BAM +) and a range of blood markers associated with muscle damage, inflammation and bone turnover C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (β-CTX) and N-terminal propeptides of type 1 pro-collagen (P1NP) were measured before supplementation (baseline; BL), pre, post, 1.5, 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Muscle soreness was not significantly different in CP and CON (P = 0.071) but a large effect size was evident at 48 h post-exercise, indicative of lower soreness in the CP group (90.42 ± 45.33 mm vs. CON 125.67 ± 36.50 mm; ES = 2.64). CMJ height recovered quicker with CP than CON at 48 h (P = 0.050; CP 89.96 ± 12.85 vs. CON 78.67 ± 14.41% of baseline values; ES = 0.55). There were no statistically significant effects for the other dependent variables (P > 0.05). β-CTX and P1NP were unaffected by CP supplementation (P > 0.05). In conclusion, CP had moderate benefits for the recovery of CMJ and muscle soreness but had no influence on inflammation and bone collagen synthesis.
... For example, Matsuda et al. [9] reported that in pigs a 9-week oral ingestion of collagen hydrolysates (CH) induced increased fibroblast density and enhanced formation of collagen fibrils in the dermis in a proteinspecific manner. Literature also indicates benefits of collagen hydrolysates in joints as they are absorbed, distributed to joint tissues and have analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties [10][11][12][13][14]. ...
Article
Background Potential effects of different doses of specific fish collagen peptides (Naticol®) on the signs of skin ageing were firstly assessed in double-blind, randomised and placebo controlled clinical studies. The studies showed benefits of fish collagen peptides (Naticol®) on skin firmness, skin hydration and wrinkle appearance. In addition to these benefits, some animal experiments have suggested that ingestion of specific fish collagen peptides (Naticol®) might also have beneficial effects on joint health such as osteoarthritis. Aim This pilot clinical trial study was designed to assess the safety and tolerability of daily oral doses of specific fish collagen peptides (Naticol®) in healthy subjects with knee osteoarthritis. Methods In a double-blinded, placebo controlled pilot clinical study, 30 adults (20 active; 10 placebo) consumed a 10g sachet of the investigational product (Naticol®; specific fish collagen peptides) and a comparator product (maltodextrin) daily in 20cl of cold liquid (fruit juice, milk or cold tea) 15 minutes before breakfast, for 8 weeks. Potential pain reduction was tested using the Western Ontario McMaster Universities (WOMAC) scores; Quality of Life (QOL) using the Participant Global Assessment (SF-36v2 questionnaire) and Physical performance using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) at both baseline and after 8 weeks. Results From effect size statistics (Cohen’s d), subjects in the active group experienced more of an improvement across the majority of measurements than subjects in the placebo group over the 8 weeks of the study. From the WOMAC Physical Function sub-score the placebo group experienced a small improvement (d = 0.68) against the active group’s large improvement (d = 1.08). While for the WOMAC Composite score the active group experienced a large improvement (d = 1.07). In terms of the SF-36v2 Social Functioning and Pain sub scores, there was no change in score for the placebo group (d = 0.00), while the active group noticed an improvement by small (d = -0.34) and medium (d = -0.50) amounts, respectively. While for the SF-36v2 Emotional Well-Being and General Healthy Issues sub-scores, the placebo based subjects dis-improved over the 8 weeks (d = 0.07 and 0.15, respectively), while the subjects in the active group improved in both cases (d = -0.18) and -0.09, respectively). In terms of the SPPB, active group experienced an improvement in the Chair test and Total score. (d = -0.47 and d = -0.33, respectively). There was no difference in adverse events between groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion The results demonstrated that daily oral doses of specific fish collagen peptides (Naticol®) in healthy subjects with knee osteoarthritis has the potential to reduce pain, improve quality of life and lower body function. Further studies with a higher dosage of product for subjects with a body weight greater than 70 kg should be performed. Keywords Clinical study; Effect size; Fish collagen peptides; Naticol®; Osteoarthritis.
... MC peptides can also help the absorption of calcium and other minerals essential for bone strength, nails and hair [168][169][170][171], and can stimulate collagen synthesis in bones, joints and skin. When present in injectable gel formulations and/or in dietary supplements, MC contributes to reduce the risk of joint deterioration and inflammation [172,173]. Interestingly, recent studies also suggest the potential of ingested MC or MC fragments for weight management [174,175] and glycemic control [176][177][178]. Finally, MC represents a useful source of various antimicrobial peptides [179]. ...
Article
In the last two decades, marine collagen has attracted great scientific and industrial interest as a ‘blue resource’, with potential for use in various health-related sectors, such as food, medicine, pharmaceutics and cosmetics. In particular, the large availability of polluting by-products from the fish processing industry has been the key factor driving the research towards the conversion of these low cost by-products (e.g. fish skin and scales) into collagen-based products with high added value and low environmental impact. After addressing the extraction of collagen from aquatic sources and its physicochemical properties, this review focuses on the use of marine collagen and its derivatives (e.g. gelatin and peptides) in different healthcare sectors. Particular attention is given to the bioactive properties of marine collagen that are being explored in preclinical and clinical studies, and pave the way to an increased demand for this biomaterial in the next future. In this context, in addition to the use of native collagen for the development of tissue engineering or wound healing devices, particularly relevant is the use of gelatin and peptides for the development of dietary supplements and nutraceuticals, specifically directed to weight management and glycemic control. The marine collagen market is also briefly discussed to highlight the opportunities and the most profitable areas of interest.
... Hydroxyproline and proline play key roles in maintenance of collagen stability (27), and we found that both the host (human and macaque) and gut microbiota participate in their synthesis (Fig. 7B). As collagen plays important roles, for example, in encasing and protecting organs, provision of supplemental collagen is generally considered to be an effective approach for ameliorating skin aging (53) and improving joint health (54). Such healthy effects might be associated with the interplay between specific gut functional bacteria and their hosts. ...
Article
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This study provides the first comprehensive investigation of age patterning of gut microbiota of four human populations and three nonhuman primates and found that Prevotellamassilia , Prevotella , Gemmiger , Coprococcus , Faecalibacterium , and Roseburia may be common antiaging microbial markers in both humans and nonhuman primates due to their potential metabolic capabilities for host health benefits. Our results also provide key support for using macaques as animal models in studies of the gut microbiome’s role during human aging.
... The positive effect was also confirmed in a clinical trial using MRI mapping of the knee articular cartilage (DGEMRIC score) after 48 weeks of treatment with 10 grams daily of collagen hydrolysate (Fortigel V R ) (McAlindon et al. 2011). A study performed on athletes with joint pain showed an improvement of joint pain after 24 weeks of collagen hydrolysate (Clark et al. 2008). The adverse effects are very limited, consisting of gastrointestinal symptoms like fullness and unpleasant taste (Moskowitz 2000). ...
