Co-occurrence of Motor Problems and Autistic Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Department of Psychiatry Box 8134, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110-1093, USA.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 7.26). 07/2008; 47(6):662-72. DOI: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e31816bff88
Source: PubMed


To investigate the relation between parent reports of motor problems and clinically significant autistic symptoms in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Subjects were male (n = 521) and female (n = 330) twins from an epidemiological study of ADHD, ages 7 to 19 years at assessment using the Child Behavior Checklist and semistructured psychiatric diagnostic interviews. Parent-rated Social Responsiveness Scale questionnaires were returned for 62% of 1,647 individuals who participated in interviews. After exclusion of subjects with incomplete data or evidence of mental retardation, 851 subjects (52%) were available for the present study analysis. Each subject was classified by DSM-IV ADHD subtype and assigned to one of seven population-defined ADHD subtypes based on latent class analysis of DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. Within each ADHD subtype, we examined the relation between Child Behavior Checklist motor problem endorsement and elevated autistic symptoms on the Social Responsiveness Scale.
Motor problems and high levels of autistic traits were most common in individuals with combined-type ADHD. Within each of the clinically relevant DSM-IV and latent class ADHD subtypes, individuals with the combination of motor problems and ADHD were more likely to have high levels of autistic traits than those with ADHD alone.
Children with the combination of ADHD and parent-reported motor coordination deficits have elevated levels of autistic symptoms. Targeted treatment and prevention interventions may be warranted. The exclusion criteria for DSM-IV ADHD should be revised to reflect these population-based findings.

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    • "Finally, regarding ADHD symptoms, several studies have reported that these symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity) often occur in individuals with ASD and vice versa (Billstedt, 2000; Gjevik, Eldevik, Fjaeran-Granum, & Sponheim, 2011; Mattila et al., 2010; Murray, 2010; Simonoff et al., 2008). The high comorbidity rate between ASD and ADHD has been shown in recent studies (Holtmann, Bolte, & Poutska, 2007; Keen & Ward, 2004; Lee & Ousley, 2006; Leyfer et al., 2006; Reiersen, Constantino, & Todd, 2008; Sinzig, Walter, & Doepfner, 2009; Yoshida & Uchiyama, 2004; see, for a review: Berenguer, Miranda, Pastor, & Rosello, 2015). This comorbidity has been recognized in the DSM-5 (APA, 2013), which even includes the possibility of a comorbid ASD and ADHD diagnosis. "
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    ABSTRACT: The main objective of this study was to analyze in a sample of children with ASD the relationship between sensory processing, social participation and praxis impairments and some of the child's characteristics, such as non-verbal IQ, severity of ASD symptoms and the number of ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), both in the home and main-classroom environments. Participants were the parents and teachers of 41 children with ASD from 5 to 8 years old (M = 6.09). They completed the Sensory Processing Measure (SPM) to evaluate sensory processing, social participation and praxis; the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS-2) to evaluate autism severity; and a set of items (the DSM-IV-TR criteria) to evaluate the number of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in the child. Non-verbal IQ -– measured by the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices Test- – did not show a relationship with any of the SPM variables. The SPM variables were significant predictors of autism severity and had similar weights in the two environments. In the case of ADHD symptoms, the SPM variables had a greater weight in the home than in the classroom environment, and they were significant predictors of both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity – especially inattention- – only in the family context. The moderate association between inattention and auditory processing found in the main-classroom suggests the possible utility of certain measures aimed to simplify any classroom's acoustic environment.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Research in developmental disabilities
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    • "Conversely, poor motor skills have been shown to be a risk factor for anxiety [22,23]. In ADHD, coexisting clumsiness determines a particularly poor psychosocial prognosis [24] and is associated with more autistic traits [25]. Subtle motor signs in children tend to diminish before puberty. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Poor motor and social skills as well as peer victimization are commonly reported in both ADHD and autism spectrum disorder. Positive relationships between poor motor and poor social skills, and between poor social skills and peer victimization, are well documented, but the relationship between poor motor skills and peer victimization has not been studied in psychiatric populations. Method 277 patients (133 males, 144 females), mean age 31 years, investigated for ADHD or autism spectrum disorder in adulthood and with normal intelligence, were interviewed about childhood peer victimization and examined for gross motor skills. The parents completed a comprehensive questionnaire on childhood problems, the Five to Fifteen. The Five to Fifteen is a validated questionnaire with 181 statements that covers various symptoms in childhood across eight different domains, one of them targeting motor skills. Regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between motor skills and the risk and duration of peer victimization, adjusted for sex and diagnosis. Results Victims were described as more clumsy in childhood than their non-victimized counterparts. A significant independent association was found between reportedly poor childhood gross motor skills and peer victimization (adjusted odds ratio: 2.97 [95% confidence interval: 1.46-6.07], n = 235, p = 0.003). In adulthood, the victimized group performed worse on vertical jumps, a gross motor task, and were lonelier. Other factors that were expected to be associated with peer victimization were not found in this highly selected group. Conclusion Poor gross motor skills constitute a strong and independent risk factor for peer victimization in childhood, regardless of sex, childhood psychiatric care and diagnosis.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · BMC Psychiatry
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    • "In recent years, there are some reports about the co-morbidity of ADHD and PDD.[5] The rate of high hyperactivity in children with PDD is more than those without PDD.[67] "
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    ABSTRACT: There is a gap in the literature regarding the extent of possible co-occurrence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). This study aimed to investigate co-occurring of ADHD in children with PDD. A clinical sample of 68 children with PDD was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria to make ADHD and/ or PDD diagnoses. All the different types of PDD were included. DSM-IV derived criteria for ADHD and PDD were analyzed. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted. the rate of autism, Asperger syndrome, Rett's disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder and PDD-NOS (not otherwise specified) was 55.4%, 16.9%, 3.1%, 3.1%, 21.5%, respectively. 53.8% of the sample was with ADHD co-morbidity. The rate of ADHD subtypes was 37.1%, 22.9%, and 40.0% for inattentive type, hyperactivity/impulsivity type and combined type, respectively. ADHD and its symptoms highly co-occur with PDD. Meanwhile, the result of factor analysis supports the independence of ADHD and PDD diagnostic criteria.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of research in medical sciences
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