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A low-energy-dense diet adding fruit reduces weight and energy intake in women

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Abstract

This study evaluated the effect of adding fruit or oats to the diet of free-living women on energy consumption and body weight. Fruit and oat cookies had the same amount of fiber and total calories ( approximately 200 kcal), but differed in energy density. We analyzed data from a clinical trial conducted in a primary care unit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Forty-nine women, ages ranging from 30 to 50 years, with body mass index (BMI)>25 kg/m2, were randomly chosen to add three apples (0.63 kcal/g energy density) or three pears (0.64 kcal/g energy density) or three oat cookies (3.7 kcal/g energy density) to their usual diet for 10 weeks. Fiber composition was similar ( approximately 6g). Statistical analysis of the repeated measures of dietary composition and body weight were analyzed using mixed model procedures. Results showed a significant decrease in the energy density during the follow-up (-1.23 kcal/g, p<0.04, and -1.29 kcal/g, p<0.05) for apples and pears, respectively, compared to the oat group. The energy intake also decreased significantly (-25.05 and -19.66 kcal/day) for the apple and pear group, respectively, but showed a small increase (+0.93) for the oat group. Apples and pears were also associated (p<0.001) with weight reduction (-0.93 kg for the apple and -0.84 for the pear group), whereas weight was unchanged (+0.21; p=0.35) in the oat group. Results suggest that energy densities of fruits, independent of their fiber amount can reduce energy consumption and body weight over time.

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... In addition, fruit and vegetable are low in energy density which causes the individuals to feel full on fewer calories and may stay full longer as compared to other foods consumed in the same amount. It was reported by de Oliveira et al. (2008) that fruits can reduce energy intake and body weight as compared to other food regardless of the same energy content. Systematic review by Kaiser et al. (2014) found no significant effect of increasing fruit and/or vegetable intake in isolation of other interventions for more than 8 weeks on body weight whilst a small reduction in body weight was found in a recent review among those who consumed more fruit and vegetable without any dietary advice and modification (Mytton et al. 2014). ...
... Out of four studies involved consumption of vegetable with the meal, only one study showed no significant difference between meals served with vegetable and without vegetable on satiety (de Oliveira et al. 2008). Another study found that energy density of food was manipulated by adding vegetable in different portions (Blatt et al. 2011). ...
... However, studies showed that socio demographic factors did not have strong impact on the satiety rating and subsequent energy intake. Manipulation of portion size and energy density of fruit and vegetable would be an effective strategy in promoting satiety as well as reducing overall energy intake (de Oliveira et al. 2008). Time interval between preload and test meal may also affect satiety (Luhovvy et al. 2007;Veldhorst et al. 2009). ...
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Fruit and vegetable are the natural foods that contained various nutrients vital for good health and help in weight loss by suppressing an individual’s appetite. Therefore, this review aimed to investigate the acute effect of fruit and vegetable intake on satiety and energy intake. We included randomized controlled trial or experimental designs measuring fruit and/or vegetable intake on satiety using subjective appetite rating and appetite related hormone and energy intake among healthy adults, published in English-language. The use of extract, powder form or concentrated fruit and/or vegetable and animal study were excluded. Twelve studies were identified from Pubmed, Science Direct and Cochrane from the year 1995 to August 2017, consists of six studies on fruit and six studies on vegetable. This review discussed the preload of fruit and vegetable in promoting satiety and reducing the energy intake. Manipulating energy density rather than portion size was effective in reducing total energy intake and promotes satiety. Fruit and vegetable in solid form had a greater satiety effect and significantly reduce energy intake compared to liquid or pureed form. The variation in time interval between fruit and/or vegetable intake and the test meal may also account a significant effect on satiety up to 2 h and diminished 3 h onward. The satiety effect of fruit and vegetable would be beneficial in body weight management. © Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. All rights reserved.
... IRCTs conducted in obese and overweight individuals have shown that fruit intake significantly suppresses obesity [36][37][38][39][40]. The first of these studies reported the impact of low and high fruit diets on the body weight, BMI, and WC of obese Spanish females with a BMI of 34.9 ± 2.3 kg•m -2 and average age of 32.6 ± 5.8 years [36]. ...
... The body weight was reduced in all groups, but the parameters in the group who consumed fresh grapefruit were significantly different compared with the placebo. Another study with apple and pear intake in a hypocaloric diet found significant reductions in body weight and BMI compared with eating oat cookies after 10 weeks [38]. In this IRCT, three groups of obese Brazilian women with a BMI of 31.9 ± 4.2 kg•m −2 and average age of 44.1 ± 5.4 years received 300 g/day of either apple or pear as a fruit in their diet, whereas the control group consumed 60 g/day oat cookies for 10 weeks. ...
... IRCTs conducted in obese and overweight individuals have shown that fruit intake significantly suppresses obesity [36][37][38][39][40]. The first of these studies reported the impact of low and high fruit diets on the body weight, BMI, and WC of obese Spanish females with a BMI of 34.9 ± 2.3 kg·m −2 and average age of 32.6 ± 5.8 years [36]. ...
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Obesity is exponentially increasing regardless of its preventable characteristics. The current measures for preventing obesity have failed to address the severity and prevalence of obesity, so alternative approaches based on nutritional and diet changes are attracting attention for the treatment of obesity. Fruit contains large amounts of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc.), which are well known to induce obesity. Thus, considering the amount of simple sugars found in fruit, it is reasonable to expect that their consumption should contribute to obesity rather than weight reduction. However, epidemiological research has consistently shown that most types of fruit have anti-obesity effects. Thus, due to their anti-obesity effects as well as their vitamin and mineral contents, health organizations are suggesting the consumption of fruit for weight reduction purposes. These contradictory characteristics of fruit with respect to human body weight management motivated us to study previous research to understand the contribution of different types of fruit to weight management. In this review article, we analyze and discuss the relationships between fruit and their anti-obesity effects based on numerous possible underlying mechanisms, and we conclude that each type of fruit has different effects on body weight.
... 11 Consumption of fruits has shown promising results in weight management and chronic disease prevention. 12,13 Studies in the adult population indicate that fruit intake is inversely related to risk of obesity and other chronic diseases since fruits have relatively low energy densities and are high in fiber, and contribute to an overall lower energy intake 12,14 and weight loss. 12 Dried fruit consumption in general has also been associated with improved nutrient intakes and reduced obesity. ...
... 12,13 Studies in the adult population indicate that fruit intake is inversely related to risk of obesity and other chronic diseases since fruits have relatively low energy densities and are high in fiber, and contribute to an overall lower energy intake 12,14 and weight loss. 12 Dried fruit consumption in general has also been associated with improved nutrient intakes and reduced obesity. 15 However, the average diet among individuals in the United States falls short of meeting recommended guidelines for fruit intake. ...
... 22 Apple consumption has also been shown to improve body composition. An intervention study conducted by de Oliveira et al. 12 designed to evaluate the effects of adding fruits to the diet on energy consumption and body weight among overweight women aged 30-50 years demonstrated a significant decrease in energy density as well as weight reduction in women who consumed apples. Similar results were observed in a study of postmenopausal women who consumed 75 g dried apples daily for 1 year. ...
Article
Consumption of fruits reduces the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease; however, very few studies have investigated the effect of fruit consumption in overweight and obese children. We examined whether consuming dried apple as a snack is a practical solution for weight loss and improves body composition and metabolic markers. Thirty-eight overweight or obese children aged 10 to 16 years were randomly assigned to one of two groups consuming twice daily 120 kcal serving per day of either dried apple or a control snack (muffin) for 8 weeks. Body weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition were determined during an initial visit and after 8 weeks of intervention. Blood samples were collected to measure serum concentrations of blood lipids, glucose, insulin, proinsulin, total adiponectin, and C-reactive protein, as well as total antioxidant capacity and activity of glutathione peroxidase. Body weight increased in the muffin group (P = .01). BodPod and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry showed that fat-free mass increased (P < .05) only in the muffin group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration increased (P = .04) after the 8-week treatment within the apple group. Overall, minor differences were detected in growing children who consumed snacks of either dried apples or muffins with similar macronutrient profiles for 8 weeks. Future research should evaluate the effects of consuming fresh apples that include the peel.
... Of 7 RCTs, 5 were parallel-arm randomized trials, and 2 were crossover trials. Included participants in RCTs varied considerably; they were healthy (31,32), nondiabetic (33), or had increased risk of CVD/CMD (19,32,34,35). The apple or pear interventions and their comparators varied across RCTs. ...
... Of 7 RCTs, 5 were parallel-arm randomized trials, and 2 were crossover trials. Included participants in RCTs varied considerably; they were healthy (31,32), nondiabetic (33), or had increased risk of CVD/CMD (19,32,34,35). The apple or pear interventions and their comparators varied across RCTs. ...
... In addition to 12-wk time points, long-term data at 6 and 12 mo were reported for 1 RCT. Meta-analyses of RCTs were conducted for the following outcomes: body weight 36)], BMI ], HDL cholesterol [4 RCTs (19,31,33,36)], total cholesterol (TC) [5 RCTs (19,[32][33][34][35]], LDL cholesterol [4 RCTs (19,31,33,36)], and triglycerides (TG) [5 RCTs (19,31,33,36)]. No metaanalysis was conducted for SBP, DBP, waist circumference, glucose, or waist:hip, LDL:HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol:HDL cholesterol, or glucose:insulin ratios, as these outcomes were reported in <3 RCTs. ...