Article
Articular cartilage has a complex structure and metabolism which allow for a proper movement within joints. Nevertheless, several systemically administered pharmacological agents have been proved to improve the anabolic response in the case of cartilage lesions. Alendronate, glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, collagen hydrolysate, vitamin C, vitamin D, aspirin and strontium ranelate have shown positive results in clinical trials. On the other hand, calcitonin, risedronate, doxycycline, and celecoxib did not slow the progression of cartilage lesions in clinical trials. Other systemic drugs or supplements such as teriparatide, leptin, zoledronic acid, bevacizumab, atorvastatin, omega-3 fatty acid, naringin, MSM, selenium, zinc, magnesium, resveratrol, donepezil, naproxen, etodolac, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), lithium chloride, and rebamipide showed positive results in in vitro and animal studies but clinical trials are needed to confirm the positive impact on cartilage repair. A number of molecules, not currently available on the market, have also shown promising results in cartilage healing, such as licofelone, sclerostin, cyclopamine, cyclodextrin polysulfate, AG-041R, osteoprotegerin, rhMK, β-cryptoxanthine, NF-κb essential modulator binding domain (NBD), TGF-β-neutralizing antibody, osteogenic protein-1 (BMP-7), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and RhBMP-2. Currently available systemic drugs that impair cartilage healing are represented by corticosteroids, vitamin A, and fluoroquinolones.
... Wu, Fujioka, Sugimoto, Mu, and Ishimi (2004) and Noma et al. (2017) studied the bone metabolism of collagen peptides in rats by calcium-deficient rat and magnesiumdeficient rat models respectively, and obtained similar results. These results indicated that the collagen peptides had beneficial effects on bone metabolism and might be used as a potential oral supplement for bone and joint tissues (Clark et al., 2008). ...
Article
In this study, porcine bone collagen peptide (CP) was phosphorylated with sodium tripoly phosphate (STP) in order to improve its calcium binding capacity and osteogenic activity. Firstly, the phosphorylation process were optimized by an orthogonal experiment. Then, the effects of CP, phosphorylated CP (PCP), CP-calcium chelate (CP-Ca) and PCP-Ca on proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells were investigated. The results showed that all of the CP, PCP, CP-Ca and PCP-Ca could enhance the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells by increasing the mRNA expression levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2), osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN) and collagen type I (Col I), as well as the protein expression levels of Runx2 and β-Catenin. Especially, PCP-Ca had the greatest and significant effect on mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells (P < 0.05). These results suggested that phosphorylation is a promising method to improve the calcium binding capacity and osteogenic activity of collagen peptides.
... Due to the decrease of collagen synthesis in the body, its demand for the skin, hair, and bone tissues increases with aging (Iwai et al. 2005). Over recent years, various beneficial effects have been reported on the consumption of hydrolyzed collagen that includes improvements of joint pains (Clark et al. 2008), wound healing (Zhang et al. 2011), inhibition of intestinal glucose uptake (Iba et al. 2016), improvement of moisture and elasticity, and reduction of wrinkles of facial skin (Inoue et al. 2016) as well as suppression of UV-B-induced skin damage and photoaging (Tanaka et al. 2009). ...
Chapter
The current fish processing practically generates large amounts of byproducts, accounting for up to 75% of the total fish weight. Fish processing byproducts contain a wide range of nutritional components, especially lipid and protein fractions as well as functional compounds or nutraceuticals. Collagen, gelatin, as well as hydrolyzed collagen can be produced from collagenous materials such as bone, scale, or skin, etc. In addition to fish proteins and oil, other valuable components, including enzymes, nucleic acids, minerals, and other bioactive compounds such as chondroitin sulfate, etc. can be recovered from those leftovers. To ensure better utilization of fish processing byproducts for applications in food, nutraceutical, cosmetic, or medical products, it is necessary to use high quality byproducts; increase the yield of recovered products; develop the standardized and controlled processes accounting for variation in raw material, providing stable, healthy, and high‐quality products; and measure and enhance the selected properties, especially bioactivities.
... Several studies in the past few decades have reported that protein hydrolysates from various food sources, in addition to their nutritional properties, exhibited various biological functions including hypotensive activity, anticoagulant, cholesterol-lowering ability and hypoglycemic effect [125]. Consumption of hydrolyzed collagen increases collagen synthesis and decreases knee pain while standing and walking [126]. Shaw et al. [127] tested the role of gelatin consumption in collagen synthesis. ...
... To assess whether other musculoskeletal tissues are capable of displaying some degree of plasticity, more work is required to address the impact of various factors on tissue protein synthesis rates. It has previously been observed that gelatin supplementation can stimulate collagen synthesis following exercise [55], and collagen hydrolysate supplementation has been reported to increase collagen content in the knee of osteoarthritis patients [61], and may decrease knee pain in athletes with activity-related joint pain [62]. From a clinical perspective this is more than interesting, because identifying which specific proteins or protein fractions are responsive to external stimuli may enable us to develop more effective therapies in treating and/or preventing injuries. ...
Article
Full-text available
Skeletal muscle plasticity is reflected by a dynamic balance between protein synthesis and breakdown, with basal muscle tissue protein synthesis rates ranging between 0.02 and 0.09%/h. Though it is evident that other musculoskeletal tissues should also express some level of plasticity, data on protein synthesis rates of most of these tissues in vivo in humans is limited. Six otherwise healthy patients (62±3 y), scheduled to undergo unilateral total knee arthroplasty, were subjected to primed continuous intravenous infusions with L-[ring-¹³C6]-Phenylalanine throughout the surgical procedure. Tissue samples obtained during surgery included muscle, tendon, cruciate ligaments, cartilage, bone, menisci, fat, and synovium. Tissue-specific fractional protein synthesis rates (%/h) were assessed by measuring the incorporation of L-[ring-¹³C6]-Phenylalanine in tissue protein and were compared with muscle tissue protein synthesis rates using a paired t test. Tendon, bone, cartilage, Hoffa’s fat pad, anterior and posterior cruciate ligament, and menisci tissue protein synthesis rates averaged 0.06±0.01, 0.03±0.01, 0.04±0.01, 0.11±0.03, 0.07±0.02, 0.04±0.01, and 0.04±0.01%/h, respectively, and did not significantly differ from skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates (0.04±0.01%/h; P>0.05). Synovium derived protein (0.13±0.03%/h) and intercondylar notch bone tissue protein synthesis rates (0.03±0.01%/h) were respectively higher and lower compared to skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Basal protein synthesis rates in various musculoskeletal tissues are within the same range of skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates, with fractional muscle, tendon, bone, cartilage, ligament, menisci, fat, and synovium protein synthesis rates ranging between 0.02 and 0.13% per hour in vivo in humans. Clinical trial registration: NTR5147
... In line with this, there is emerging evidence of benefits associated with the ingestion of collagen peptides in a range of collagen containing tissues, including increased collagen synthesis (22,23), improved body composition (24,25), reduced pain (26)(27)(28) and the slowing of degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis (29,30). It has been suggested that hydrolysis of collagen protein prior to ingestion allows two and three amino acid peptides to pass across the mucosal barrier equating to a higher expression and therefore biosynthesis within the tissue matrix (31). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Recent evidence suggests that the consumption of essential amino acids (AA) and/or those abundantly present in collagen may have the capacity to influence the synthesis of new collagen in ligaments and tendons, when tissue perfusion is optimized (e.g., during exercise). However, little is currently known about the bioavailability of these AAs in blood after the consumption of various collagen and diary protein sources: such information is needed to develop potentially useful dietary and supplement intake strategies. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to characterize blood AA concentrations in response to consumption of collagen and dairy protein sources; specifically, maximum concentrations, the timing of maximum concentration, and total (area under the curve) exposure above baseline. Methods: A 20 g serve of various dairy and collagen proteins, and a 300 mL serve of bone broth were consumed by healthy, recreationally active males after an overnight fast. Blood samples were drawn every 20 min for a total of 180 min, for analysis of plasma AA concentrations. Total AA, essential AA and collagen specific AAs were analyzed for maximum concentration, timing of peak, and area under the curve. Results: In general, protein intake was associated with a similar increase in total and collagen specific AAs, except for collagen proteins being a superior source of glycine (683 ± 166 μmol/L) compared to 260 ± 65 μmol/L for dairy proteins (P < 0.0001), whilst dairy proteins were a superior source of leucine (267 ± 77 μmol/L) compared to 189 ± μmol/L for collagen proteins (P < 0.04). Although there were several differences in the bioavailability of hydrolysed compared to non-hydrolysed proteins, this only reached statistical significance within the dairy proteins, but not for collagen proteins. Conclusions: The intake of collagen proteins result in higher plasma peaks of glycine, whilst the intake of dairy proteins result in higher plasma peaks of leucine. This information may support further investigations, and identification of key AAs that may support exercise in the synthesis of collagen.
