Arginases I and II in lungs of ovalbumin-sensitized mice exposed to ovalbumin: Sources and consequences
Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, CCRBM, 6519 GBSF, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8685, USA. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
(Impact Factor: 3.71).
09/2008; 230(3):269-75. DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2008.03.004
Arginase gene expression in the lung has been linked to asthma both in clinical studies of human patients and in the well-studied mouse model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. Arginase is thought to regulate NO levels in the lung by its ability to divert arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthases that produce citrulline and NO, into an alternative metabolic pathway producing ornithine and urea. In the present study arginase I and arginase II concentrations were measured in isolated microdissected airway preparations from sensitized Balb/c mice exposed to ovalbumin aerosol. We found that arginase II was constitutively expressed in the airways of normal mice, whereas arginase I was undetectable in normal airways, while its expression was increased in airways of mice exposed to ovalbumin. The expression of arginase I strongly correlated with the presence of lung inflammation, as quantified by differential cell counts in lung lavage, suggesting that most, or all, of the arginase I in lungs of mice exposed to ovalbumin is present in the inflammatory cells rather than in the airway epithelium. There was also a significant correlation between increased expression of arginase I in the isolated airways and decreased lung compliance. On the other hand, while we found arginase II expression to also be significantly increased in airways from mice exposed to ovalbumin as compared with normal airways, the relative increase was much less than that observed for arginase I, suggesting that there was a smaller contribution of inflammatory cells to the arginase II content of the airways in mice exposed to ovalbumin. There was no apparent correlation between the content of arginase in isolated airways and exhaled NO concentration in the expired air from mice exposed to ovalbumin. However, there was a correlation between exhaled NO concentration from mice exposed to ovalbumin and the lymphocyte content of the lung lavage. The concentration of arginine found in isolated airways from Balb/c mice exposed for 2 weeks to ovalbumin was about half of the value found in isolated microdissected airways from normal mice. Treatment of mice systemically with an arginase inhibitor significantly increased the amount of NO produced, as measured as the amount of nitrite+nitrate (NOx) in lung lavage supernatant prepared from mice exposed to ovalbumin. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the response of the lung to ovalbumin challenge includes an adaptive response in the large airways regulating the concentration of arginine within cells of the airway epithelium and subepithelial layer, by shunting of arginine into the metabolic pathway for increased synthesis of NO.
Available from: Juntao Luo
- "In all mice sensitized and exposed to ovalbumin, we observed a significant increase in the numbers of inflammatory cells recovered by lung lavage compared to mice exposed to filtered air alone, consistent with prior studies from our lab –. (Fig. 3). The number of lung lavage cells from the groups of mice exposed to filtered air from all time points evaluated was 8.21±0.8×104 "
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ABSTRACT: Nanocarriers can deliver a wide variety of drugs, target them to sites of interest, and protect them from degradation and inactivation by the body. They have the capacity to improve drug action and decrease undesirable systemic effects. We have previously developed a well-defined non-toxic PEG-dendritic block telodendrimer for successful delivery of chemotherapeutics agents and, in these studies, we apply this technology for therapeutic development in asthma. In these proof-of-concept experiments, we hypothesized that dexamethasone contained in self-assembling nanoparticles (Dex-NP) and delivered systemically would target the lung and decrease allergic lung inflammation and airways hyper-responsiveness to a greater degree than equivalent doses of dexamethasone (Dex) alone. We found that ovalbumin (Ova)-exposed mice treated with Dex-NP had significantly fewer total cells (2.78±0.44×10(5) (n = 18) vs. 5.98±1.3×10(5) (n = 13), P<0.05) and eosinophils (1.09±0.28×10(5) (n = 18) vs. 2.94±0.6×10(5) (n = 12), p<0.05) in the lung lavage than Ova-exposed mice alone. Also, lower levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-4 (3.43±1.2 (n = 11) vs. 8.56±2.1 (n = 8) pg/ml, p<0.05) and MCP-1 (13.1±3.6 (n = 8) vs. 28.8±8.7 (n = 10) pg/ml, p<0.05) were found in lungs of the Dex-NP compared to control, and they were not lower in the Dex alone group. In addition, respiratory system resistance was lower in the Dex-NP compared to the other Ova-exposed groups suggesting a better therapeutic effect on airways hyperresponsiveness. Taken together, these findings from early-stage drug development studies suggest that the encapsulation and protection of anti-inflammatory agents such as corticosteroids in nanoparticle formulations can improve efficacy. Further development of novel drugs in nanoparticles is warranted to explore potential treatments for chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma.
Available from: Jerold A Last
- "Examination of Arg1 expression in OVA-exposed C57BL/6 and congenic NOS2 knockout mice  demonstrated that Arg1 content in the airway compartment may be regulated by NOS2 activity. Expression levels of Arg1 also vary between BALB/c mice and C57BL/6 strains   , but these strain differences may be linked to variability in NF-κB signaling which is altered in the two strains  and in the NOS2 knockout mice. Given the apparent linked regulation of Arg1 and NOS, targeted therapeutic interventions at one of these enzymes will be needed to recognize and account for the effects on the other. "
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ABSTRACT: Exhaled breath nitric oxide (NO) is an accepted asthma biomarker. Lung concentrations of NO and its amino acid precursor, L-arginine, are regulated by the relative expressions of the NO synthase (NOS) and arginase isoforms. Increased expression of arginase I and NOS2 occurs in murine models of allergic asthma and in biopsies of asthmatic airways. Although clinical trials involving the inhibition of NO-producing enzymes have shown mixed results, small molecule arginase inhibitors have shown potential as a therapeutic intervention in animal and cell culture models. Their transition to clinical trials is hampered by concerns regarding their safety and potential toxicity. In this review, we discuss the paradigm of arginase and NOS competition for their substrate L-arginine in the asthmatic airway. We address the functional role of L-arginine in inflammation and the potential role of arginase inhibitors as therapeutics.
Available from: Karen A Hardy
- "As arginase plays a role in regulating bioavailability of L-arginine for NOS by competitive consumption of the substrate, increased arginase activity may be responsible for the AHR after the EAR and LAR. In allergen-challenged mice, arginase activity is increased in the airways at the same time as L-arginine and L-citrulline levels are decreased . Arginase's role in allergen-induced AHR is demonstrated by animal studies involving inhibition of both arginase and NOS. "
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, evidence has accumulated indicating that the enzyme arginase, which converts L-arginine into L-ornithine and urea, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary disorders such as asthma through dysregulation of L-arginine metabolism and modulation of nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis. Allergic asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and remodeling. Through substrate competition, arginase decreases bioavailability of L-arginine for nitric oxide synthase (NOS), thereby limiting NO production with subsequent effects on airway tone and inflammation. By decreasing L-arginine bioavailability, arginase may also contribute to the uncoupling of NOS and the formation of the proinflammatory oxidant peroxynitrite in the airways. Finally, arginase may play a role in the development of chronic airway remodeling through formation of L-ornithine with downstream production of polyamines and L-proline, which are involved in processes of cellular proliferation and collagen deposition. Further research on modulation of arginase activity and L-arginine bioavailability may reveal promising novel therapeutic strategies for asthma.
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