Article
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Apples and pears contain nutrients that have been linked to cardiovascular health. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize related research. Medline, Cochrane Central, and Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau databases were searched for publications on apple or pear intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD)/ cardiometabolic disease (CMD). Studies in adults (healthy or at risk for CVD) that quantified apple or pear intake were included. Random-effects models meta-analysis was used when ≥3 studies reported the same outcome. In total, 22 studies were eligible including 7 randomized controlled trial, 1 nonrandomized trial, and 14 prospective observational studies. In RCTs, apple intake significantly decreased BMI, but made no difference in body weight, serum lipids, blood glucose, or blood pressure. In observational studies, apple or pear intake significantly decreased risk of cerebrovascular disease, cardiovascular death, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and all-cause mortality. No association was reported for cerebral infarction or intracerebral hemorrhage. In conclusion, apple or pear intake significantly decreased BMI and risk for CVD outcomes.
... The studies were designed as randomized controlled clinical trials (n = 9) or cohort studies (n = 4). The duration of the studies varied from 8-weeks to 9-months in interventions based on energy density of foods and up to 6-years of follow-up in observational studies [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]. ...
... Six studies [16][17][18][19][20][21] were performed only in a female population, and in most of the other studies a higher percentage of women was reported. The studied populations covered American and European nationalities. ...
... The studies were designed as randomized controlled clinical trials (n = 9) or cohort studies (n = 4). The duration of the studies varied from 8-weeks to 9-months in interventions based on energy density of foods and up to 6-years of follow-up in observational studies [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]. Three groups of women; A *: n 1 = 13 P *: n 2 = 13 C *: n 3 = 7 ...
Article
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Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., -0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: -0.88, -0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction.
... 26 Fruits have abundant soluble dietary fibres which may enhance post-meal satiety and decrease both glycaemic index and glycaemic load of consumed foods causing lowered energy absorption. 27 Moreover, fruits are rich in phytochemicals that have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects against the obesity-induced oxidative stress and subclinical inflammation. 25,28 While most vegetables have these characteristics, in multivariable regression analyses, we observed a different association between vegetable intake and obesity from those for fruit consumption. ...
... 26 With respect to body weight management, regular daily fruit consumption may displace energy-dense foods, resulting in attenuated dietary energy density and reduced total energy intake. 27 Fruits have abundant soluble dietary fibres which may enhance post-meal satiety and decrease both glycaemic index and glycaemic load of consumed foods causing lowered energy absorption. 28 ...
... Two clinical trials conducted by de Oliveira et al. in Brazil showed modest but beneficial effects of daily pear consumption for 10 and 12 weeks on energy intake, body weight, and blood glucose levels in young healthy women. 24,25 Another clinical trial conducted by Alvarez-Parrilla et al. in Mexico examined daily consumption of apple, pear, and orange juice for 26 days found that healthy non-smokers had increased total antioxidant capacity but increased total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) whereas healthy smokers had reduced TC and LDL-C. 26 Previous research on the health effects of pears is limited but available data suggest that fresh pear consumption may promote cardiometabolic health and attenuate MetS. ...
... Previously published research by de Oliveira et al. demonstrated that overweight women who consumed fresh pears daily in Brazil for 10 and 12 weeks had modest reductions in body weight (∼2 lbs.). 24,25 They did not report other anthropometric or body composition assessments. With the exception of BMI increasing at 6 weeks in the Control group, we did not observe changes in body weight or BMI over time, or differences between groups in the current study. ...
Article
Previous research suggests potential for fresh pears as a functional food for promoting cardiometabolic health. The purpose of this randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial was to evaluate the influence...
... • Premenopausal women-dietary approach # 2-adding low ED fruit vs. high ED cookies to the usual diet. Women consuming apples or pears had significant weight loss compared to the modest weight gain of women consuming oatmeal cookies over ten weeks ( Figure 10) [41]. • Premenopausal women-dietary approach #3-guidance to increase FV and cereals and restricting the intake of ED rich foods. ...
... Diet vs average Danish diet: anthropometric indicesNew Nordic Diet (HiFV)Average Danish diet (LoFV) Apples or pears vs. oatmeal cookies added to the usual diet and weight change in 49 overweight and obese women (mean age 44 years) for ten weeks[41]. ...
Article
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No previous reviews or meta-analyses have specifically assessed the effects of increased fruit and vegetable (FV) intake on weight loss with a primary focus on women. Several studies show differences between men and women in how increased FV intake affects their weight loss and maintenance, risk of becoming overweight or obese, and the influence of eating speed and frequency on weight control. This analysis provides a comprehensive and visual assessment of the effects of increasing FV intake and long-term weight change from observational studies and weight loss from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in women. Consistent evidence from prospective studies and RCTs shows that increased intake of FV is a chief contributor to weight loss in women. This effect is enhanced with concurrent dietary restriction of high energy density (ED) or high-fat foods. Yet, the type of FV differentially impacts weight loss in women. Whole FV intake may influence weight through a variety of mechanisms including a reduction in eating rate, providing a satisfying, very-low to low energy density, low glycemic load or low-fat content. Also, FV are the primary source of dietary fiber, which can provide additional support for weight loss in women when consumed at adequate levels.
... For apples and pears, a parallel RCT (49 women; isocaloric 3 small apples or pears [0.64 kcal/g] or 3 oat cookies [3.7 kcal/g] added to the usual diet; 10 weeks) showed that apples and pears significantly reduced weight by 0.8-0.9 kg (p < 0.001), whereas the cookies increased weight by 0.2 kg (p = 0.35) [114]. For avocados, a parallel RCT (51 healthy adults; hypocaloric diet; 12-weeks) found that one Hass avocado [9.2 g fiber]/day or an equally hypocaloric diet without avocados were both equally effective in lowering body weight and BMI by about 3% [115]. ...
... This stimulates the release of a cascade of metabolic ileal brake responses associated with the release of satiety hormones (e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY), which slow gastric emptying and small bowel transit to reduce acute appetite and energy intake [140,141]. For apples or pears, women adding 3 small apples or pears to the usual diet reduced daily energy intake by 20-25 kcals/day compared to a 1 kcal increase for 3 oatmeal cookies [114] and young adults consuming a whole apple 15 min before a meal significantly lowered energy intake by 15% (p < 0.0001) [142] whereas apple sauce reduced energy intake by about 7% and apple juice had no effect. For mixed berries, adults consuming 65 kcal snacks of mixed berries [3.6 g fiber] 60 min before an ad-libitum pasta dinner reduced energy intake by 20% more than after an isocaloric sweet confectionery snack ( Figure 7) [143]. ...
Article
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Less than 10% of most Western populations consume adequate levels of whole fruits and dietary fiber with typical intake being about half of the recommended levels. Evidence of the beneficial health effects of consuming adequate levels of whole fruits has been steadily growing, especially regarding their bioactive fiber prebiotic effects and role in improved weight control, wellness and healthy aging. The primary aim of this narrative review article is to examine the increasing number of health benefits which are associated with the adequate intake of whole fruits, especially fruit fiber, throughout the human lifecycle. These potential health benefits include: protecting colonic gastrointestinal health (e.g., constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases, and diverticular disease); promoting long-term weight management; reducing risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome; defending against colorectal and lung cancers; improving odds of successful aging; reducing the severity of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; enhancing psychological well-being and lowering the risk of depression; contributing to higher bone mineral density in children and adults; reducing risk of seborrheic dermatitis; and helping to attenuate autism spectrum disorder severity. Low whole fruit intake represents a potentially more serious global population health threat than previously recognized, especially in light of the emerging research on whole fruit and fruit fiber health benefits.
... Meta-analyses of prospective studies revealed that only 5 kg/m 2 increase in BMI rises the risk of colon cancer in both men and women (108,109). According to Concepcion de Oliveira et al., eating of apples or pears 3 times per day was associated with weight loss in mid- dle-aged hypercholesterolemic overweight women in Brazil (29,110). Participants who consumed either of the fruits, that is, apple (300 g) or pear (300 g), daily had a significant weight loss (1.21 kg) after 12 weeks, but those who consumed oat cookies instead of the fruits did not have a significant weight loss at the same time. ...
... Participants who consumed either of the fruits, that is, apple (300 g) or pear (300 g), daily had a significant weight loss (1.21 kg) after 12 weeks, but those who consumed oat cookies instead of the fruits did not have a significant weight loss at the same time. Consequently, fruits could affect hunger and satiety (110). ...