... 5) Moreover, McAlindon, et al. reported that proteoglycan concentrations in hyaline cartilage of patients with mild OA increased within 13 weeks after the ingestion of 5 g of CP. 6) Several studies have examined the effect of CP in preventing the occurrence of injuries or knee pain in healthy individuals and university athletes. [7][8][9] It is particularly important for athletes to avoid injuries as well as to improve their competitive skills. Endurance athletes are at particular risk for overuse injuries or exercise-related joint pain. ...
... For example, Matsuda et al. [9] reported that in pigs a 9-week oral ingestion of collagen hydrolysates (CH) induced increased fibroblast density and enhanced formation of collagen fibrils in the dermis in a proteinspecific manner. Literature also indicates benefits of collagen hydrolysates in joints as they are absorbed, distributed to joint tissues and have analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties [10][11][12][13][14]. ...
Article
Background: Potential effects of different doses of specific fish collagen peptides (Naticol®) on the signs of skin ageing were firstly assessed in double-blind, randomised and placebo controlled clinical studies. The studies showed benefits of fish collagen peptides (Naticol®) on skin firmness, skin hydration and wrinkle appearance. In addition to these benefits, some animal experiments have suggested that ingestion of specific fish collagen peptides (Naticol®) might also have beneficial effects on joint health such as osteoarthritis. Aim: This pilot clinical trial study was designed to assess the safety and tolerability of daily oral doses of specific fish collagen peptides (Naticol®) in healthy subjects with knee osteoarthritis.
... Approximately 25-30% of total protein mass in human bodies is collagen [11], and it is ubiquitous within the ECM tissue [12]. The positive effects of collagen peptide (CP) supplementation in wound healing, diverse reduced joint and tendon pains, and increased subjective ankle stability in injured athletes and patients have been previously described [13][14][15][16][17][18]. CP supplementation in combination with specific exercise-based rehabilitation is very likely to support recovery [19]. ...
Article
Full-text available
We aimed to determine the effects of long-term collagen peptide (CP) supplementation and resistance exercise training (RET) on body composition, strength, and muscle fiber cross-sectional area (fCSA) in recreationally active men. Fifty-seven young men were randomly and double-blinded divided into a group receiving either collagen peptides (COL, 15 g/day) or a placebo (PLA). Strength testing, bioimpedance analysis, and muscle biopsies were used prior to and after an RET intervention. Food record protocols were performed during the RET intervention. The groups trained three times a week for 12 weeks. Baseline parameters showed no differences between groups, and the external training load and dietary food intake were also similar. COL showed a significant increase in fat-free mass (FFM) compared with the placebo group (p < 0.05). Body fat mass (BFM) was unchanged in COL, whereas a significant increase in BFM was observed in PLA. Both groups showed significant increases in all strength tests, with a trend for a slightly more pronounced effect in COL. The fCSA of type II muscle fibers increased significantly in both groups without differences between the two groups. We firstly demonstrated improved body composition in healthy, recreationally active men subsequent to prolonged CP supplementation in combination with RET. As the observed increase in FFM was not reflected in differences in fCSA hypertrophy between groups, we assume enhanced passive connective tissue adaptations in COL due to CP intake.
... The benefit of collagen supplementation on collagen synthesis regarding tendon architecture has been demonstrated by various studies through the analysis of injured participants [10,11]. Studies have reported less joint pain perception after collagen peptide supplementation in healthy active participants and in patients with osteoarthritis [12][13][14][15][16][17], which could be of interest for those involved in elite sport. Clifford et al. [18] reported a faster recovery from jumping exercise and a tendency to reduce muscle soreness after collagen supplementation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence has shown that protein supplementation following resistance exercise training (RET) helps to further enhance muscle mass and strength. Studies have demonstrated that collagen peptides containing mostly non-essential amino acids increase fat-free mass (FFM) and strength in sarcopenic men. The aim of this study was to investigate whether collagen peptide supplementation in combination with RET influences the protein composition of skeletal muscle. Twenty-five young men (age: 24.2 ± 2.6 years, body mass (BM): 79.6 ± 5.6 kg, height: 185.0 ± 5.0 cm, fat mass (FM): 11.5% ± 3.4%) completed body composition and strength measurements and vastus lateralis biopsies were taken before and after a 12-week training intervention. In a double-blind, randomized design, subjects consumed either 15 g of specific collagen peptides (COL) or a non-caloric placebo (PLA) every day within 60 min after their training session. A full-body hypertrophy workout was completed three times per week and included four exercises using barbells. Muscle proteome analysis was performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). BM and FFM increased significantly in COL compared with PLA, whereas no differences in FM were detected between the two groups. Both groups improved in strength levels, with a slightly higher increase in COL compared with PLA. In COL, 221 higher abundant proteins were identified. In contrast, only 44 proteins were of higher abundance in PLA. In contrast to PLA, the upregulated proteins in COL were mostly associated with the protein metabolism of the contractile fibers. In conclusion, the use of RET in combination with collagen peptide supplementation results in a more pronounced increase in BM, FFM, and muscle strength than RET alone. More proteins were upregulated in the COL intervention most of which were associated with contractile fibers.
... [32] Zague et al., [33] state that there is a consensus that the effects promoted by collagen peptides intake are related to their hydrolyzed form. For the authors, [33] Clark et al. [34] monitored 147 athletes for 24 weeks. Although there was no evidence of joint disease, this was considered to be a high risk group. ...
Article
Full-text available
Collagen hydrolysate is recognized as a safe nutraceutical, whose combination of amino acids stimulates the synthesis of collagen in the extracellular matrix of cartilage and other tissues. Objective: to conduct a systematic review of literature on the action of collagen hydrolysate in bone and cartilaginous tissue and its therapeutic use against osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. Method: a study of the PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS, and SciELO databases was performed. Articles published in English and Portuguese in the period of 1994 to 2014 were considered. Results: the sample comprised nine experimental articles with in vivo (animals and humans) and in vitro (human cells) models, which found that the use of different doses of collagen hydrolysate was associated with the maintenance of bone composition and strength, and the proliferation and cell growth of cartilage. Conclusion: hydrolyzed collagen has a positive therapeutic effect on osteoporosis and osteoarthritis with a potential increase in bone mineral density, a protective effect on articular cartilage, and especially in the symptomatic relief of pain.
