Hemochromatosis Gene Polymorphisms, Mitochondrial Haplogroups, and Peripheral Lipoatrophy during Antiretroviral Therapy

Division of Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37203, USA.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6). 03/2008; 197(6):858-66. DOI: 10.1086/528697
Source: PubMed


Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-associated lipoatrophy involves mitochondrial dysfunction. Iron metabolism impacts mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. Mitochondrial haplogroups and hemochromatosis gene (HFE) polymorphisms have been associated with ART-induced neuropathy. We assessed relationships between these variants and lipoatrophy.
The AIDS Clinical Trials Group 384 study randomized ART-naive individuals to receive didanosine-stavudine or zidovudine-lamivudine, combined with efavirenz and/or nelfinavir. Substudy A5005s evaluated fat distribution by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). We characterized HFE polymorphisms 845G>A and 187C>G and European mitochondrial haplogroups in A5005s participants who consented to genetic analyses.
Among 96 participants (58% were white, and 10% were female) with baseline and 48 or 64 week DEXA data, the median limb fat change was -8.8% (interquartile range, -28.7% to +15.6%). HFE 187C/G heterozygotes (n = 23) had less limb fat loss than 187C/C homozygotes (n = 71) (+6.1% vs. -12.5%; P = .02) and were less likely to develop lipoatrophy after adjustment for age, sex, race, and ART randomization (odds ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.95; P = .04). Among non-Hispanic white participants, median limb fat change was +26.1% among 5 participants with mitochondrial haplogroup J, compared with -9.7% among 49 participants with other mitochondrial haplogroups (P = .07).
HFE 187C>G and, possibly, mitochondrial haplogroup J gave relative protection against lipoatrophy during ART in A5005s. These associations should be replicated in other studies.

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    • "We also observed a borderline significant association between the presence of haplogroup T and protection against lipoatrophy. In the context of previous studies of fat accumulation conducted in the ACTG cohort, we did not observe a significant association between the presence of haplogroup J and protection against fat loss as reported by Hulgan et al. 2008; however odds ratios in our study suggest J may be protective against lipoatrophy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been extremely effective in lowering AIDS incidence among patients infected with HIV, certain drugs included in HAART can cause serious mitochondrial toxicities. One of the most frequent adverse events is lipoatrophy, which is the loss of subcutaneous fat in the face, arms, buttocks, and/or legs as an adverse reaction to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The clinical symptoms of lipoatrophy resemble those of inherited mitochondrial diseases, which suggest that host mitochondrial genotype may play a role in susceptibility. We analyzed the association between mitochondrial haplogroup and severity of lipoatrophy in HIV-infected European American patients on HAART in the Multicenter AIDS cohort Study and found that mitochondrial haplogroup H was strongly associated with increased atrophy [arms: P = 0.007, odds ratio (OR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17 to 2.69; legs: P = 0.037, OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.31; and buttocks: P = 0.10, OR = 1.41 95% CI = 0.94 to 2.12]. We also saw borderline significance for haplogroup T as protective against lipoatrophy (P = 0.05, OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.20 to 1.00). These data suggest that mitochondrial DNA haplogroup may influence the propensity for lipoatrophy in patients receiving nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial toxicity is implicated in some treatment-limiting antiretroviral therapy complications, and reports of mitochondrial dysfunction in untreated HIV infection suggest antiretroviral therapy independent effects of HIV. Several studies have explored associations between mtDNA haplogroups (patterns of mtDNA polymorphisms) and outcomes of HIV infection and/or antiretroviral therapy, but findings have been inconsistent. We systematically reviewed published studies examining mtDNA haplogroups in HIV-infected persons to summarize reported outcome associations, and to highlight potential future research directions. We identified 21 articles published from 2005-2013. Multiple different phenotypes were studied; most were antiretroviral therapy associated metabolic outcomes (e.g. lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia). Haplogroup H was associated with the most outcomes, including AIDS progression, CD4 T-cell recovery, cirrhosis (in hepatitis C coinfection), and metabolic outcomes. This review is the first to focus on the emerging area of mtDNA haplogroups in HIV, and summarizes the published literature on associations between mtDNA haplogroups and clinical outcomes in populations of European and African descent. Several reported associations require replication and ideally biological verification before definitive conclusions can be drawn, but research in this area has the potential to explain outcome disparities and impact clinical management of patients.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · AIDS reviews
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