Article
Apples are known as a major source of polyphenols, dietary fiber, carotenoids, and other nutrients. There are many documents and studies that show fruit polyphenols likely promote anti-obesity effects and exert their beneficial effects via scavenging free radicals, regulating gene expression, and altering signal transduction in target cells and tissues, especially fat tissues.The goal of this review is to presenti the major components of apple and the evidence that indicates its potential to diminution weight gain risk from in vitro, animal, and epidemiological and clinical studies. This review summarizes data about the apple and apple products that been have reported to reduce weight gain by various mechanisms, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cell signaling pathways. An extensive search was performed in PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar to identify human, animal, and cell culture studies on the association between weight loss and apple consumption, published from inception up to journey 15, 2017. The feeding of apples rats (7–10 mg/kg/d) in different forms in 8 experiments have shown that this caused weight loss during 3 to 28 weeks. In agreement with this, the obtained results from 5 experiments on humans have revealed that consumption of the whole apple or apple juice (240–720 mg/d) in 4–12 weeks by fat people can cause weight loss. Experiments on animals and humans have shown that the consumption of apples in different forms can cause weight loss in overweight ones. However, the main questions are which kind of apple, which part of it, how much, and how long overweight persons should consume them to reduce their body fat and body mass index (BMI). Then, it is necessary to do a meta-analysis to show how these factors affect the body fat percentage and whether this weight-lowering effect is statistically significant or not.
... As fruits are low-energy dense and rich in dietary fiber, they can provide stomach satiety with less caloric intake. Specifically, pears have a low energy density of 0.64 kcal/g with plentiful dietary fiber and showed beneficial effects on weight management in a number of different studies [67][68][69][70]. For example, the rats on highfat diets containing pear insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) did not share the same pattern of weight gain as the rats fed diets without pear IDF co-administration and had weights as low as the normal chow-fed group [67]. ...
... It was reported that a high concentration of arbutin was distributed in pear peels [12]. Based on the high contents of arbutin in Korean pears, five unripe Korean pears, i.e., P. pyrifolia cultivars, were tested for whitening activities [105]: For whitening in vivo [67] Low calorie intake due to high fiber P. communis Human [68] Alcohol detoxification and hepato-protection ADH and ALDH ↑ Korean pear (P. pyrifolia cv. ...
Article
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Background Pears have been world-widely used as a sweet and nutritious food and a folk medicine for more than two millennia. Methods We conducted a review from ancient literatures to current reports to extract evidence-based functions of pears. Results We found that pears have many active compounds, e.g., flavonoids, triterpenoids, and phenolic acids including arbutin, chlorogenic acid, malaxinic acid, etc. Most of researchers agree that the beneficial compounds are concentrated in the peels. From various in vitro , in vivo , and human studies, the medicinal functions of pears can be summarized as anti-diabetic,-obese, −hyperlipidemic, −inflammatory, −mutagenic, and -carcinogenic effects, detoxification of xenobiotics, respiratory and cardio-protective effects, and skin whitening effects. Therefore, pears seem to be even effective for prevention from Covid-19 or PM 2.5 among high susceptible people with multiple underlying diseases. Conclusion For the current or post Covid-19 era, pears have potential for functional food or medicine for both of communicable and non-communicable disease.
... The intake of dietary fiber has a positive impact on health, given its role in glycemic control, improving glucose sensitivity and, in the long run, helping to reduce total body weight. [27][28][29][30][31][32] This is probably due to the strong feeling of satiety caused by a diet rich in dietary fiber, 28 which prevents hunger in the appetite of individuals, with consequent reduction in the intake of highly energetic foods and low in micronutrients. ...
... The intake of dietary fiber has a positive impact on health, given its role in glycemic control, improving glucose sensitivity and, in the long run, helping to reduce total body weight. [27][28][29][30][31][32] This is probably due to the strong feeling of satiety caused by a diet rich in dietary fiber, 28 which prevents hunger in the appetite of individuals, with consequent reduction in the intake of highly energetic foods and low in micronutrients. ...
Article
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Introduction: Physical exercise is practiced with several objectives, especially the promotion of changes in body composition, with fat reduction and increase in lean mass. Thus, understanding the factors that may be associated with this modification becomes relevant. Objective: To analyze demographic, lifestyle, biochemical, dietary, and training factors associated with the percentage of body fat in practitioners of physical exercise in gyms. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study with 143 healthy physical exercise practitioners, of both sexes. Sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle were obtained through the application of a questionnaire. Food consumption was obtained through 24-hour food records, considering the averages of three days. Body composition was assessed using anthropometric assessment and the electrical bioimpedance test. The statistical analysis included the Shapiro Wilk test to verify normality, the chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used to assess the association between categorical variables and the response variable and the Mann-Whitney and Student t tests for the continuous variables. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to determine the associations between studied variables. Stata software version 14.0 was used for statistical analysis and a value of p <0.05 was adopted. Results: The prevalence of high body fat was 49.3% in men and 79.2% in women. The associated factors were the higher consumption of protein and fibers in women and the concentration of monocytes in men. Conclusion: Despite being a physically active public, a high percentage of fat was observed among the study participants and the associated factors reinforce the multi-etiological character of this indicator.
... Fruit and Effect of DASH diet on weight and body composition 7 obesity reviews vegetables are also rich in water and fibre, therefore considered as low in energy density. Increases in fruit and vegetable consumption are proposed to reduce the risk of obesity (103,104). ...
Article
Background: Dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet is rich in foods that are proposed to be inversely associated with obesity. Therefore, DASH might better affect body weight; however, published data are conflicting. Objective: To assess the effect of DASH on body weight and composition in adults. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google scholar were searched up to December 2015, for relevant randomized controlled clinical trials. Mean changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were extracted. Results: Thirteen articles (ten for body weight, six for BMI and two for WC) were eligible. Meta-analysis revealed that adults on DASH diet lose more weight (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -1.42 kg, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: -2.03, -0.82) in 8-24 weeks, BMI (WMD = -0.42 kg m(-2) , 95%CI: -0.64, -0.20) in 8-52 weeks and WC (WMD = -1.05 cm, 95%CI: -1.61, -0.49) in 24 weeks compared with controls. Low caloric DASH led to even more weight reduction when compared with other low-energy diets. In addition, the effect was greater in overweight/obese participants and when compared with typical (Western or population's usual) diets. Conclusion: DASH diet is a good choice for weight management particularly for weight reduction in overweight and obese participants. © 2016 World Obesity.
... Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption has been studied extensively as a possible strategy for weight reduction and maintenance in adults. Consuming more fruits and vegetables has been shown to help overweight adults lose weight (de Oliveira et al. 2008) and to lower the risk of becoming overweight (Rolls et al. 2004;Robinson-O'Brien et al. 2009). Possible mechanisms for this effect include decreasing overall calorie intake because fruits and vegetables tend to be lower in calories, increasing satiety through increased water and fiber consumption, and increasing individuals' motivation to lose weight by focusing on positive changes in eating habits (Rolls et al. 2004). ...
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Children’s obesity rates have increased substantially over the past several decades, due in part to unhealthy eating habits. About 75% of preschool-aged children consume fewer fruits and vegetables than recommended for health. Because children begin developing eating habits during early childhood, obesity prevention programs are increasingly targeting young children in early childhood education (ECE) settings and are involving their families in teaching about healthy eating. The purpose of this pilot study is to assess the effectiveness of a family involvement activity known as the family backpack in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among 4- and 5-year-old children and their parents through hands-on activities that encourage them to explore and discuss fruits and vegetables at home. Forty-two families (22 experimental, 20 control) participated in the study. Families received a family backpack from their child’s ECE teacher and completed activities with their child at home during a specific week. Experimental-group backpacks contained a children’s book and three activities to encourage parent–child discussion about fruits and vegetables; control-group backpacks contained an unrelated book and activities. Children’s and parents’ fruit and vegetable consumption and frequency of serving fruits and vegetables at home were assessed using parent self-report surveys before and after completing backpack activities. Parents in the experimental group, but not the control group, reported increases in their own and their children’s fruit and vegetable consumption after completing family backpack activities. Family backpacks show promise as a tool for early childhood educators to help families reinforce and expand children’s learning and encourage healthy eating habits at home.
... The Australian and Canadian governments, in contrast, recommend that individuals consume two servings of fruit and five servings of vegetables every day (Health Canada, 2007;National Health and Medical Research Council, 2013). Unfortunately, few individuals meet these recommendations irrespective of how they are defined and are therefore at elevated risk of becoming obese (de Oliveira, Sichieri, & Venturim Mozzer, 2008;Howard et al., 2006;Ledoux, Hingle, & Baranowski, 2011;Sallis & Glanz, 2006), developing cardiovascular disease (Dauchet, Amouyel, Hercberg, & Dallongeville, 2006;Lock, Pomerleau, Causer, Altmann, & McKee, 2005) or receiving a diagnosis of cancer (Feskanich et al., 2000;Key, 2011). ...
Article
Parents play a critical role in promoting fruit and vegetable consumption, for eating patterns established early in life tend to persist into adulthood. Despite this, the factors that facilitate or inhibit parents’ capacity to socialise fruit and vegetable consumption into their children’s daily diets remain poorly defined. Thirty-eight semi-structured interviews with residents, allied healthcare professionals, community leaders, community programme leaders and a local government leader living or working in two low socioeconomic suburbs were consequently conducted to ascertain factors exogenous and endogenous to the family unit that shaped parental food socialisation practices. Budgetary and time constraints emerged as exogenous factors that constrained fruit and vegetable socialisation. Constraining effects were also found for a range of endogenous factors, including commensal experiences, children’s food fussiness and the feeding styles employed by parents. As such, while many caregivers may wish to socialise fruit and vegetable consumption into their children’s daily diets, their capacity to do so is often inhibited by factors beyond their volitional control. Failure to take heed of these factors could therefore result in the development of social marketing campaigns that are ineffective at best or give rise to unintentionally harmful outcomes at worst.