... When gelatin is degraded, for example, by using specific enzymes, the resultant mixture of various small peptides is termed collagen hydrolysate. There is increasing scientific evidence that demonstrates the efficacy of collagen hydrolysate to benefit skin parameters related to cutaneous physiology and aging, such as transepidermal water loss (TEWL), elasticity, and wrinkles [9], as well as to improve glucose tolerance [10], wound healing [11,12], and joint pains [13]. It has been shown that collagen peptides exert stimulatory effects on type 1 collagen and other extracellular matrix molecules in human fibroblasts [14]. ...
Article
Collagen hydrolysate is a well-known nutritional supplement for the improvement of healthy skin. Here, collagen peptide NS (CPNS) from fish scale was prepared, and its physicochemical properties were investigated. Gly-Pro was revealed as a representative low molecular weight peptide of CPNS, by performing prep-HPLC and LC-MS/MS. CPNS treatment attenuated matrix metalloproteinase-1 production and increased the synthesis of type 1 procollagen in HDF cells. After orally administering CPNS to rats, the plasma concentrations of Gly-Pro and Pro-Hyp increased dramatically. To examine the protective effects of CPNS against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced photoaging in vivo, the dorsal skins of hairless mice were exposed to UVB and supplemented with CPNS for 12 weeks. The CPNS consumption significantly attenuated UVB-induced wrinkle formation, transepidermal water loss, and epidermis thickness, and increased skin hydration. Collectively, these results suggest that bioactive peptides of CPNS, Gly-Pro and Pro-Hyp, exert beneficial effects on skin health.
... 5) Moreover, McAlindon, et al. reported that proteoglycan concentrations in hyaline cartilage of patients with mild OA increased within 13 weeks after the ingestion of 5 g of CP. 6) Several studies have examined the effect of CP in preventing the occurrence of injuries or knee pain in healthy individuals and university athletes. [7][8][9] It is particularly important for athletes to avoid injuries as well as to improve their competitive skills. Endurance athletes are at particular risk for overuse injuries or exercise-related joint pain. ...
... The use of collagen became increasingly popular in dietary supplements, drinks, nutrition products for athletes or in snacking products. The use of collagen as functional food ingredient indicates that collagen peptides perform important physiological functions and have a positive effect on improving skin elasticity [5], recovering the lost cartilage [6], reducing joint pain associated with activity [7,8], strengthening tendons and ligaments [9][10][11][12] and increasing bone mineral density in postmenopausal women [13]. Fermented milk products are recognised in many regions of the world for its health properties. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using collagen protein hydrolysate in the production of milk fermented by Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillusrhamnosus. Physicochemical and organoleptic properties were studied and microbiological analysis of fermented milk was performed on days 1 and 21 of storage. Milk with the addition of 3% collagen protein hydrolysate was pasteurized (85 °C/30 min), divided into two groups, cooled to 37 °C and inoculated: the first group with Bifidobacteriumanimalis ssp. lactis Bb-12, second with Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Incubation was carried out at 37 °C/10 h. After 21 days of refrigerated storage, the pH value decreased in all analyzed milk samples. Collagen protein hydrolysate was a good milk additive to increase gel hardness and reduce syneresis. Moreover, its addition did not change the taste and odour of milk fermented with the use of Bifidobacterium Bb-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Collagen protein hydrolysate favourably stimulated the survival of Bifidobacterium Bb-12 during 21 days of storage. After 21 days of cold storage in milk with collagen, the number of Lactobacillus rhamnosus cells was reduced by 0.11 log cfu g−1.
... 1 Randomize çift kör placebo kontrollü bir çalışmada, günlük 10 g hidrolize kollajen tüketen sporcularda harekete bağlı diz ağrılarında azalma raporlanmıştır. 9 10 g hidrolize kollajen tüketimi sonrası manyetik rezonans ile görüntülemede diz kıkırdağının kalınlığının artması, kıkırdaktaki kollajenin sentezinde artıştan dolayı olabileceği belirtilmiştir. 10 Jelatin desteğinin kollajen sentezine etkisine bakılmış olan randomize çift kör kesitsel bir çalışmada, 5 gr ya da 15 gr C vitamininden zenginleştirilmiş jelatin ya da placebo verilmiş; 8 sağlıklı erkekte, 6 dakikalık ip atlama seansları sonrasındaki kan örneklerinde jelatin miktarı arttıkça dolaşımdaki glisin, prolin, hidroksiproin ve hidroksilizin miktarlarının arttığı gözlemlenmiştir. ...
Chapter
During the recovery process after tendon injuries having proper nutrition can positively in�fluence the healing period. Some of the nutrients regarding to tendon health are collagen, vitamin C, glycine, copper, gelatin, hydrolyzed collagen and some anti-inflammatory nutrients like curcumin. Even though there is some evidence about these nutrients, taking into consideration that most of the experi�ments were based on animal trials and the low number of sample sizes, it is still early to make a precise statement about these nutrients. The increasing market of nutritional supplements and the misleading advertisements may cause athletes to make imprudent choices. This section aims to enlighten whether of the aforementioned nutrients rely on solid evidence or is it too early to make precise recommendations to the athletes.
... In recent years, dietary supplements have been introduced as an additional therapeutic approach in the treatment of tendinopathies, and their positive curative effects have been reported for both the general population and athletes [17][18][19][20]. The applied dietary supplements contained a variety of micronutrients (e.g., bromelain and vitamin C) [21][22][23], which are suggested to reduce the level of inflammation [24][25][26] and to promote the healing of the tendon [21,22,[27][28][29][30]. ...
Article
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A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary supplements in addition to physiotherapeutic treatment on pain and functional outcomes. PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Embase were searched from inception to November 2021 (Prospero registration: CRD42021291951). Studies were eligible if the interventions consisted of physiotherapeutic approaches that were combined with dietary supplementation and if they reported measures of pain and/or function. Six studies were included in the meta-analysis. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and analysed using a Review Manager software. Subgroup analysis was performed to explore possible associations between the study characteristics and the effectiveness of the intervention. Additional dietary supplementation during physiotherapeutic treatment significantly improved the reduction in pain score (SMD = −0.74, 95% CI, −1.37 to −0.10; p < 0.05), while it had no effect on functional outcomes (SMD = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.58; p > 0.05). This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that additional nutritional interventions may improve physiotherapeutic treatment outcomes in the management of tendinopathies.
... in particular, a randomized double-blind study with placebo demonstrated a significant reduction in joint pain at 24 weeks in athletes with dietary supplement of collagen hydrolysate. 68,69 Other molecules that have shown beneficial effects such as MSM, vitamin c, boswellic acid could play an important role in modulation of the inflammatory response after traumatic cartilage lesions. 70,71 however, the use of oral chondroprotection requires further efficacy studies. ...
... It's evident that as we age the bone mass deteriorates because of decrease in collagen level in the bones and other body parts which leads to development of degenerative disorders like osteoarthritis which is characterized by low bone density and linked to higher risks of bone fractures [7][8][9][10]. In recent years various studies have been conducted to show effective results of taking collagen supplements because of its ability to inhibit the bone breakdown and prevent conditions like osteoporosis, ortho arthritis etc [11][12][13][14][15]. Collagen supplements have become popular in the recent times as it reduces inflammation and stimulates collagen synthesis in the body. ...
