Associations among hypospadias, cryptorchidism, anogenital distance, and endocrine disruption

Scott Department of Urology, Texas Children's Hospital, Clinical Care Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Suite 660, 6621 Fannin Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Current Urology Reports (Impact Factor: 1.51). 04/2008; 9(2):137-42. DOI: 10.1007/s11934-008-0025-0
Source: PubMed


Endocrine disruptors, such as environmental compounds with endocrine-altering properties, may cause hypospadias and cryptorchidism in several species, including humans. Anogenital distance is sexually dimorphic in many mammals, with males having longer anogenital distance on average than females. Animal models of proposed endocrine disruptors have associated prenatal exposure with hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and reduced anogenital distance. Human studies have correlated shorter anogenital distance to in utero exposure to putative endocrine disruptors. We review preliminary data suggesting that anogenital distance is reduced in boys with hypospadia and cryptorchidism. Hence, human hypospadias and cryptorchidism may be associated with reduced anogenital distance as a result of endocrine disruption.

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Available from: Michael H Hsieh
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    • "Several recent studies suggest that short male AGD may have reproductive implications for humans as well as rodents. In males, children with hypospadias and cryptorchidism have significantly shorter AGD than controls (Hsieh et al., 2008, 2012; Thankamony et al., 2013). In male adults, shorter AGD predicts poorer semen quality (Eisenberg et al., 2011; Mendiola et al., 2011) and reduced testosterone and testicular volume (Eisenberg et al., 2012). "
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    • "P Ͻ 0.01) versus (vs.) the bottom of the penis (22.5%; P Ͻ 0.001; Hsieh et al. 2008). Taken together, these studies indicate that AGD is a surrogate marker of biologically important outcomes; however, study results may vary with the defi nition of AGD in any given investigation and the variability in methods limits inter-study comparisons. "
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    • "AGD will be useful clinically as a noninvasive marker of androgen action during the critical masculinization programming window and will be predictive of adult-onset TDS.13 A recent study showed that AGD is reduced in boys with hypospadias or cryptorchidism.26 "
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