... 26 With respect to body weight management, regular daily fruit consumption may displace energy-dense foods, resulting in attenuated dietary energy density and reduced total energy intake. 27 Fruits have abundant soluble dietary fibres which may enhance postmeal satiety and decrease both glycaemic index and glycaemic load of consumed foods causing lowered energy absorption. 28 Moreover, fruits are rich in phytochemicals that have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects against the obesity-induced oxidative stress and subclinical inflammation. ...
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Objectives The prevalence of obesity among populations in the Atlantic provinces is the highest in Canada. Some studies suggest that adequate fruit and vegetable consumption may help body weight management. We assessed the associations between fruit and vegetable intake with body adiposity among individuals who participated in the baseline survey of the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow’s Health (Atlantic PATH) cohort study. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional analysis among 26 340 individuals (7979 men and 18 361 women) aged 35–69 years who were recruited in the baseline survey of the Atlantic PATH study. Data on fruit and vegetable intake, sociodemographic and behavioural factors, chronic disease, anthropometric measurements and body composition were included in the analysis. Results In the multivariable regression analyses, 1 SD increment of total fruit and vegetable intake was inversely associated with body mass index (−0.12 kg/m²; 95% CI −0.19 to –0.05), waist circumference (−0.40 cm; 95% CI −0.58 to –0.23), percentage fat mass (−0.30%; 95% CI −0.44 to –0.17) and fat mass index (−0.14 kg/m²; 95% CI −0.19 to –0.08). Fruit intake, but not vegetable intake, was consistently inversely associated with anthropometric indices, fat mass, obesity and abdominal obesity. Conclusions Fruit and vegetable consumption was inversely associated with body adiposity among the participant population in Atlantic Canada. This association was primarily attributable to fruit intake. Longitudinal studies and randomised trials are warranted to confirm these observations and investigate the underlying mechanisms.
... This strategy could play an important role in weight management. [79][80][81] In a cross-sectional study of 175 overweight Latino youth, nonstarchy vegetables consumption was associated with lower liver fat deposition, 82 increased insulin sensitivity and decreased visceral adipose tissue. Other observational studies supported the notion that NAFLD patients consume less vegetables and dietary fibers than controls. ...
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a major global health burden, leading to increased risk for cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, type-2?diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle intervention aiming at weight reduction is the most established treatment. However, changing the dietary composition even without weight loss can also reduce steatosis and improve metabolic alterations as insulin resistance and lipid profile. The Mediterranean diet (MD) pattern has been proposed as appropriate for this goal, and was recommended as the diet of choice for the treatment of NAFLD by the EASL-EASD-EASO Clinical Practice Guidelines. The MD has an established superiority in long term weight reduction over low fat diet, but it improves metabolic status and steatosis even without it. However, the effect on liver inflammation and fibrosis was tested only in few observational studies with positive results. Furthermore, considering the strong association between NAFLD and diabetes and CVD, the MD has a highly established advantage in prevention of these diseases, demonstrated in randomized clinical trials. The individual components of the MD such as olive oil, fish, nuts, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, have been shown to beneficially effect or negatively correlate with NAFLD, while consumption of components that characterize a Western dietary pattern as soft drinks, fructose, meat and saturated fatty acids have been shown to have detrimental association with NAFLD. In this review we will cover the epidemiological evidence and the plausible molecular mechanisms by which the MD as a whole and each of its components can be of benefit in NAFLD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Apple, the most popular and commonly consumed fruit, represents a typical example of healthy food, being an abundant source of beneficial compounds like polyphenols and fibers. Indeed, apple intake not only improves vascular function, 1-5 lipid metabolism, [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13] weight management 14,15 and inflammation, [16][17][18] but it has also been associated with a lower risk for diabetes. 19 Thus, the first objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of apples on cells implicated in metabolic diseases using cell culture assay methodologies to set a pharmacological basis of the beneficial use of apple consumption against these diseases. ...
Article
Epidemiological studies reported that apple consumption was associated to a decrease of cardiovascular and metabolic dysfunction, probably due to the polyphenols and fibers contained in this fruit. Storage conditions and genetic origin of apples have been reported to influence their content and, as a consequence, their pharmacological properties. Present study evaluated the influence of varieties and storage conditions of traditional and highly appreciated apples including Gala, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith and Pink Lady varieties after harvest and stored in classic cold conditions, under controlled atmosphere, or extreme ultra-low oxygen conditions. Thus, a multi-parametric screening on cell models associated to vascular and metabolic dysfunctions - such as endothelial and smooth muscle cells, hepatocytes, adipocytes and macrophages - in relation to apple polyphenol content has been developed. This strategy demonstrated that, over all, peeled apple samples exhibited a vascular tropism and acted mainly on proliferation and oxidative stress on endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Apple extracts appeared to be less effective on adipocytes and macrophages, but they exhibited antioxidant properties in hepatocytes. Among the varieties, Gala and Golden Delicious were the most efficient against the processes involved in the development of atherosclerosis. Concerning storage condition, most of the apple varieties were more efficient under harvest condition; while they could not can be discriminated neither under all other cold conditions nor the concentration used except for the Gala samples. Interestingly, pharmacological properties were associated with polyphenol profiles of freeze dried flesh apple powder. The present report revealed the potential use of some apple extracts as effective food supplements or nutraceuticals for the prevention and/or management of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.
... The Australian and Canadian governments, in contrast, recommend that individuals consume two servings of fruit and five servings of vegetables every day (Health Canada, 2007;National Health and Medical Research Council, 2013). Unfortunately, few individuals meet these recommendations irrespective of how they are defined and are therefore at elevated risk of becoming obese (de Oliveira, Sichieri, & Venturim Mozzer, 2008;Howard et al., 2006;Ledoux, Hingle, & Baranowski, 2011;Sallis & Glanz, 2006), developing cardiovascular disease (Dauchet, Amouyel, Hercberg, & Dallongeville, 2006;Lock, Pomerleau, Causer, Altmann, & McKee, 2005) or receiving a diagnosis of cancer (Feskanich et al., 2000;Key, 2011). ...
Chapter
Numerous governmental and international organisations have developed nutritional guidelines outlining recommended daily intakes of fruit and vegetables (National Health and Medical Research Council 2013; World Health Organisation 2004). Australians, for example, are advised to consume 2 serves of fruit and 5 serves of vegetables each day (National Health and Medical Research Council 2013). Unfortunately, data suggests that few Australians actually meet these recommendations (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009), placing them at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease (Dauchet et al. 2006; Lock et al. 2005) or receiving a diagnosis of cancer (Feskanich et al. 2000; Key 2010). Given the deleterious health outcomes associated with limited fruit and vegetable intake, considerable scholarly attention has been directed towards understanding the factors that curtail fruit and vegetable consumption in an effort to promote healthful behaviour change (Guillaumie et al. 2010; Kamphuis et al. 2006). One method that can assist in understanding these factors is to examine the beliefs associated with the consumption of adequate quantities of fruit and vegetables. From a theoretical perspective, this approach is consistent with Ajzen’s (1991) notion that beliefs ultimately underpin the enactment of behaviour. As such, understanding the beliefs associated with the consumption of fruit and vegetables may provide insights into the factors that could be targeted in social marketing campaigns aimed at improving fruit and vegetable consumption. The aim of this study was therefore to quantitatively ascertain the beliefs associated with meeting recommended intakes of fruit and vegetables.
... Apples are one of the most widely consumed fruits worldwide and earlier studies have shown that it not only has a higher fiber content than other fresh fruits (cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectin and lignin content) but also that its consumption have a statistically significant impact on weight reduction and hence widely used as part of diet in controlling obesity [9][10]. Furthermore, the consumption of apple juices mainly for their antioxidant properties with contributions from ascorbic acid reduce outset of cardiac diseases, cancer, ageing processes, and interferes with the oxidation of lipoproteins of low density [12][13][14][15]. ...
Article
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Freshly extracted juices obtained from organically and conventionally produced orange and apple fruits were assayed in terms of their nutritional quality. Total and individual sugars were detected using HPLC while brix concentrations were measured through a hand-held optical refractometer. Enzyme immunoassay method was used for vitamin analysis while both flame photometer and AAS were used for the minerals. It was observed from this study that the total soluble solids of juices obtained from conventionally grown fruits are slightly higher than their organic counterparts. However, apple juices revealed more percent soluble solids (12.8 - 13.56°Brix) than juices obtained from orange (10.78 – 11.6°Brix). The highest soluble sugar concentration detected was sucrose (4.21 – 5.66 g/100 mL) and conventional apple juices had the highest amount. Maltose was not detected in all the analyzed samples. Glucose concentrations were reportedly slightly higher (2.83 – 3.11 g/100 mL) in conventionally grown fruits than their organic counterparts (2.59 - 2.79 g/100 mL). Both organic and conventional orange fruit juices were observed to contain higher amounts of potassium, sodium, calcium, copper and zinc than their counterparts from apple. Concentrations of ascorbic acid were highest (480 mg/ L) in organic orange juice and the lowest was detected in conventional apple juice (190 mg/ L). For folic acid, organic apple juice had the lowest amount (61.29 µg/ L) while juice from conventionally grown oranges contained the highest mean amount (84.23 µg/ L). Additional research on other nutritional aspects such as amino acid profile, antioxidant activity, phenolic and organic acid composition may be necessary in order to provide more information for better comparison. Keywords: Fresh Juice; Orange; Apple; Organic; Non organic; Nutritional Quality
... Apples are high in dietary fiber and polyphenol compounds, which work together with gut bacteria to create an environment that contributes to a lower cancer risk (Tu et al., 2017). It also aids in weight loss for those who begin their meals with apple slices, as they feel fuller and consume 200 fewer calories on average than those who do not (de Oliveira et al., 2008;Flood-Obbagy and Rolls, 2009). The apple industry is a big industry and everything from farm management to harvesting and further processing of apple products is kept under keen consideration. ...