Article
This article is an examination of the therapeutic activity of collagen and rosehip extracts. The scientific development and subsequent activity of collagen continues to influence the researchers all over the globe today. This article examines the research done and published by researchers and scientists. Consideration of current trends and data in scientific queries demonstrates further therapeutic aspects of collagen and rosehip extracts. Collagen hydrolysate is known to alleviate pain in knee joints and provide other protective effects in osteoarthritis, research papers and review articles from the past were considered as the basis of this work. Researchers have carried out experiments and statistically proven the role of collagen hydrolysate in joint disorders and different ortho related disorders. Collagen hydrolysate can provide symptomatic relief to the patients with osteoarthritis and according to the in vitro studies it can also be considered as a potential Review Article Kwatra et al.; CJAST, 40(31): 36-66, 2021; Article no.CJAST.74137 37 candidate for its therapeutic properties. Clinical studies have indicated that collagen hydrolysate significantly reduces pain and disability. It also has various regenerating effects that can help restore the damaged cartilage. Component and chemo metric analysis of the rose hip was done and rosehip extracts were characterized to reveal their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation properties using enhanced cross-linking mechanism and High-performance liquid chromatography. Collagen and rosehip extracts are clinically proven beneficial for osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, back pain, joint disorders, knee pain and post-ortho surgery conditions like pain and inflammation. A compilation of data is done in this article and explores options for therapeutic activity of hydrolysate for the treatment of osteoarthritis and other joint disorders and as a dietary supplement in athletes with activity-related joint pain. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of rosehip powder, identification and characterization of the active component GOPO and the assessment of rosehips based on the content of their biologically active compounds and rosehip extracts in ortho and ortho post-surgery
... In mammals, collagen protein is highly abundant and mainly localized in the ECM of fibrous connective tissues, such as the tendon and skin [7][8][9][10]. It plays key structural roles by supporting the formation, tensile strength, and flexibility of joints [11][12][13][14][15]. Collagen types I, II, III, V, and XI are able to form fibrils that are necessary for structural support and resistance to mechanical stress in connective tissues [16,17]. ...
Article
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Marine organisms harbor numerous bioactive substances that can be utilized in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Scientific research on various applications of collagen extracted from these organisms has become increasingly prevalent. Marine collagen can be used as a biomaterial because it is water soluble, metabolically compatible, and highly accessible. Upon review of the literature, it is evident that marine collagen is a versatile compound capable of healing skin injuries of varying severity, as well as delaying the natural human aging process. From in vitro to in vivo experiments, collagen has demonstrated its ability to invoke keratinocyte and fibroblast migration as well as vascularization of the skin. Additionally, marine collagen and derivatives have proven beneficial and useful for both osteoporosis and osteoarthritis prevention and treatment. Other bone-related diseases may also be targeted by collagen, as it is capable of increasing bone mineral density, mineral deposition, and importantly, osteoblast maturation and proliferation. In this review, we demonstrate the advantages of marine collagen over land animal sources and the biomedical applications of marine collagen related to bone and skin damage. Finally, some limitations of marine collagen are briefly discussed.
... It has been suggested that supplementation with 4.5-10 g/day of collagen peptides, at least for 2 months, relieves knee and hip joint pain in people with OA [90]. In a RCT involving 147 athletes, 10 g collagen/day for 24 weeks reduced activity-related joint pain [91]. In another RCT including 30 subjects with knee OA, supplementation of 5 g/day of collagen for 13 weeks showed a significant improvement of all the score levels of WOMAC, VAS, and quality of life (p < 0.01 compared with placebo). ...
Article
Full-text available
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative inflammatory condition of the joint cartilage that currently affects approximately 58 million adults in the world. It is characterized by pain, stiffness, and a reduced range of motion with regard to the arthritic joints. These symptoms can cause in the long term a greater risk of overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, and falls and fractures. Although the current guidelines for the treatment of OA suggest, as the gold standard for this condition, pharmacological treatment characterized by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), opioids, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-specific drugs, a great interest has been applied to nutraceutical supplements, which include a heterogeneous class of molecules with great potential to reduce inflammation, oxidative stress, pain, and joint stiffness and improve cartilage formation. The purpose of this review is to describe the potential application of nutraceuticals in OA, highlighting its molecular mechanisms of actions and data of efficacy and safety (when available).
... The primary amino acids in dietary collagen supplements (HC, gelatin, and bone broth) may improve collagen synthesis in the body when paired with an appropriate loading stimulus (Lis & Baar, 2019;Shaw et al., 2017). To date, several studies have shown acute increases in PINP and longer term improvements in joint pain scores in athletes with 10-20 g of HC or gelatin prior to loading (Clark et al., 2008;Lis & Baar, 2019;Shaw et al., 2017). Although the current study did not measure PINP levels, the provision of the primary amino acids of collagen (glycine, proline, and the hydroxylated amino acids hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine) to the cells of the extracellular matrix and tendon may augment collagen synthesis. ...
Article
Background: Exercise and vitamin C-enriched collagen supplementation increase collagen synthesis, potentially increasing matrix density, stiffness, and force transfer. Purpose: To determine whether vitamin C-enriched collagen (hydrolyzed collagen [HC] + C) supplementation improves rate of force development (RFD) alongside a strength training program. Methods: Using a double-blinded parallel design, over 3 weeks, healthy male athletes (n = 50, 18-25 years) were randomly assigned to the intervention (HC + C; 20 g HC + 50 mg vitamin C) or placebo (20 g maltodextrin). Supplements were ingested daily 60 min prior to training. Athletes completed the same targeted maximal muscle power training program. Maximal isometric squats, countermovement jumps, and squat jumps were performed on a force plate at the same time each testing day (baseline, Tests 1, 2, and 3) to measure RFD and maximal force development. Mixed-model analysis of variance compared performance variables across the study timeline, whereas t tests were used to compare the change between baseline and Test 3. Results: Over 3 weeks, maximal RFD in the HC + C group returned to baseline, whereas the placebo group remained depressed (p = .18). While both groups showed a decrease in RFD through Test 2, only the treatment group recovered RFD to baseline by Test 3 (p = .036). In the HC + C group, change in countermovement jumps eccentric deceleration impulse (p = .008) and eccentric deceleration RFD (p = .04) was improved. A strong trend was observed for lower limb stiffness assessed in the countermovement jumps (p = .08). No difference was observed in maximal force or squat jump parameters. Conclusion: The HC + C supplementation improved RFD in the squat and countermovement jump alongside training.
... Recent studies indicate that both cardiometabolic [2,3], as well as nutritional factors [4,5] can modulate local tendon healing. Although clinical studies are still scarce, a recent International Olympic Committee (IOC) consensus statement on dietary supplements in high-performance athletes [6] proposes that dietary supplementation containing gelatin or hydrolysed collagen could potentially be useful for athletic populations as increased intake of collagen-derived peptides has been shown to modulate collagen synthesis [7] and reduce tendon- [8] and joint-related pain [9,10]. Others have shown that glycine, as the most abundant component of collagen hydrolysates [11], has disease-modifying properties in both animal [12,13] and in vitro [14] models of tendinopathy. ...
... 72,73 The daily consumption of 3-6 g of FPH for 17 weeks was reported to be safe as a supplementary diet for malnourished children, 74 and 10 g/d FPH for 24 weeks was recommended for healthy adults. 75 The lack of sufficient biochemical and clinical evidence includes (1) inadequate pharmacokinetic data on bioactive peptides; (2) stability of bioactive peptides during food formulation; (3) effective delivery of bioactive peptide for a specific health benefit; (4) insufficient human clinical trials showing health benefits; and (5) insufficient data on the detailed mechanism of action and dose effect of FPH on various claimed bioactivities. Therefore, substantial proof of human studies is needed for health claims and regulatory approvals of FPH. ...
