[Nosema ceranae (Eukaryota: Fungi: Microsporea)--a new parasite of western honey bee Apis mellifera L].

Szkoła Głowna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, Wydział Medycyny Weterynaryjnej, Katedra Nauk Klinicznych, Choroby Owadów Uzytkowych, ul. Ciszewskigo 8, 02-786 Warszawa.
Wiadomości parazytologiczne 02/2007; 53(4):281-4.
Source: PubMed


Nosema ceranae was discovered in Apis cerana, Eastern honeybee first. Until recently A. cerana has been considered the only host to this parasite. A few years ago N. ceranae was recorded in honey bee Apis mellifera. It appeared that N. ceranae is more pathogenic for A. mellifera than Nosema apis. This parasite can cause significant losses in bee colonies. Bees die without symptoms observed in nosemosis caused by N. apis such as diarrhea.

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    • "N. apis infections are correlated with colonies exhibiting diarrhea [9], which could enhance transmission. In contrast, N. ceranae is not associated with diarrhea – and yet it has spread rapidly, even replacing N. apis throughout much of the world [10], [11], [6]. It may be that N. ceranae has an alternate pathway for transmission. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nosema ceranae, a newly introduced parasite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, is contributing to worldwide colony losses. Other Nosema species, such as N. apis, tend to be associated with increased defecation and spread via a fecal-oral pathway, but because N. ceranae does not induce defecation, it may instead be spread via an oral-oral pathway. Cages that separated older infected bees from young uninfected bees were used to test whether N. ceranae can be spread during food exchange. When cages were separated by one screen, food could be passed between the older bees and the young bees, but when separated by two screens, food could not be passed between the two cages. Young uninfected bees were also kept isolated in cages, as a solitary control. After 4 days of exposure to the older bees, and 10 days to incubate infections, young bees were more likely to be infected in the 1-Screen Test treatment vs. the 2-Screen Test treatment (P=0.0097). Young bees fed by older bees showed a 13-fold increase in mean infection level relative to young bees not fed by older bees (1-Screen Test 40.8%; 2-Screen Test 3.4%; Solo Control 2.8%). Although fecal-oral transmission is still possible in this experimental design, oral-oral infectivity could help explain the rapid spread of N. ceranae worldwide.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    • "For example, it can survive when the air temperature is as low as −0.1°C, a temperature lethal for the Western honeybee [10]. It is a natural host for, and can tolerate the mite, Varroa destructor, and the microsporidian, Nosema ceranae, both of which are the serious pests of the Western honeybee [11], [12]. Having coevolved with these parasites, the Asiatic honeybee exhibits more careful grooming behavior than the Western honeybee, and appears to have other more effective defenses against these parasites. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Asiatic honeybee, Apis cerana Fabricius, is an important honeybee species in Asian countries. It is still found in the wild, but is also one of the few bee species that can be domesticated. It has acquired some genetic advantages and significantly different biological characteristics compared with other Apis species. However, it has been less studied, and over the past two decades, has become a threatened species in China. We designed primers for the sequences of the four antimicrobial peptide cDNA gene families (abaecin, defensin, apidaecin, and hymenoptaecin) of the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera L. and identified all the antimicrobial peptide cDNA genes in the Asiatic honeybee for the first time. All the sequences were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In all, 29 different defensin cDNA genes coding 7 different defensin peptides, 11 different abaecin cDNA genes coding 2 different abaecin peptides, 13 different apidaecin cDNA genes coding 4 apidaecin peptides and 34 different hymenoptaecin cDNA genes coding 13 different hymenoptaecin peptides were cloned and identified from the Asiatic honeybee adult workers. Detailed comparison of these four antimicrobial peptide gene families with those of the Western honeybee revealed that there are many similarities in the quantity and amino acid components of peptides in the abaecin, defensin and apidaecin families, while many more hymenoptaecin peptides are found in the Asiatic honeybee than those in the Western honeybee (13 versus 1). The results indicated that the Asiatic honeybee adult generated more variable antimicrobial peptides, especially hymenoptaecin peptides than the Western honeybee when stimulated by pathogens or injury. This suggests that, compared to the Western honeybee that has a longer history of domestication, selection on the Asiatic honeybee has favored the generation of more variable antimicrobial peptides as protection against pathogens.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the multiplex PCR method and traditional light microscopy in identifying and discriminating the species of Nosema spp. spores in worker bees from winter hive debris in the Province of Warmia and Mazury (NE Poland). A total of 1000 beesdead after from the bottom of the hive from bee colonies were analyzed. Spores were identified with the use of a light microscope (400-600x magnification). Spores were assigned to species by the multiplex PCR method. The microscopic evaluation revealed the presence of Nosema spp. spores in 803 samples (80.3%). Nosema ceranae spores were observed in 353 positive samples (43.96%), Nosema apis spores were found in 300 samples (37.35%), while 150 samples (19.67%) showed signs of a mixed infection. A multiplex PCR analysis revealed that 806 samples were infested with Nosema spp., of which 206 were affected only by Nosema ceranae, 600 showed signs of mixed invasion, while no samples were infected solely by Nosema apis parasites. In two cases, the presence of spores detected under a light microscope was not confirmed by the PCR analysis. The results of the study indicate that Nosema ceranae is the predominant parasitic species found in post-winter worker bees from the bottom of the hive in the region of Warmia and Mazury.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Polish journal of veterinary sciences
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