... Most controlled trials report a relationship between dietary ED and weight gain in the overweight and/or obese population, with manipulation of the ED among groups (9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15) ; however, these interventions were of relatively short duration. Observational studies, which can reflect the influence of the usual diet over a longer period of time, would corroborate or supplement the results of interventional studies. ...
Article
High dietary energy density (ED) has been associated with weight gain. However, little is known about the long-term effects of ED on weight changes among free-living subjects, particularly in Japanese and other Asian populations. In this study, we assessed dietary habits and weight changes in participants (5778 males and 7440 females, 35-69 years old) of the Takayama study. ED was estimated using a validated FFQ at baseline only. Information on body weight (BW) was obtained by self-administered questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Mean BW difference in 9·8 years was 17 (se 4221) g for men and -210 (se 3889) g for women. In men, ED was positively associated with BW at follow-up after controlling for age, BW, height, physical activity score, alcohol consumption, energy intake, years of education at the baseline and change of smoking status during the follow-up. On average, men in the highest quartile of ED (>5·322 kJ/g (>1·272 kcal/g)) gained 138 (se 111) g, whereas men in the lowest ED (<1·057) lost 22 (se 111) g (P for trend=0·01). The association between ED and BW gain was stronger in men with normal weight. In women, the association between ED and weight change was not statistically significant. In conclusion, contrary to some studies that report an association between ED and weight gain in the overweight only, our data suggest that high-ED diets may be associated with weight gain in the lean population as well, at least in male subjects.
... Apples are high in dietary fiber and polyphenol compounds, which work together with gut bacteria to create an environment that contributes to a lower cancer risk (Tu et al., 2017). It also aids in weight loss for those who begin their meals with apple slices, as they feel fuller and consume 200 fewer calories on average than those who do not (de Oliveira et al., 2008;Flood-Obbagy and Rolls, 2009). The apple industry is a big industry and everything from farm management to harvesting and further processing of apple products is kept under keen consideration. ...
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Mediator is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of many genes in different functional pathways, enhancing growth, development and other biological processes. Its role in flowering in Malus × domestica, however, is still unknown. Due to the long life cycle and low rate of genetic transformation in M. domestica, flowering induction is still a very serious problem, leading to lower production. Here we report the identification of 83 mediator genes in M. domestica, their gene structure, protein characteristics, locations on each chromosome, systematic phylogenetic structural analysis, distribution of the chromosome, synteny of MdMED genes, and cis-elements prediction at the promoter region of MdMED genes. On the basis of phylogenetic relationships, the members of the MdMED gene family were divided into six subgroups. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of the MdMED subgroup-D genes displayed that most genes showed strong preferential expression in the buds and were significantly upregulated during the flower induction period. Transcriptional levels of MdMED subgroup-D genes respond to salicylic acid treatment. To determine MdMED81′s functions, we obtained MdMED81-overexpressed (OE) Arabidopsis thaliana lines that showed significantly earlier flowering compared with wild-type. Furthermore, we developed a high R² value correlation between MdMED81 and day hours that is presented in equation form to detect MdMED81 in flowering time regulation and control in M. domestica. We also presented an annual model of MdMED81 in the control of flowering time and concluded that salicylic acid application at the right time of the year triggers MdMED81 to induce flowering in M. domestica. This data provides a new theoretical reference for the management of apple tree flowering and also provides an essential basis for future analysis of the regulation and functions of the MdMED gene family.
... Apples are one of the most popular and frequently consumed fruits in the world (see Fig. 33.1). As stated above apple consumption was been related to reduction of chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, T2DM, or obesity [2][3][4][5][6]41]. For instance, epidemiological studies suggest that apple consumption is associated with a 20-33 % reduction in the risk of T2DM [6]. ...
... Due to local fruit market demand, normal apples can be substituted by pears produced as the only value-added products in their production system. Since apples and pears have the same energy content [39], it will take 1 kg of pears to substitute 1 kg of normal apples. In the farm used in the study, when producing 6.5 kg of apples, 3 kg are good quality apples intended for the fruit market, and the remaining 3.5 kg get damaged and considered as second-rate products. ...
Article
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In the context of strengthening sustainability of production systems, agri-food products become the target of environmental evaluation using life cycle assessment (LCA°. Most of agri-food production systems include multifunctional processes, a common challenge occurs regarding the way to partition impacts among co-products. This is known as the allocation problem. Many approaches have been introduced, leading to different results. One major question that LCA practitioners face is the allocation method choice. The extensive literature review achieved in this study allowed the identification of the most used and acknowledged allocation methods. A cross-analysis unveiled a strong link between allocation choice and decision-makers’ objectives. Hence, this paper proposes to identify the LCA scope, and to use a contextual reasoning to choose the allocation method. These findings were tested on two LCA studies involving agri-food co-products: deteriorated apples and wheat straw. It was validated and discussed in line with the ISO 14044:2006 guidelines.
... Due to local fruit market demand, normal apples can be replaced with pears, produced as the only value-added products in their production system. Since apples and pears have the same energy content (De Oliveira et al. 2008), it will take 1 kg of pears to replace 1 kg of normal apples. In the case of the production farm in the study, when producing 6.5 kg of apples, 3.5 kg deteriorates, while 3 kg is normal apples intended for the fruit market. ...
Article
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Purpose As sustainability has become an important asset for production systems, it is important to conduct life cycle assessment (LCA) studies. When conducting an LCA of products derived from a multi-product process, the common challenge of impact partitioning arises. This is referred to as the allocation problem. Many allocation methods have been introduced in the literature, leading to a variety of results depending on the choice of allocation method. The purpose of this paper is to provide LCA practitioners with an operational approach that helps them choose the allocation method when evaluating co-products. Methods The extensive literature review carried out in the study allows identification of the main allocation methods available to practitioners. A cross-analysis also points out a strong link between allocation choices and decision-makers’ objectives. A decision-aid tool is introduced and tested on two case studies involving co-products. Results and discussion The resulting decision-aid tool helps guide the allocation choice in the two case studies through multi-level reasoning. Depending on the objective of the LCA study and the co-product being analyzed, a multi-level decision tree proposes a set of recommended allocation methods. The first level consists in identifying the purpose of the study, after which yes-or-no questions start to guide the path toward the right allocation method. In the most complex cases, the LCA practitioner is presented with a table containing all the allocation methods defended by other LCA practitioners for specific industries and contexts. This decision-aid tool complements the guidelines presented by ISO 14044 2006. Conclusion The presented tool creates a strong correlation between the aims of the study and the allocation choice, thus allowing practitioners to both justify their choice and to discuss the results with alternative scenarios for sensitivity analysis.
... 17% only in obese group received fresh vegetable more than three time in week. Vegetables and fruits (VFs) have to prevent obesity because of their low energy dense, high water and fiber content (De Oliveira et al., 2008). Epstein et al. (2001) reported that the percentage of overweight in families with increased VFs consumption was significantly lower than that in those with decreased high-fat/high-sugar consumption. ...
... Despite the potential of these dry plant-foods to contain significant fiber content, factors affecting dryness may be more influential in mitigating energy intake. For example, when obese and overweight women (age 35-70 years) were randomly assigned to consume either three apples (n = 16), three pears (n = 16), or three oat cookies (n = 17) every day for 10 weeks as part of an ad libitum diet, those who consumed the apples and pears reduced their calorie intake by ~25 and ~20 kcal/d, respectively [15]. These calorie reductions were associated with significantly reduced body weight in both apple (β= −0.92 kg, p = 0.0001) and pear groups (β= −0.84 kg, p = 0.0004). ...
Article
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Obesity affects over one-third of Americans and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. Interventional trials have consistently demonstrated that consumption of plant-based diets reduces body fat in overweight and obese subjects, even when controlling for energy intake. Nonetheless, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been well-defined. This review discusses six major dietary mechanisms that may lead to reduced body fat. These include (1) reduced caloric density, (2) improved gut microbiota symbiosis, (3) increased insulin sensitivity, (4) reduced trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), (5) activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), and (6) over-expression of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins. Collectively, these factors improve satiety and increase energy expenditure leading to reduced body weight.
... Pear helps in accelerating the process of weight loss by binding pectin (a type of fiber) to fatty substances present in the digestive tract and eliminates them (De Oliveira et al. 2008). ...