Article
Dietary habits and lifestyle-related diseases indicate that food has a direct impact on individual health. Hence, a diet containing essential nutrients is important for healthy living. Fish and fish products are important in diets worldwide because of their nutritional value, especially their easily digestible proteins with essential amino acids. Similarly, fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) obtained from fish muscle and by-products has been reported to exhibit various biological activities and to have functional properties, which make FPH a suitable nutraceutical candidate. This review focuses on the health-promoting ability of FPH in terms of skin health, bone and cartilage health, blood lipid profile, and body-weight management studied in rats and human model systems. The absorption and bioavailability of FPH in humans is discussed, and challenges and obstacles of FPH as a functional food ingredient are outlined.
... In line with these findings, FCP was shown to promote the chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells 52) . In clinical studies, FCP has been proven to promote the synthesis of cartilage matrix and reduce pain in patients with osteoarthritis, making it a promising candidate for the treatment of human osteoarthritis 46,[53][54][55] . Collagen peptides are thus cryptic peptides with a variety of bioactivities 56) ; however, the detailed mechanisms underlying their effects in these diseases are unclear. ...
Article
Fish collagen peptides (FCP) derived from the skin, bones and scales are commercially used as a functional food or dietary supplement for hypertension and diabetes. However, there is limited evidence on the effects of FCP on the osteoblast function in contrast to evidence of the effects on wound healing, diabetes and bone regeneration, which have been obtained from animal studies. In this narrative review, we expound on the availability of FCP by basic research using osteoblasts. Low-concentration FCP upregulates the expression of osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and collagen modifying enzyme-related genes. Furthermore, it could accelerate matrix mineralization. FCP may have potential utility as a biomaterial to improve collagen quality and promote mineralization through the mitogen-activated protein kinase and Smad cascades. However, there are few clinical studies on bone regeneration in human subjects. It is desirable to be applied clinically through clinical study as soon as possible, based on the results from basic research.
... The scientific literature also highlights the use of collagen hydrolysate in patient populations other than those diagnosed with osteoarthritis. For example, one observational study in 100 athletes, evaluated the effects of 10g of oral collagen hydrolysate each day over 12 weeks in those not diagnosed with osteoarthritis, but who experienced joint pain in the knee, hip or shoulder [38]. Those with an inflammatory condition and/or in the acute phase of a joint injury were excluded, as was anyone taking any medications other than Non-Steroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs, corticosteroids, COX-2 inhibitors, or glucosamine or chondroitin or who experienced an interfering concomitant condition. ...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing commercial necessity to valorise commodities such as gelatine has led to significant developments in its processing and the outcome of these refinements has resulted in new applications in fields such as pharmaceuticals, medical devices, cosmetics, food and nutraceuticals. This in turn has led to the investigation of alternative sources of compounds with collagen-like properties, other than the conventionally used raw materials from mammalian species. Moreover, the current desire to seek natural, rather than synthetic compounds-especially regarding oral consumption and/or topical application-combined with the ability of gelatine derived products to form gels with varying degrees of flexibility and hydroplasticity has also accelerated research into previously unexplored applications. In the food sector, these include:- use of gelatine derivatives as an encapsulating agent (including the development of micro-beads as carriers of active compounds) foaming agents, emulsifiers, biodegradable films, colloid stabilizers and as nutraceuticals. The latter sector has especially benefitted from developments in enzymatic hydrolysis processes, where specific and highly characterised bioactive peptides often containing the amino acid hydroxyproline are end-products which have been identified to be orally bioavailable and metabolised and hence likely to deliver potential clinical benefits. This review examines manufacturing processes employed to typically produce hydrolysed collagen, evaluates studies examining bioavailability, metabolism and likely health benefits as well as potential clinical applications as a nutraceutical.
... As a result, collagen peptides are rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract also in peptide form [11][12][13][14]. Moreover, it has been shown that specific collagen peptides could act as signal messengers in anabolic cellular processes in cartilage, tendons and ligaments [15][16][17], which might be the reason for improved pain symptoms and performance in activity-related joint discomforts [18][19][20], tendinopathy [21,22] and chronic ankle instability [23] in physically active adults. ...
Article
Full-text available
It has been shown that specific collagen peptides combined with resistance training (RT) improves body composition and muscle strength in elderly sarcopenic men. The main purpose of this RCT study was to investigate the efficacy of the identical specific collagen peptides combined with RT on body composition and muscle strength in middle-aged, untrained men. Furthermore, in the exploratory part of the study, these results were compared with another group that had received whey protein in addition to the RT. Ninety-seven men completed this study and participated in a 12-week RT program. They ingested 15 g of specific collagen peptides (n = 30; CP-G), placebo (n = 31; P-G), or whey protein (n = 36; WP-G) daily. Changes in fat free mass and fat mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and isometric leg strength was measured. All participants had significantly (p < 0.01) improved levels in fat free mass (ΔCP-G = 3.42 ± 2.54 kg; ΔP-G = 1.83 ± 2.09 kg; ΔWP-G = 2.27 ± 2.56 kg), fat mass (ΔCP-G = -5.28 ± 3.19 kg; ΔP-G = -3.39 ± 3.13 kg; ΔWP-G = -4.08 ± 2.80 kg) and leg strength (ΔCP-G = 163 ± 189 N; ΔP-G = 100 ± 154 N; ΔWP-G = 120 ± 233 N). The main analysis revealed a statistically significantly higher increase in fat free mass (p = 0.010) and decrease in fat mass (p = 0.023) in the CP-G compared with the P-G. The exploratory analysis showed no statistically significant differences between WP-G and CP-G or P-G, regarding changes of fat free mass and fat mass. In conclusion, specific collagen peptide supplementation combined with RT was associated with a significantly greater increase in fat free mass and a decrease in fat mass compared with placebo. RT combined with whey protein also had a positive impact on body composition, but the respective effects were more pronounced following the specific collagen peptide administration.
... In fact, several clinical trials in veterinary medicine have come to the conclusion that collagen derivatives may have beneficial effects in animals, with a good safety profile [79][80][81]. Likewise, studies on healthy subjects or those with articular pain have concluded on the efficacy of supplementation with collagen derivatives [82,83], showing improvement of joint comfort in healthy subjects [84]. Additionally, a few studies have investigated the effect of collagen derivatives on chondrocytes in vitro, with promising results. ...
