Molecular and functional characterization of eight novel GAA mutations in Italian infants with Pompe disease

Unità di Malattie Metaboliche, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, Italy.
Human Mutation (Impact Factor: 5.14). 06/2008; 29(6):E27-36. DOI: 10.1002/humu.20753
Source: PubMed


We characterized 29 unrelated patients presenting with the severe form of Pompe disease (Glycogen Storage Disease Type II, acid maltase deficiency) and identified 26 pathogenic mutations divided over 28 different genotypes. Among the eight new mutations, five were exonic point mutations (c.572A>G, c.1124G>T, c.1202A>G, c.1564C>G and c.1796C>A) leading to codon changes (p.Y191C, p.R375L, p.Q401R, p.P522A and p.S599Y); two were intronic point mutations (c.-32-3C>A and c.1636+5G>C) affecting mRNA processing; one was a single base deletion (c.742delC) generating a truncated protein (p.L248PfsX20). A comprehensive evaluation, based on different methodological approaches, confirmed the detrimental effect of the eight mutations on the protein and its function. Structural alterations potentially induced by the five missense mutations were also predicted through visual inspection of the atomic model of the GAA protein, in terms of both function and spatial orientation of specific residues as well as disturbance generated by amino acid substitutions. Although the remarkable heterogeneity of the mutational spectrum in Pompe disease was already known, our data demonstrate and confirm the power of molecular and functional analysis in predicting the natural course of Pompe disease.

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Available from: Camillo Rosano
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    • "The mutation c.-32-3CNA in a patient of family 3 was found in homozygosity and showed high NaG/AaGIA ratio, high percentage of inhibition and clinical symptoms such as fatigue, exercise intolerance, and muscle weakness. The c.-32-3CN mutation leads to a deletion of 579 bp, predicting an anomalous transcript that would translate into a shorter peptide lacking the first 182 amino acids of the protein (p.M1_T182) (Oba-Shinjo et al., 2009; Pittis et al., 2008; Kroos et al., 2008b). The late onset of the disease can be explained by the factors that control splice site selection, keeping, for a period, a relatively normal level of transcription generated by the mutant allele. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive disorder linked to GAA gene that leads to a multi-system intralysosomal accumulation of glycogen. Mutation identification in the GAA gene can be very important for early diagnosis, correlation between genotype-phenotype and therapeutic intervention. For this purpose, peripheral blood from 57 individuals susceptible to Pompe disease was collected and all exons of GAA gene were amplified; the sequences and the mutations were analyzed in silico to predict possible impact on the structure and function of the human protein. In this study, 46 individuals presented 33 alterations in GAA gene sequence, among which five (c.547-67C>G, c.547-39T>G, p.R437H, p.L641V and p.L705P) have not been previously described in the literature. The alterations in the coding region included 15 missense mutations, three nonsense mutations and one deletion. One insertion and other 12 single base changes were found in the non-coding region. The mutation p.G611D was found in homozygosis in a one-year-old child, who presented low levels of GAA activity, hypotonia and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Two patients presented the new mutation p.L705P in association with c.-32-13T>G. They had low levels of GAA activity and developed late onset Pompe disease. In our study, we observed alterations in the GAA gene originating from Asians, African-Americans and Caucasians, highlighting the high heterogeneity of Brazilian population. Considering that Pompe disease studies are not very common in Brazil, this study will help to better understand the potential pathogenic role of each change in the GAA gene. Furthermore, a precise and early molecular analysis improves genetic counseling besides allowing for a more efficient treatment in potential candidates. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Gene
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    • "To this end, the P545L variant has only been identified in a small number of Pompe patients [47]. However, there is evidence that certain GAA mutations are more common in certain geographical regions or within certain ethnic groups [1], [48], some of which may be enriched for chaperone-responsive mutant forms [49], [50]. Given this potentially low prevalence of responsive mutant forms, AT2220 has also recently been investigated in co-administration studies with rhGAA [35], [51]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pompe disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder that results from a deficiency in acid α-glucosidase (GAA) activity due to mutations in the GAA gene. Pompe disease is characterized by accumulation of lysosomal glycogen primarily in heart and skeletal muscles, which leads to progressive muscle weakness. We have shown previously that the small molecule pharmacological chaperone AT2220 (1-deoxynojirimycin hydrochloride, duvoglustat hydrochloride) binds and stabilizes wild-type as well as multiple mutant forms of GAA, and can lead to higher cellular levels of GAA. In this study, we examined the effect of AT2220 on mutant GAA, in vitro and in vivo, with a primary focus on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-retained P545L mutant form of human GAA (P545L GAA). AT2220 increased the specific activity of P545L GAA toward both natural (glycogen) and artificial substrates in vitro. Incubation with AT2220 also increased the ER export, lysosomal delivery, proteolytic processing, and stability of P545L GAA. In a new transgenic mouse model of Pompe disease that expresses human P545L on a Gaa knockout background (Tg/KO) and is characterized by reduced GAA activity and elevated glycogen levels in disease-relevant tissues, daily oral administration of AT2220 for 4 weeks resulted in significant and dose-dependent increases in mature lysosomal GAA isoforms and GAA activity in heart and skeletal muscles. Importantly, oral administration of AT2220 also resulted in significant glycogen reduction in disease-relevant tissues. Compared to daily administration, less-frequent AT2220 administration, including repeated cycles of 4 or 5 days with AT2220 followed by 3 or 2 days without drug, respectively, resulted in even greater glycogen reductions. Collectively, these data indicate that AT2220 increases the specific activity, trafficking, and lysosomal stability of P545L GAA, leads to increased levels of mature GAA in lysosomes, and promotes glycogen reduction in situ. As such, AT2220 may warrant further evaluation as a treatment for Pompe disease.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "This mutation has a high frequency in Taiwan and along the coast of China (14, 9). The third founder mutation to be distinctly mentioned is c.2481+102_2646+31del (deletion of exon 18), which is common in some subsets of the Caucasian population (24-26). By far, the most frequent GAA mutation among Caucasian children and adults with Pompe disease is the well-known c.-32-13T>G (13, 17, 27). "
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    ABSTRACT: Glycogen-storage disease type II, also named Pompe disease, is caused by the deficiency of the enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase, which originates lysosomal glycogen accumulation leading to progressive neuromuscular damage. Early-onset Pompe disease shows a debilitating and frequently fulminating course. To date, more than 300 mutations have been described; the majority of them are unique to each affected individual. Most early-onset phenotypes are associated with frameshift mutations leading to a truncated alpha-glucosidase protein with loss of function. Founder effects are responsible from many cases from few highprevalence world regions. Herein we described two apparently unrelated cases affected with classical early-onset Pompe disease, both pertaining to a small region from Central Mexico (the State of San Luis Potosí), the same novel homozygous frameshift mutation at gene GAA (c.1987delC) was demonstrated in both cases. This GAA gene deletion implies a change of glutamine to serine at codon 663, and a new reading frame that ends after 33 base pairs, which leads to the translation of a truncated protein. This report contributes to widen the knowledge on the effect of pathogenic mutations in Pompe disease. Here we postulate the existence of a founder effect.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Acta myologica: myopathies and cardiomyopathies: official journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology / edited by the Gaetano Conte Academy for the study of striated muscle diseases
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