Explicit Rejection of an Implicit Dichotomy: Integrating Two Approaches to Assessing Dependency

Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA.
Journal of Personality Assessment (Impact Factor: 1.84). 02/2008; 90(1):26-35. DOI: 10.1080/00223890701468584
Source: PubMed


The field of personality theory and assessment is characterized by a long-standing divide between proponents of self-report and indirect approaches to assessment. This article reviews the increasing convergence between the two sides, using recent writings on interpersonal dependency as an example domain. The assumptions of the self-report approach to personality assessment are contrasted with those of the indirect, and research using both types of assessments is reviewed. Also considered is the importance of recognizing dissociations between a particular individual's scores on self-report and indirect measures of a given component of self-concept, and the possible implications of such dissociations. It is argued that the convergence between two traditionally disparate approaches is likely to develop, in light of hypotheses, data and conclusions that bear notable similarity.

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    • "This study seeks to extend these results using different measures, and in a different population—patients with substance use disorders. We generated several sets of a priori hypotheses derived from research on overdependence, detachment, and healthy dependency (e.g.,Baltes, 1996;Birtchnell, 1987;Bornstein, 1993Bornstein, , 2005Bornstein, , 2012aBornstein, , 2012bCogswell, 2008;Cross et al., 2000;Fiori, Consedine, & Magai, 2008;Kantor, 1993;Rude & Burnham, 1995). We expected that somatic complains (Bornstein, 1998), anxiety (Stewart, Knize, & Pihl, 1992), depression (Bornstein, 2012aBornstein, , 2012bRude & Burnham, 1995), psychotic or unusual thought processes (Lysaker, Wickett, Lan- caster,Campbell, & Davis, 2004), interpersonal warmth and dominance (Pincus & Wilson, 2001), interpersonal sensitivity (Pincus & Wilson, 2001), suicidality (Birtchnell, 1981; Bornstein & O'Neill, 2000;Epstein, Thomas, Shaffer, & Perlin, 1973), borderline personality pathology (Baity, Blais, Hilsenroth, Fowler, & Padawar 2009;Birtchnell, 1981;Cawood & Huprich, 2011;Coen, 1992), and attachment style (Bornstein, Geiselman, Eisenhart, & Languirand, 2002;Haggerty et al., 2010) would be related to unhealthy dependency. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed the construct validity of the Relationship Profile Test (RPT; Bornstein & Languirand, 2003) with a substance abuse sample. One hundred-eight substance abuse patients completed the RPT, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR-SF; Wei, Russell, Mallinckrodt, & Vogel, 2007), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R: Derogatis 1983). Results suggest that the RPT has good construct validity when compared against theoretically related broadband measures of personality, psychopathology and adult attachment. Overall, health hependency was negatively related to measures of psychopathology and insecure attachment, and overdependence was positively related to measures of psychopathology and attachment anxiety. Many of the predictions regarding RPT detachment and the criterion measures were not supported. Implications of these findings are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Personality Assessment
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    • "In this study, we assess dependent vulnerability to depression (e.g., Besser, Flett, & Davis, 2003; Besser, Priel, Flett, & Wiznitzer , 2007; Campos et al., 2010; Klein, 1989; Ouimette & Klein, 1993; Robins, Hayes, Block, Kramer, & Villena, 1995) with a more direct self-report measure, the Neediness maladaptive (immature ) subfactor of the DEQ Dependency factor, which includes items related to a preoccupation with abandonment and separation , feelings of being unloved, and fear of loss (Blatt, Zohar, Quinlan, Luthar, & Hart, 1996; Blatt et al., 1995; Campos et al., 2010; Campos, Besser, & Blatt, 2011; Rude & Burnham, 1995), supplemented by a more indirect measure of dependency—oral responses (orality) on the Rorschach that Cogswell (2008) identified as an important component of dependency. "
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    ABSTRACT: In a 6-month longitudinal design, the authors examined the links between neediness and increases in depressive symptoms in women. Neediness was assessed with the self-report Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), supplemented by a projective measure that assessed an important component of dependency, oral dependency, on the Rorschach. Results indicate that neediness correlated significantly with increases in depressive symptoms over the 6 months. Orality interacted with neediness to substantially increase the prediction of increases in depressive symptoms.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic
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    • "The present study provided additional evidence for the usefulness and generalizability of IAT-derived implicit measures of personality and self-concept. As discussed in Cogswell (2008), it is likely that the momentum that exists in research on indirect measurement of dependency cannot be extended easily into other personality domains, due to its reliance on a Rorschach index as the indirect measure. Although the ROD scale has demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties and is generally accepted as a valid dependency measure (e.g., Garb, Wood, Lilienfeld, & Nezworski, 2005), the ROD scale is one of the most wellvalidated of the Rorschach indices. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. We were moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to 2 self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Journal of Personality Assessment
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