Chapter
Pear (Pyrus communis L) is full grown in temperate and subtropical conditions since its more extensive adoptability. Sparkling pear fruit is eaten worldwide and additionally typically found in processed products like beverages and protected natural products. Pear fruit is rich in macronutrients as well as in micronutrients. It is a rich source of dietary fiber and vitamin C. Distinctive types of phenolic compounds too are displayed in peels, blossoms, seeds, bark, and leaves. The phenolic contents are higher within the pear skins than in its pulp. Pear has good wound restoration property. Pear is a skin brightening specialist. The boron substance in pear makes a difference in the body to hold calcium, which progressively impedes osteoporosis. Pear is wealthy source of fructose and dietary fiber. The purgative properties of pear are explained by the presence of fructose and fibre substance. Pear and pear products have shown prominent results in pain relieving, antineoplastic, antidepressant, antibiotic antimicrobic and resistant booster. Utilization of pear natural product, containing wealthy phytoconstituents, amid a slim down is aiming to be accommodating in ensuring the body from hurtful oxygen radicals. Moreover, it is too recommended that natural products ought to be devoured with their peels, since it is thought that the oxidation reducing action that they require is successful in ensuring the wellbeing and anticipating illnesses. This topic presents a comprehensive study of the phytochemical constitution, antioxidant properties, dietary regard, prosperity benefits, and therapeutic properties of pear
... McKinsey Global Institue raporuna günümüzde 2.1 milyardan fazla insan (dünya nüfusunun yaklaşık %30'u) aşırı kilolu veya obez olarak sınıflandırılmış ve bu oranın 2030 yılına kadar %41'e yükseleceği öngörülmüştür [49,120]. Obeziteyi önlemek için farklı araştırmacılar doğal ürünlere yönelmiş ve avokadonun antiobezite özellikleri gösteren çok çeşitli biyoaktif bileşenleri içerdiğini bildirmişlerdir [107,108]. Araştırmacılar meyve ve/veya sebze alımını artırarak gıda bazlı enerji yoğunluğunu düşürmenin önemli vücut ağırlığı kaybı ile ilişkili olduğunu öne sürmektedir [109]. Tüm bir diyet modelinin enerji yoğunluğu, toplam kalori miktarının tüketilen toplam gıda ağırlığına bölünmesiyle hesaplanır; düşük, orta ve yüksek enerji yoğunluklu diyetler sırasıyla g başına 1.3 kcal, 1.7 kcal ve 2.1 kcal enerji içerir. ...
... As secondary metabolites of plants, phenolics have a broad spectrum of bioactive functions, such as antioxidant activity [4][5][6], anti-tumour [7,8], and anti-inflammatory effects [9], cardiovascular disease prevention [10,11], and weight control [12]. The phenolic components abundant in apples mainly include flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ols, dihydrochalcone, and anthocyanins [13]. ...
Article
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Apple (Malus pumila Mill.) is a popular fruit with high economic values and various biological activities that are beneficial to human health. In this study, 35 apple cultivars were collected and were evaluated for their basic quality indexes, phenolic compositions, antioxidant activity, anti-tumour, and anti-diabetic activities. The compositions of phenolics were detected by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high-resolution mass spectroscopy (HRMS) assays. The antioxidant activities of peel and pulp extracts from 35 apple cultivars were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Results showed that the contents of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins showed significant correlations with the antioxidant activities. Phenolic-rich extracts significantly inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation, with the inhibition activity varied significantly between cultivars. 'Gold Delicious' pulp extract, 'Xiboliyabaidian' peel and pulp extracts showed protective effects on H2O2-induced injury of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). 'Red Fuji' peel extract, 'Xiboliyabaidian' peel and pulp extracts, as well as 'Gold Delicious' peel extract, significantly increased glucose consumption of HepG2 cells, in a dose-dependent manner. This research may provide theoretical guidance for further nutritional investigation of the apple resources.
... The products on the shelf varied according to size and number of portions included per package, so we used the energy density of the product chosen (kcal/100 g of product) as our key dependent variable, which meant we could control for differences in the size of the products displayed on the shelf. Moreover, diets with high energy density tend to have lower nutrient content than diets with low energy density Ledikwe et al. 2006;Maillot et al. 2007), and energy density is an important criterion for weight management (De Oliveira, Sichieri, and Mozzer 2008;Pérez-Escamilla et al. 2012). We also computed an index of nutritional quality for each product using the previously used FSA score; the FSA scores of the products displayed varied from −4 to 29. ...
Article
The adoption of front-of-package (FoP) nutrition labels to promote healthier food choices is increasing worldwide, yet it remains unclear which types of nutrition labels are superior from a public policy perspective. This research compares two common forms of evaluative FoP nutrition labels that vary in the number of colors and corresponding letters they display (three colors, A—C [3C] vs. five colors, A—E [5C]). Four studies, including a field study with vending machines and a study in an experimental supermarket using eye-tracking, show that compared with the 3C label and no label (control) conditions, the 5C label enhances purchase intentions and choices of healthy alternatives. In particular, the 5C nutrition label is superior because it provides more information that helps consumers discriminate the products’ healthiness. This ability to discriminate healthiness modifies consumers’ perceived healthiness of products and influences both their purchase intentions and choice of healthy food options.
... Apparently, fruit consumption by humans remains a critical dietary component, as the massive Global Burden of Disease study finds the lack of dietary fruit to be the number one driver of mortality, and responsible for 4.9 million deaths annually around the world (Lozano et al. 2012). It's not just the calories delivered by the fruit, but a host of other critical nutrients including fiber and antioxidants that make fruit an essential part of a healthy human diet that prevents disease (de Oliveira 2008, Chiba et al. 2012, Wood et al. 2012, Ananthakrishnan et al. 2013). ...
Chapter
The Chesapeake Bay region was highly involved in the colonial era triangle trade that connected the sugar colonies of the Caribbean to Western Europe and Africa. This brought both sugar and slavery to the Chesapeake. While chattel slavery has passed, virtual slavery to sugar persists as this addictive substance is widely consumed by African Americans and only somewhat less so by others in the Chesapeake region today. The excess calories from added sugars combines with increased consumption of animal products to set up widespread nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) that leads to diabetes and obesity. Per capita annual sugar consumption in the US increased 20-fold between 1820 (3 kg) and 2016 (60 kg). Sweetened beverages, candies and pastries, provide the bulk of added dietary sugars, but 22% is hidden in a large variety of processed foods including soups, meats, prepared meals and condiments. Non-caloric artificial sweeteners also promote weight gain. Retraining the pallets of consumers to accept shifting to a whole-food plant-based diet promises to free the population from type-2 diabetes and other obesity related diseases.
... Sayur dan buah juga merupakan pangan dengan densitas energi yang rendah. Konsumsi lebih banyak buah berhubungan dengan asupan energi total yang lebih rendah dan pada akhirnya menurunkan risiko terjadinya obesitas (de Oliveira et al., 2008). ...
Article
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ABSTRAK Obesitas dapat berdampak pada peningkatan risiko terjadinya penyakit tidak menular hingga penurunanproduktivitas. Obesitas diduga dipengaruhi oleh berbagai faktor. Wilayah perkotaan memiliki beberapa perbedaan dengan wilayah pedesaan dari berbagai aspek, seperti kegiatan perekonomian maupun gaya hidup yang memungkinkan risiko yang lebih besar untuk terjadinya obesitas dibandingkan dengan wilayah pedesaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode systematic review, untuk merangkum hasil penelitian mengenai obesitas di wilayah perkotaan yang dipublikasikan pada sepuluh tahun terakhir. Determinan obesitas pada wilayah perkotaan meliputi faktor internal dan faktor eksternal. Faktor internal dikelompokkan sebagai perilaku konsumsi dan aktivitas, sikap, serta karakteristik individu. Faktor eksternal terdiri dari dukungan keluarga dan lingkungan sekitar individu. Kata kunci : Obesitas, Dewasa, Perkotaan
... Foods rich in fibre should therefore be included in everyday meal in order to achieve healthy weight loss. Fibre rich foods include fruits and vegetables [7]. ...
Article
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This review defines overweight, obesity, weight loss and discusses conditions required to achieve an effective and sustainable healthy weight. Body mass index was used as a critical tool in determining the need to lose weight as being overweight or obese are valid reasons to lose weight. Overweight and Obesity conditions relevance to health were highlighted. Dietary and nondietary approach to losing weight sustainably and healthily were also enumerated in the chapter. World Health Organization reports of 1998, 2003, 2015 and 2018 constituted the scientific basis of losing weight and maintaining a healthy weight and its significance to health especially as overweight and obesity conditions are implicated in the development of Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer in humans. Consequently, future research and development efforts should be geared towards developing novel food products such as healthy beverages, snacks, and meals from available food crops in each country globally to prevent excessive weight gain that could lead to becoming overweight or obese and thus limiting the need to having to lose weight. There must be a food policy in place that is in favor of the production of health-based food products. There should be a nutrition program to create awareness about the health implication of being overweight or obese, regular exercises/physical exercises should also be encouraged through various media for maximum impact among the populace. What is weight loss? Weight loss occurs when the energy expended is greater than energy intake. Weight loss maintenance according to Wing and Hill [1] is the deliberate act of losing about 10% of body weight and sustaining it for about 1 year. In order to lose weight, there should be less energy intake and burning up more energy. This means that the food intake needs to be reduced and the level of physical activities must increase significantly. It has been shown that losing weight steadily and gradually is the safest way of losing weight and the weight is much more likely to stay off than if you lose it quickly. Body Mass Index (BMI)-It is generally calculated as the ratio of weight and height. BMI = weight (kg)/ height 2 (m 2) Body mass index The Body Mass Index is a useful measure but it is only a guide as it has been found to have limitations especially suitable only for adults above 18years old, not useful for pregnant women and professional adult athletes and that BMI values differ slightly with gender and race.
