Does Childhood Treatment of ADHD With Stimulant Medication Affect Substance Abuse in Adulthood?

Article (PDF Available)inAmerican Journal of Psychiatry 165(5):553-5 · June 2008with33 Reads
DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08020237 · Source: PubMed
    • "Sustained improvement in academic performance has been noted with ongoing treatment over five years and much of the benefit of stimulant medication disappears after the medication is discontinued [47] . Also, the use of stimulant medications for ADHD during childhood may not have an impact on adult substance abuse [48] . While some authors have found evidence to suggest that treatment of children and adolescents with stimulant medications reduces their risk of adult substance abuse [49] , others have found that it neither increases nor decreases the level of adult substance abuse [50],[51] . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent and is associated with significant impairment across the lifespan. Medication treatments, particularly stimulant medications, are important in the management of ADHD, although non-medication treatments (e.g. therapy to improve organisational, social and emotional regulation skills) are often also needed. The stimulant medications have a high response rate and improve the core symptoms of the disorder, but they are associated with side effects. Medications are available in various formulations, and judicious medication choice entails detailed knowledge of therapeutic response and side effects associated with the available medications. The treatment decisions are based upon informed patient preferences and the treatment responses observed during the titration period. This article reviews the available medication treatments and the various issues that need to be considered in rational choice of psychopharmacology in ADHD.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · PLoS ONE
    • "Some studies support the theory that long-lasting treatment with stimulant medication does not affect the risk for substance abuse at adulthood. Despite the high rates of substance use disorders, some reports in the literature indicate that there is no correlation between the use of stimulants for ADHD treatment in young children and the risk for substance abuse during adult life [52, 53]. We demonstrated that cocaine was ineffective in inducing an enhancement of cAMP levels in VEH-treated SHR animals, markedly differing from what was observed in Wistar rats, which presented a diminished uptake and increased cAMP levels, as expected. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methylphenidate (MPD) is one of the most prescribed drugs for alleviating the symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, changes in the molecular mechanisms related to MPD withdrawal and susceptibility to consumption of other psychostimulants in normal individuals or individuals with ADHD phenotype are not completely understood. The aims of the present study were: (i) to characterize the molecular differences in the prefrontal dopaminergic system of SHR and Wistar strains, (ii) to establish the neurochemical consequences of short- (24 hours) and long-term (10 days) MPD withdrawal after a subchronic treatment (30 days) with Ritalin® (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride; 2.5 mg/kg orally), (iii) to investigate the dopaminergic synaptic functionality after a cocaine challenge in adult MPD-withdrawn SHR and Wistar rats. Our results indicate that SHR rats present reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and cAMP accumulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and are not responsive to dopaminergic stimuli in when compared to Wistar rats. After a 24-hour withdrawal of MPD, SHR did not present any alterations in [3H]-Dopamine Uptake, [3H]-SCH 23390 binding and cAMP production; nonetheless, after a 10-day MPD withdrawal, the results showed a significant increase of [3H]-Dopamine uptake, of the quantity of [3H]-SCH 23390 binding sites and of cAMP levels in these animals. Finally, SHR that underwent a 10-day MPD withdrawal and were challenged with cocaine (10 mg/kg i.p.) presented reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and increased cAMP production. Wistar rats were affected by the 10-day withdrawal of MPD in [3H]-dopamine uptake but not in cAMP accumulation; in addition, cocaine was unable to induce significant modifications in [3H]-dopamine uptake and in cAMP levels after the 10-day withdrawal of MPD. These results indicate a mechanism that could explain the high comorbidity between ADHD adolescent patients under methylphenidate treatment and substance abuse in adult life.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
    • "Supporting this line of argument, neuroimaging data in ADHD and obese subjects report commonality in brain structural abnormalities, including in the frontal cortex [33,34,35,36] , a locus considered to be important for selfregulation and EFs. In addition, ADHD subjects have been shown to have reduced DA receptor binding capacity in the hypothalamus, which controls for satiety and hunger [76]. The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the relation between body weight and cognitive, emotional, and motor activity characteristics in a large sample of children with ADHD. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a complex and heterogeneous childhood disorder that often coexists with other psychiatric and somatic disorders. Recently, a link between ADHD and body weight dysregulation has been reported and often interpreted as impaired self-regulation that is shared between the two conditions. The objective of this study is to investigate the relation between body weight/BMI and cognitive, emotional and motor characteristics in children with ADHD. 284 ADHD children were stratified by weight status/BMI according to WHO classification and compared with regard to their neurocognitive characteristics, motivational style, and motor profile as assessed by a comprehensive battery of tests. All comparisons were adjusted for demographic characteristics of relevance including, socioeconomic status (SES). Both Obese and overweight ADHD children exhibited significantly lower SES compared to normal weight ADHD children. No significant differences were observed between the three groups with regards to their neurocognitive, emotional and motor profile. Our findings provide evidence that differences in weight/BMI are not accounted for by cognitive, motivational and motor profiles. Socio-economic characteristics are strongly associated with overweight and obesity in ADHD children and may inform strategies aimed at promoting healthier weight.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013
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