Reliability and validity of self-reported physical activity in the Nord-Trondelag Health Study - HUNT 1

HUNT Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 1.83). 01/2008; 36(1):52-61. DOI: 10.1177/1403494807085373
Source: PubMed


A large health survey was previously conducted in 1984-86, the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 1), and another was conducted in 1995-97 (HUNT 2). A third, HUNT 3, started in 2006. However, the physical activity (PA) questionnaires have not yet been validated.
To assess the reliability and validity of the self-reported physical activity questionnaire in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 1).
The HUNT 1 questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 108 healthy men aged 20-39 years. Repeatability was assessed with a repeat questionnaire after one week, and validity by comparing results with direct measurement of VO(2) during maximal work on a treadmill, with ActiReg, an instrument that measures PA and energy expenditure (EE) and with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). ActiReg records the main body positions (stand, sit, bent forward and lie) together with the motion of the trunk and/or one leg each second.
The results indicated strong, significant agreement on test-retest (weighted kappa frequency, r=0.80, intensity, r=0.82, and duration, r=0.69). We found a moderate, significant correlation, r=0.48 (p< or =0.01), between the index based on questionnaire responses and VO(2max.) Metabolic equivalent (MET) values of 6 or more from ActiReg and "vigorous activity'' from the IPAQ most strongly correlated with the index (r=0.39, r=0.55, respectively). Associations of other measures obtained from ActiReg with questionnaire responses were weaker.
Our results indicate that the PA questionnaire in HUNT 1 is reproducible and provides a useful measure of leisure-time PA for men. The questionnaire is very short, and compared favourably with much longer instruments for assessment of more vigorous PA. It should be an appropriate tool for use in further epidemiological studies, particularly when the interest is in aspects of PA reflected in fitness or METs greater than 6.

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    • "signified high activity. The index score is previously established as valid and reliable [26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To provide a large reference material on aerobic fitness and exercise physiology data in a healthy population of Norwegian men and women aged 20-90 years. Maximal and sub maximal levels of VO2, heart rate, oxygen pulse, and rating of perceived exertion (Borg scale: 6-20) were measured in 1929 men and 1881 women during treadmill running. The highest VO2max and maximal heart rate among men and women were observed in the youngest age group (20-29 years) and was 54.4±8.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) and 43.0±7.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) (sex differences, p<0.001) and 196±10 beats·min(-1) and 194±9 beats·min(-1) (sex differences, p<0.05), respectively, with a subsequent reduction of approximately 3.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) and 6 beats·min(-1) per decade. The highest oxygen pulses were observed in the 3 youngest age groups (20-29 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years) among men and women; 22.3 mL·beat(-1)±3.6 and 14.7 mL·beat(-1)±2.7 (sex differences, p<0.001), respectively, with no significant difference between these age groups. After the age of 50 we observed an 8% reduction per decade among both sexes. Borg scores appear to give a good estimate of the relative exercise intensity, although observing a slightly different relationship than reported in previous reference material from small populations. This is the largest European reference material of objectively measured parameters of aerobic fitness and exercise-physiology in healthy men and women aged 20-90 years, forming the basis for an easily accessible, valid and understandable tool for improved training prescription in healthy men and women.
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    • "The response categories were none, less than 1 h per week, 1e2 h per week and three or more hours per week. These questions are validated [16] [17] "
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    ABSTRACT: The 6-min walk distance (6MWD) is widely used to evaluate functional capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To examine predictors for longitudinal change in 6MWD including self-reported physical activity, smoking habits, body composition, exacerbations, comorbidity and lung function. The cohort included 389 patients aged 44-75 years, with clinically stable COPD in GOLD stages II-IV. The follow-up time was 3 years. Measurements included 6MWD, spirometry, fat and fat free mass index (FMI and FFMI), and assessment of physical activity, smoking habits, comorbidities and exacerbations by questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) regression analyses were used to analyze predictors for the change in 6MWD. There was a reduction in 6MWD from baseline to 3 years for patients in GOLD stages III and IV (B = -36 m, 95% CI = -51 to -7, p = 0.009 and B = -79 m, CI = -125 to -20, p = 0.007). The unadjusted GEE analysis demonstrated that baseline self-reported physical activity level, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity, FFMI, GOLD stages and age predicted change in 6MWD, but in the adjusted GEE analysis only self-reported physical activity level (p = 0.001) and FEV1 (p = 0.019) predicted change over time. Patients in GOLD stage II maintained their functional capacity assessed by 6MWD over 3 years, while it was significantly reduced for patients in GOLD stages III and IV. Level of physical activity and FEV1 were predictors for longitudinal change in functional capacity.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Respiratory medicine
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    • "Moreover, the HUNT data allow for adjustments for several factors that may confound the association between lifestyle factors and risk of chronic arm pain. The questions on physical exercise in HUNT 1 has been validated against maximal oxygen uptake in a random sample of men and found to perform well with a correlation coefficient of 0.48 (Kurtze et al., 2008). The questions on chronic arm pain at HUNT 2 have been found to have acceptable reliability and validity (Palmer et al., 1999; Descatha et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the association between leisure time physical exercise, body mass index (BMI) and risk of chronic arm pain. Methods: The study population comprises 14,041 women and 13,674 men in the Norwegian HUNT Study without musculoskeletal pain or physical impairment at baseline in 1984-86. Chronic arm pain was assessed at follow-up in 1995-97. A generalized linear model was used to calculate adjusted relative risks (RRs). Results: At follow-up, 2205 women and 1458 men reported chronic arm pain. Level of physical exercise was inversely associated with risk of chronic arm pain (P-trend, ≤0.03 for both sexes). Compared with inactive persons, women and men who exercised ≥ 2 h/week had adjusted RRs of 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.73-0.96] and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.63-0.87), respectively. BMI was positively associated with risk of chronic arm pain (P-trend, ≤0.002 for both sexes). Compared with normal-weight persons, women and men classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) had adjusted RRs of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.11-1.44) and 1.29 (95% CI, 1.07-1.57), respectively. Combined analysis showed that obese women and men who exercised ≥ 1 h/week had a RR of 1.20 (95% CI 0.97-1.48) compared with normal-weight women and men with a similar activity level, whereas the RR was 1.41 (95% CI 1.21-1.65) for obese women and men who were physically inactive. Conclusion: Regular physical exercise reduces risk of chronic arm pain while high BMI increases the risk. Exercise can to some extent compensate for the adverse effect of obesity on risk of chronic arm pain.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · European Journal of Pain
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