... RCTs four studeis found that lowering ED was linked with significant greater weight loss. [82][83][84][85] Although two RCTs found no differences in weight loss following consumption of low versus high-energydensity diets. 86,87 According to the heterogeneity subgroup analyses were conducted based on DED calculation method, dietary intake, outcome assessment, gender, age and country. ...
Article
Objectives: There is a growing body of evidence linking dietary energy density (DED) with metabolic disorders like obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, according to our knowledge, there has been no systematic review and mate-analysis on T2D and MetS with DED. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between DED with the risk of obesity, T2D and MetS in a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Methods: We searched all published studies according to the defined keywords up to march 2020 in the PubMed/Medline and Scopus databases. We excluded those that did not calculate DED for total intake, no observed association between obesity, T2D, MetS as the primary or one of the outcomes with DED, no reported odds ratio (OR), relative risk (RR) or hazard ratio (HR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), studies in children under two years old, patients with cancer and pregnant women. Results: From 2282, after deleting the duplicates and irrelevant studies, we entered 58 articles ( 47 systematic reviews and 11 meta-analyze). We indicated an increased risk of T2D in relation to DED (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.18-1.33, P< 0.001). But studies reviewed were inconsistent. All studies which examined the relationship between DED and MetS, showed a positive relationship with an increased significant risk (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.22-2.07, P<0.001). Most articles reported a direct association between DED and obesity but the relationship between DED and risk of obesity was not significant (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.92-1.17, P= 0.543). Conclusion: In this systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, we found that the DED increased the risk of T2D and MetS, but was not significant with the risk of obesity.
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Nowdays, obesity is considered a health problem worldwide which predisposes to development of various metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer among others, as well as, psychological disorders as depression. This condition has been increased through the time because of changes in lifestyle and modification in feeding type. This review provides an update of recent studies about obesity consequences on health and how a healthy diet, including dietary fiber, can helps to keep a healthy body weight and avoiding several diseases related to this condition. Several studies have reported that a healthy and balanced diet helps to control human weight, added to this, a diet rich in dietary fiber (from natural sources or produced biotechnologically) helps to keep a body weight regulation, control of lipid and triglycerides levels because of its chemical, physical and biochemical features. One of the these features is hormonal regulation through dietary fiber consumption, in as much as that several appetite and satiety hormones in the organism are activated in presence of dietary fiber and provides an effect of satiety which causes a decrease in food consumption. Therefore, consumption of dietary fiber of several sources could be an alternative for controlling obesity-related diseases and preventing this condition.
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Etiology. Type 2 diabetes (diabetes) is a disease that is preventable through the practice of a healthy lifestyle, including the consumption of a healthy, fiber-rich dietary pattern, weight loss/management, and physical activity (Textbook of natural medicine, Elsevier, Philadelphia, 2013, pp. 1320–48; Br J Clin Nutr 92:7–19, 2004; N Engl J Med 345(11):790–797, 2001; Lancet 383:1999–2007, 2014; Lancet 379(9833): 2279–90, 2012; J Hum Nutr Diet 27:251–60, 2014). Only about 5 % of the US and many other westernized populations routinely follow a diabetes preventive lifestyle or consume adequate levels of dietary fiber (fiber) (Advisory guidelines advisory report to the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture, Figure D1.2:131, 2015; Dietary reference intakes: energy, carbohydrates, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids, National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2005, pp 339–421; EFSA J 8(3):1462, 2010; J Am Diet Assoc 108:1716–31, 2008; Nutr J 13:34, 2014; Am J Med 126(12):1059–67, 2013; Am J Epidemiol 180(6):565–73, 2014; Fiber intake of the US population. What we eat in American, NHANES 2009-2010. Food Surveys Research Group, Dietary Surveys Research Group No. 12; 2014).
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The prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes has increased globally in parallel with the rising levels of obesity in adults and children, a phenomenon sometimes called diabesity. If this global trend continues, by 2030 an estimated one billion people are expected to have prediabetes and diabetes.
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Background: Obesity is a key modifiable risk factor for non-communicable diseases. The modern food environment provides easy access to inexpensive, highly palatable, energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods and beverages, which are associated with increased BMI and reduced dietary quality. The NEEDNT Food List™, comprising ‘non-essential, energy-dense, nutritionally-deficient’ foods and beverages, was developed to help patients and consumers to clearly distinguish non-essential foods from core foods required for good health. In the present study, the original NEEDNT Food List™ was incorporated into preliminary ‘Moderation Guidelines’, which aim to provide quantified guidance for implementing the concept of dietary moderation, in the context of NEEDNT food and beverage intake. Objectives: The aims of the present study were to create a points and quota system for quantifying and monitoring energy intake from NEEDNT foods and beverages; to pre-test preliminary Moderation Guidelines among a representative group of potential users; and to make recommendations to further develop the Moderation Guidelines as a weight loss tool. Design: This study utilised an observational design and qualitative methods to obtain information-rich verbal data from study participants. Twelve people, aged 22 to 57 years, with a BMI ≥30 and a history of repeated weight loss attempts, were selected to pre-test the Moderation Guidelines over a 4-week period, and subsequently participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews. Interviews comprised eight open-ended questions, to explore participants’ views and experiences of the Moderation Guidelines, along with information relating to historical weight loss attempts and thoughts on dietary moderation. Interview data were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded using NVivo software. Coded data were categorised and evaluated by thematic analysis using a general inductive approach. Results: Preliminary NEEDNT Foods Moderation Guidelines were presented in an A5 booklet format, with NEEDNT foods and beverages assigned 1 NEF (‘non-essential food’ value) per 100 kcal portion. Participants were allocated up to 19 NEFs weekly, representing around 1900 kcal. Participants varied in the extent of their previous dieting experiences. All expressed uncertainty around applying personal concepts of dietary moderation. Nine participants found the Moderation Guidelines usable and beneficial. Five participants self-reported weight losses of 2-4 kg during the 4-week period. Three participants found the Moderation Guidelines less appealing, unusable, or incomplete. All participants reported an improved understanding of dietary moderation generally. Seven participants intended to continue using the Moderation Guidelines. Suggested changes to the print booklet included revision of NEEDNT food and beverage categories, modification of terminology, integration of colour and graphics, clarification of serving sizes, and culture-specific versions. Most participants emphasised the need for support from a Dietitian or other health professional, for dietary guidance around core food groups, and behavioural change techniques. Participants said a NEEDNT-based smartphone app would increase functionality and appeal. Māori and Pacific participants requested culturally tailored NEEDNT-based education. Conclusion: Preliminary NEEDNT Foods Moderation Guidelines show potential for assisting obese persons to lose weight by moderating consumption of NEEDNT foods and beverages. Revision and retesting would further develop the Moderation Guidelines, and should incorporate participants’ recommendations, design principles, behavioural change theories, and best practices in nutrition education. An intervention trial is warranted, to evaluate the effectiveness of revised Moderation Guidelines as a dietary quality and weight loss tool. Further research opportunities include the development of a Moderation Guidelines smartphone app and website, tailored adaptation of the Moderation Guidelines for Māori and Pacific individuals and community groups, and a NEEDNT-based public health campaign. Keywords: NEEDNT Food List, NEEDNT Foods Moderation Guidelines, Moderation Guidelines, NEF, NEEDNT-FFQ, dietary moderation, energy density, nutrient density, overweight, obesity, qualitative research, qualitative evaluation, nutrition education.
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Laboratory-based investigations indicate that the consumption of foods with a low energy density (kcal/g) decreases energy intake. Although low-energy-dense diets are recommended for weight management, relations between energy density, energy intake, and weight status have not been clearly shown in free-living persons. A representative US sample was used to determine whether dietary energy density is associated with energy intake, the weight of food consumed, and body weight and to explore the influence of food choices (fruit, vegetable, and fat consumption) on energy density and body weight. A cross-sectional survey of adults (n = 7356) from the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and two 24-h dietary recalls were used. Men and women with a low-energy-dense diet had lower energy intakes (approximately 425 and 275 kcal/d less, respectively) than did those with a high-energy-dense diet, even though they consumed more food (approximately 400 and 300 g/d more, respectively). Normal-weight persons had diets with a lower energy density than did obese persons. Persons with a high fruit and vegetable intake had the lowest energy density values and the lowest obesity prevalence. Adults consuming a low-energy-dense diet are likely to consume more food (by weight) but to have a lower energy intake than do those consuming a higher-energy-dense diet. The energy density of a variety of dietary patterns, including higher-fat diets, can be lowered by adding fruit and vegetables. Our findings support the hypothesis that a relation exists between the consumption of an energy-dense diet and obesity and provide evidence of the importance of fruit and vegetable consumption for weight management.