Article
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IntroductionThere is currently no disease-modifying drug for osteoarthritis (OA), and some safety concerns have been identified about the leading traditional drugs. Therefore, research efforts have focused on alternatives such as supplementation with collagen derivatives. The objective of this scoping review is to examine the extent, range, and nature of research, and to summarize and disseminate research findings on the effects of collagen derivatives in OA and cartilage repair. The purpose is to identify gaps in the current body of evidence in order to further help progress research in this setting.Methods The databases Medline, Scopus, CENTRAL, TOXLINE, and CDSR were comprehensively searched from inception to search date. After studies selection against eligibility criteria, following recommended methods, data were charted from the retrieved articles and these were subsequently synthesized. Numerical and graphical descriptive statistical methods were used to show trends in publications and geographical distribution of studies.ResultsThe systematic literature search identified a total of 10,834 records. Forty-one published studies were ultimately included in the review, 16 of which were preclinical studies and 25 were clinical studies (including four systematic reviews/meta-analyses). Collagen hydrolysate (CH) and undenatured collagen (UC) were the two types of collagen derivatives studied, with a total of 28 individual studies on CH and nine on UC. More than a third of studies originated from Asia, and most of them have been published after 2008. Oral forms of collagen derivatives were mainly studied; three in vivo preclinical studies and three clinical trials investigated intra-articularly injected CH. In most of the clinical trials, treatment durations varied between 3 and 6 months, with the shortest being 1.4 months and the longest 11 months. All in vivo preclinical studies and clinical trials, regardless of their quality, concluded on beneficial effects of collagen derivatives in OA and cartilage repair, whether used as nutritional supplement or delivered intra-articularly, and whatever the manufacturers of the products, the doses and the outcomes considered in each study.Conclusions Although current evidence shows some potential for the use of CH and UC as an option for management of patients with OA, there is still room for progress in terms of laboratory and clinical research before any definitive conclusion can be made. Harmonization of outcomes in preclinical studies and longer randomized placebo-controlled trials in larger populations with the use of recommended and validated endpoints are warranted before collagen derivatives can be recommended by large scientific societies.
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The physical demands of professional female football have intensified in recent years. Supplements are only advised in addition to a healthy, balanced diet, but may warrant a greater prevalence in the professional game to support well-being, recovery, and performance. Supplements used by players should be safe, legal, and scientifically proven to be effective. An individual approach should be taken to using supplements dependant on the needs and goals of the player. Female players should aim to improve the frequency of protein intake throughout the day, whilst tailoring doses to individual body mass. Vitamin D supplementation is vital throughout the winter months in countries with limited sun exposure, however doses should be administered based on individual blood test results. Iron is likely to be important to the well-being of female athletes throughout the season, in particular during the menses. Omega-3 and collagen may be of greater benefit to female than male athletes during recovery from soft tissue injury, whilst probiotics and creatine are beneficial throughout the season for reducing risk of illness and optimising recovery, respectively. Ergogenic supplements for football include beta-alanine, nitrate and caffeine. Caution should be taken with caffeine use due to the varying tolerance of difference athletes and sleep impairments that can follow.
Chapter
This chapter discusses the uses of biologically active peptides in sports nutrition and their potential mechanisms. In the beginning, it presents physiological parameters that determine athletic performance and how they may be positively influenced by nutrition and potentially the intake of bioactive peptides. It then discusses the potential effects of bioactive peptides on first body composition and muscular performance, second muscle damage, and lastly adaptions of connective tissue. The following section outlines the limitations of previous research about bioactive peptides and their potential mechanisms. By the end of the chapter, it presents practical applications that may help athletes to integrate bioactive peptides into sports nutrition to improve athletic performance as well as injury prevention and rehabilitation.
Chapter
As conditions that are strongly related to pain are associated with inflammation, the “itises” (conditions that usually end with “itis”) are extraordinarily important in terms of individuals’ suffering and the tremendous burden that they place on health care delivery systems throughout the world. While these conditions are important in and of themselves, they also are often strongly associated with other comorbid conditions that drive healthcare cost and detract from health-related quality of life. Based on scientific evidence reviewed in previous chapters of this book and that will be reviewed in greater detail in subsequent chapters, we know that there is a strong connection between all of these itises and diet. These disparate conditions are inextricably connected though the common feature of inflammation. The “itises” included in this chapter are gingivitis, esophagitis, gastritis, ulcerative colitis, diverticulitis, hepatitis, dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Furthermore, the chapter includes closely related conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, psoriasis, gout, and multiple sclerosis. There is evidence that some of these conditions are directly connected to dietary factors, with several of the listed conditions having evidence that a diet high in fruits and vegetables yields favourable outcomes. Other conditions have been shown to be affected through inflammatory pathways influenced by nutrient intake. In conclusion, for most conditions, the anti-inflammatory nature of healthy diets (such as the Mediterranean diet and other diets high in fruit and vegetables) are considered a low-risk option which is likely to improve or prevent inflammation. An enhanced understanding of how these factors can be manipulated, and how they can prevent and reduce inflammation has the potential to make great advancement in the use of nutrition to manage disease.
Article
This study examines 102 news items related to collagen as a dietary supplement, written in Spanish and published over a period of 2 years, in both digital and print media. The objective of this study is to evaluate the scientific rigor and consistency of the news information included in the sample. Errors and incorrect uses relative to the current scientific knowledge were identified in the analyzed information, and these errors were classified according to the criteria extracted from previous research. The evidence gathered shows a relevant frequency of errors in the information examined. The results are discussed in light of the role that the media plays in the transmission of beliefs regarding the value of collagen supplements.
Chapter
Pharmacologic management for articular cartilage injury and osteoarthritis (OA) should always be considered as supplemental to conservative approaches related to physical and/or rehabilitative exercises. This is especially true for children whose cartilage has intrinsic potential for healing. Pharmacologic agents can be administered for pain relief or for beneficial structural modification of articular cartilage matrix (disease modification). If drugs are employed for symptomatic relief from pain, or acute inflammation following injury, the agents, usually nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDS), are taken orally. Topical NSAIDS are usually not as effective. Intra-articular corticosteroid injections may be very useful for pain and inflammation modification. For articular cartilage injury, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy is a modality used to stimulate chondrocyte anabolic activity. With chronic injury and OA, intra-articular viscosupplementation therapy using hyaluronic acid (HA) or its derivatives may be used as a chondroprotective agent, although its mechanism of action and clinical efficacy are unclear. Similarly, cartilage matrix components such as glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate (CS) have been employed to facilitate chondroprotection, but again the mechanism for efficacy is not well understood.
Article
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Mathematical methods for designing recipes for various food products including fruit-jelly sweets of a given composition are based mainly on the methods of linear and experimental statistical programming. The use of the linear programming method made it possible to simulate the recipe for fruit-jelly sweets enriched with collagen. In the mathematical modeling of sweets, we were guided by a unified recipe for fruit-jelly masses, with a partial replacement of granulated sugar with strawberry powder and a solution of collagen hydrolyzate, replacement of fruit and berry cooking with strawberry puree. The requirements of GOST 4570-2014 for sweets were taken into account, according to which the mass fraction (ppm) of fruit raw materials should be at least 7%, ppm. moisture - no more than 32.0%, ppm reducing substances - no more than 60.0%. White sugar (x1), molasses (x2), strawberry puree (x3), agar-agar (x4), citric acid (x5), strawberry powder (x6), collagen hydrolyzate solution (x7) were used as prescription ingredients. As a result of calculating the program, the shares of prescription ingredients were obtained: x1 = 0.45; x2 = 0.24; x3 = 0.25; x4 = 0.016; x5 = 0.005, x6 = 0.05; x7 = 0.18. In this case, the goal function tends to the maximum, i.e. to obtain a product of high nutritional value. The data obtained made it possible to compose the recipe composition of enriched fruit-jelly sweets for the production of 1000 kg of product. The technological process for the production of sweets included sequentially performed operations that allow obtaining a product with a high nutritional value, the required content of biologically active substances and good organoleptic properties that meet the requirements of regulatory documents.