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Given the recent surge in obesity, effective dietary strategies for weight management are required. Because fruits and vegetables are high in water and fiber, incorporating them in the diet can reduce energy density, promote satiety, and decrease energy intake. Although few interventions have specifically addressed fruit and vegetable consumption, evidence suggests that coupling advice to increase intake of these foods with advice to decrease energy intake is a particularly effective strategy for weight management. This approach may facilitate weight loss because it emphasizes positive messages rather than negative, restrictive messages
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Previous research showed that decreasing the energy density (kJ/g) of foods by adding water to them can lead to reductions in energy intake. Few studies have examined how water consumed as a beverage affects food intake. This study examined the effects of water, both served with a food and incorporated into a food, on satiety. In a within-subjects design, 24 lean women consumed breakfast, lunch, and dinner in our laboratory 1 d/wk for 4 wk. Subjects received 1 of 3 isoenergetic (1128 kJ) preloads 17 min before lunch on 3 d and no preload on 1 d. The preloads consisted of 1) chicken rice casserole, 2) chicken rice casserole served with a glass of water (356 g), and 3) chicken rice soup. The soup contained the same ingredients (type and amount) as the casserole that was served with water. Decreasing the energy density of and increasing the volume of the preload by adding water to it significantly increased fullness and reduced hunger and subsequent energy intake at lunch. The equivalent amount of water served as a beverage with a food did not affect satiety. Energy intake at lunch was 1209 +/- 125 kJ after the soup compared with 1657 +/- 148 and 1639 +/- 148 kJ after the casserole with and without water, respectively. Subjects did not compensate at dinner for this reduction in lunch intake. Consuming foods with a high water content more effectively reduced subsequent energy intake than did drinking water with food.
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According to the National Institute of Health guidelines for the treatment of overweight and obesity, the most important element in a weight loss program is the reduction in energy intake. Reducing the fat content of the diet and increasing physical activity without restricting energy intake are relatively inefficient methods of weight loss. Because individuals tend to consume a constant weight of food, the decrease in energy intake on a reduced-fat diet is likely related to the lower energy density of the diet. Diets of low energy density, which are typically low in fat and rich in complex carbohydrates, allow individuals to consume satisfying portions of food while reducing their energy intake. Because a wide variety of foods can be included in a diet that is low in energy density, this type of diet encourages the adoption of life-long eating habits that are integral to the maintenance of weight loss and the prevention of weight gain.
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Dietary energy density (ED) has been suggested as an important determinant of energy intake and, therefore, energy regulation. This review summarizes published studies on the effects of dietary ED on hunger, satiety, energy intake, and body weight in healthy individuals, and compares the relative effects of ED manipulated by dietary fat only, fat and fiber, water, and type of sweetener. In short-term studies, consumption of low-ED foods promotes satiety, reduces hunger, and decreases energy intake with no marked differences between different dietary manipulations used to change ED. In addition, low-ED diets promote moderate weight loss in long-term studies. In studies lasting longer than 6 months, weight loss was more than three times as great in individuals consuming diets both low in fat and high in fiber compared with diets only low in fat (-3.4 kg versus -1.0 kg). Combined, these studies suggest that diets low in fat and high in fiber may be the most effective low-ED diets for promoting weight loss. Further research is needed on the effects of dietary ED by changing water or sweetener content.
Article
This study investigated whether the energy density of foods affected energy intake when subjects were informed about the energy density of their meals. Forty normal-weight women ate breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory on three separate days. The entrée at each meal was varied in energy density to be either 1.25, 1.50, or 1.75 kcal/g (5.23, 6.28, or 7.32 kJ/g), but was held similar in macronutrient composition and palatability. On each day, the entrées at all three meals had the same energy density. All entrées were consumed ad libitum. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups. Subjects in the information group received a nutrition label with each meal, which showed the energy density of the entrée. Subjects in the no-information group did not receive any nutrition information. The results revealed that subjects in both groups had the same pattern of food intake across the three levels of energy density. Energy density significantly affected energy intake; subjects in both groups combined consumed 22% less energy in the condition of low energy density than in the condition of high energy density (p < 0.0001). These findings show that energy density can have a significant influence on energy intake, even when individuals are informed about the energy density of their meals.
Article
We investigated the effect of fruit intake on body weight change. Hypercholesterolemic, overweight (body mass index > 25 kg/m2), and non-smoking women, 30 to 50 y of age, were randomized to receive, free of charge, one of three dietary supplements: apples, pears, or oat cookies. Women were instructed to eat one supplement three times a day in a total of six meals a day. Participants (411 women) were recruited at a primary care center of the State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fifty-one women had fasting blood cholesterol levels greater than 6.2 mM/L (240 mg/dL) and 49 were randomized. Subjects were instructed by a dietitian to eat a diet (55% of energy from carbohydrate, 15% from protein, and 30% from fat) to encourage weight reduction at the rate of 1 kg/mo. After 12 wk of follow-up, the fruit group lost 1.22 kg (95% confidence interval = 0.44-1.85), whereas the oat group had a non-significant weight loss of 0.88 kg (0.37-2.13). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.004). To explore further the body weight loss associated with fruit intake, we measured the ratio of glucose to insulin. A significantly greater decrease of blood glucose was observed among those who had eaten fruits compared with those who had eaten oat cookies, but the glucose:insulin ratio was not statistically different from baseline to follow-up. Adherence to the diet was high, as indicated by changes in serum triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, and reported fruit intake. Fruit intake in the oat group throughout treatment was minimal. Intake of fruits may contribute to weight loss.
Article
Given the recent surge in obesity, effective dietary strategies for weight management are required. Because fruits and vegetables are high in water and fiber, incorporating them in the diet can reduce energy density, promote satiety, and decrease energy intake. Although few interventions have specifically addressed fruit and vegetable consumption, evidence suggests that coupling advice to increase intake of these foods with advice to decrease energy intake is a particularly effective strategy for weight management. This approach may facilitate weight loss because it emphasizes positive messages rather than negative, restrictive messages.
Article
We tested the effect on meal intake of varying the energy density and portion size of a compulsory first-course salad. The study used a randomized crossover design. Forty-two women from the State College, PA, university community ate lunch in the laboratory once per week for 7 weeks. Lunch comprised one of six first-course salads, or no salad in the control condition, followed by a main course of pasta. Subjects were required to consume the entire salad, but ate as much pasta as they wanted. The salads varied in energy density (0.33, 0.67, or 1.33 kcal/g) and portion size (150 or 300 g). The energy density of the salad was reduced by changing the amount and type of dressing and cheese. Energy intake and ratings of hunger, satiety, and food characteristics were measured. Outcomes were analyzed using a linear mixed model with repeated measures. Compared with having no first course, consuming the low-energy-dense salads reduced meal energy intake (by 7% for the small portion and 12% for the large), and consuming the high-energy-dense salads increased intake (by 8% for the small portion and 17% for the large). When two salads with the same number of calories were compared, meal intake was decreased when the large portion of the lower-energy-dense salad was consumed. Eating a low-energy-dense first course enhances satiety and reduces meal energy intake. Consuming a large portion of a low-energy-dense food at the start of a meal may be an effective strategy for weight management.
Article
A growing body of laboratory-based, clinical, and epidemiological data suggests that low-energy-dense diets are associated with better diet quality, lower energy intakes, and body weight. Dietary energy density can be lowered by adding water-rich fruits, vegetables, cooked grains, and soups to the diet, and by reducing the diet's fat content. Low-energy-dense diets can be successfully incorporated into clinical dietetics since they help lower energy intake without reducing food volume and thus help individuals avoid feeling hungry and deprived. There are multiple steps that could be taken by nutrition professionals and food manufacturers to encourage the consumption of low-energy-dense diets. The goal is to develop reduced-calorie eating plans that meet personal food preferences and also provide satisfying food portions. Since using energy density to guide food choices leads to food patterns consistent with dietary guidelines, policy level initiatives should be devised to help ensure that low-energy-dense diets are affordable and accessible to all.
Article
Low-energy-density diets are often recommended for weight control. Such diets have a higher nutrient content than do high-energy-density diets. This study tested the hypothesis that energy-dense diets have a relatively low monetary cost, whereas less energy-dense diets are more expensive. In this cross-sectional study, dietary intakes of 1,474 French adults (672 men, 802 women), aged 15 to 92 years, were assessed using 7-day diet records. Dietary energy density (kcal/g) was calculated by dividing total dietary energy by the edible weight of foods and caloric beverages consumed. Diet cost ($/7 days or $/2,000 kcal) was estimated using mean national food prices for 895 foods. The relationship between dietary energy density and diet cost was examined in a linear regression model. Within each quintile of energy intakes, the more energy-dense diets were associated with lower diet quality and with lower diet costs (r(2)=0.38 to 0.44). In a regression model, the more energy-dense diets cost less, whereas low-energy-density diets cost substantially more, adjusting for energy intakes, sex, and age. The finding that energy-dense diets cost less per 2,000 kcal may help explain why the highest rates of obesity are observed among groups of limited economic means. The finding that low-energy-density diets are associated with higher diet costs suggests that lasting improvements in diet quality may require economic as well as behavioral interventions.
Fruit and vegetable intake promotes weight loss by reducing dietary energy density
  • Barclay
Barclay, L. (2007). Fruit and vegetable intake promotes weight loss by reducing dietary energy density. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85, 1465–1477.
Methods of randomization
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