Article
Several investigations showed a positive influence of orally administered gelatin on degenerative diseases of the musculo-skeletal system. Both the therapeutic mechanism and the absorption dynamics, however, remain unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the time course of gelatin hydrolysate absorption and its subsequent distribution in various tissues in mice (C57/BL). Absorption of (14)C labeled gelatin hydrolysate was compared to control mice administered (14)C labeled proline following intragastric application. Plasma and tissue radioactivity was measured over 192 h. Additional "gut sac" experiments were conducted to quantify the MW distribution of the absorbed gelatin using SDS-electrophoresis and HPLC. Ninety-five percent of enterally applied gelatin hydrolysate was absorbed within the first 12 h. The distribution of the labeled gelatin in the various tissues was similar to that of labeled proline with the exception of cartilage, where a pronounced and long-lasting accumulation of gelatin hydrolysate was observed. In cartilage, measured radioactivity was more than twice as high following gelatin administration compared to the control group. The absorption of gelatin hydrolysate in its high molecular form, with peptides of 2.5-15kD, was detected following intestinal passage. These results demonstrate intestinal absorption and cartilage tissue accumulation of gelatin hydrolysate and suggest a potential mechanism for previously observed clinical benefits of orally administered gelatin.
Article
To review the current status of collagen hydrolysate in the treatment of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Review of past and current literature relative to collagen hydrolysate metabolism, and assessment of clinical investigations of therapeutic trials in osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Hydrolyzed gelatin products have long been used in pharmaceuticals and foods; these products are generally recognized as safe food products by regulatory agencies. Pharmaceutical-grade collagen hydrolysate (PCH) is obtained by hydrolysis of pharmaceutical gelatin. Clinical studies suggest that the ingestion of 10 g PCH daily reduces pain in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip; blood concentration of hydroxyproline is increased. Clinical use is associated with minimal adverse effects, mainly gastrointestinal, characterized by fullness or unpleasant taste. In a multicenter, randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial performed in clinics in the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany, results showed no statistically significant differences for the total study group (all sites) for differences of mean pain score for pain. There was, however, a significant treatment advantage of PCH over placebo in German sites. In addition, increased efficacy for PCH as compared to placebo was observed in the overall study population amongst patients with more severe symptomatology at study onset. Preferential accumulation of 14C-labeled gelatin hydrolysate in cartilage as compared with administration of 14C-labeled proline has been reported. This preferential uptake by cartilage suggests that PCH may have a salutary effect on cartilage metabolism. Given the important role for collagen in bone structure, the effect of PCH on bone metabolism in osteoporotic persons has been evaluated. Studies of the effects of calcitonin with and without a collagen hydrolysate-rich diet suggested that calcitonin plus PCH had a greater effect in inhibiting bone collagen breakdown than calcitonin alone, as characterized by a fall in levels of urinary pyridinoline cross-links. PCH appeared to have an additive effect relative to use of calcitonin alone. Collagen hydrolysate is of interest as a therapeutic agent of potential utility in the treatment of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Its high level of safety makes it attractive as an agent for long-term use in these chronic disorders.
Article
Since the publication in 2000 of the updated American College of Rheumatology (ACR) recommendations for the medical management of patients with lower limb osteoarthritis (OA), additional recommendations, newer epidemiologic studies, systematic reviews, and clinical trials have been published. The results of these reviews, studies, and trials, which highlight the greater efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for controlling pain and the potential serious upper gastrointestinal toxicity of acetaminophen, require us to reassess the use of acetaminophen as the first-line pharmacologic agent for all patients with knee OA. Furthermore, the documented efficacy of glucosamine for pain relief and function improvement in patients with knee OA, with an effect size that is comparable with that of NSAIDs, requires us to reassess the use of glucosamine as a potential first-line agent at least for patients with knee OA who have mild-to-moderate pain. The availability of the cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2)-specific inhibitors and their documented greater safety relative to traditional dual-inhibitor NSAIDs with regard to serious upper gastrointestinal toxicity lead us to reassess the use of traditional NSAIDs in patients with OA, especially in those at increased risk for such adverse events. The COX-2-specific inhibitors cost less than the combination of a generic NSAID plus a proton-pump inhibitor. The results of ongoing and future studies, especially of structure-modifying anti- osteoarthritis drugs, will lead to further reassessment and updating of recommendations for the medical management of patients with knee OA. Hopefully, the use of such recommendations will improve the outcomes for patients with this debilitating chronic condition.
Article
The functional integrity of articular cartilage is dependent on the maintenance of the extracellular matrix (ECM), a process which is controlled by chondrocytes. The regulation of ECM biosynthesis is complex and a variety of substances have been found to influence chondrocyte metabolism. In the present study we have investigated the effect of degraded collagen on the formation of type II collagen by mature bovine chondrocytes in a cell culture model. The culture medium was supplemented with collagen hydrolysate (CH) and biosynthesis of type II collagen by chondrocytes was compared to control cells treated with native type I and type II collagen and a collagen-free protein hydrolysate. The quantification of type II collagen by means of an ELISA technique was confirmed by immunocytochemical detection as well as by the incorporation of (14)C-proline in the ECM after a 48 h incubation. Chondrocytes in the control group were maintained in the basal medium for 11 days. The presence of extracellular CH led to a dose-dependent increase in type II collagen secretion. However, native collagens as well as a collagen-free hydrolysate of wheat proteins failed to stimulate the production of type II collagen in chondrocytes. These results clearly indicate a stimulatory effect of degraded collagen on the type II collagen biosynthesis of chondrocytes and suggest a possible feedback mechanism for the regulation of collagen turnover in cartilage tissue.
Article
There is a need for an effective treatment for the millions of people in the United States with osteoarthritis (OA), a degenerative joint disease. The demand for treatments, both traditional and non-traditional, will continue to grow as the population ages. This article reviews the medical literature on the preclinical and clinical research on a unique compound, collagen hydrolysate. Articles were obtained through searches of the PubMed database (www.pubmed.gov) through May 2006 using several pairs of key words (collagen hydrolysate and osteoarthritis; collagen hydrolysate and cartilage; collagen hydrolysate and chondrocytes; collagen hydrolysate and clinical trial) without date limits. In addition, other sources of information, such as abstracts presented at scientific congresses and articles in the German medical literature not available on PubMed, were reviewed and included based on the authors' judgment of their relevance to the topic of the review. According to published research, orally administered collagen hydrolysate has been shown to be absorbed intestinally and to accumulate in cartilage. Collagen hydrolysate ingestion stimulates a statistically significant increase in synthesis of extracellular matrix macromolecules by chondrocytes (p < 0.05 compared with untreated controls). These findings suggest mechanisms that might help patients affected by joint disorders such as OA. Four open-label and three double-blind studies were identified and reviewed; although many of these studies did not provide key information--such as the statistical significance of the findings--they showed collagen hydrolysate to be safe and to provide improvement in some measures of pain and function in some men and women with OA or other arthritic conditions. A growing body of evidence provides a rationale for the use of collagen hydrolysate for patients with OA. It is hoped that ongoing and future research will clarify how collagen hydrolysate provides its clinical effects and determine which populations are most appropriate for treatment with this supplement.
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Hochberg MC. What a difference a year makes: reflections on the ACR recommendations for the medical management of osteoarthritis. Curr Rheumatol Rep 2001;3:473-8 CrossRef links are available in the online published version of this article: http://www.cmrojournal.com Paper CMRO-4309_4, 10:22-21.04.08 Accepted for publication: 29 February 2008 Published Online: 15 April 2008 doi:10.1185/030079908X291967 Curr Med Res Opin Downloaded from informahealthcare.com by State U of Ny at Buffalo on 06/07/13 For personal use only.
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