Article

Trust That Binds: The Impact of Collective Felt Trust on Organizational Performance

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Abstract

The impact of employees' collective perceptions of being trusted by management was examined with a longitudinal study involving 88 retail stores. Drawing on the appropriateness framework (March, 1994; Weber, Kopelman, & Messick, 2004), the authors develop and test a model showing that when employees in an organization perceive they are trusted by management, increases in the presence of responsibility norms, as well as in the sales performance and customer service performance of the organization, are observed. Moreover, the relationship between perceptions of being trusted and sales performance is fully mediated by responsibility norms.

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... Previous research has pointed out the importance of multi-level and cross-level perspectives when studying trust in organizations, along with the need to understand trust both within and between organizational units (Schoorman, Mayer, & Davis, 2007). In the current study, we follow the conceptualization of trust by Schoorman et al. (2007), arguing that trust is an aspect of relationships rather than a dispositional, trait-like construct and hence examine aggregated, collective-felt trust at the unit-level (Salamon & Robinson, 2008). ...
... Specifically, we examine how a shared-group level cognition -collective felt trust -(see Salamon & Robinson, 2008) impacts the relationship between job demands and burnout. ...
... The appropriateness framework by Messick (1999) states that individuals' social behavior is influenced by their interpretation of the appropriate conduct in a given social context. Hence, the perception of being trusted, and more generally a trusting interpersonal team climate, informs an employee that responsible behavior is expected in a given environment and that other employees are likely to behave in the same manner (Salamon & Robinson, 2008). Therefore, we argue that collective felt trust is essentially an indicator of expected social support by one's team and acts as a job resource (Lee, 2017;Nicholson, Leiter, & Laschinger, 2014) -a buffer -between job demands and burnout and hypothesize that, at the individual level, the direct relationship between job demands and burnout can be further explained by considering the role of collective, unit-level trust. ...
... Unlike the construct of trust, feeling trusted broadly refers to the perceived extent to which a party willingly accepts vulnerability to another party by taking risks in the relationship (Baer et al., 2015;Brower et al., 2009;Deng and Wang, 2009;Deutsch Salamon and Robinson, 2008;Lau et al., 2014). For example, an employee may perceive that a leader has delegated an important task to her/him. ...
... Just as the concept of trust is relational, such that trust inherently requires an object (e.g., Jim trusts Lucy), so too is the concept of feeling trust (e.g., Lucy feels trusted by Jim). The object of feeling trusted can be either an employee (e.g., Nerstad et al., 2018;Skiba and Wildman, 2019), a leader (Campagna et al., 2019;Chen et al., 2019), or a team (Deutsch Salamon and Robinson, 2008). ...
... The bulk of studies to date have provided strong support for the above theorizing. For example, using a sample of retail locations in Canada, Deutsch Salamon and Robinson (2008) asserted that collective feeling trusted would predict greater organizational performance in the form of sales performance and service performance via an increase in responsibility norms. Further, with a sample of teachers in Macau, Lau et al. (2014) documented that feeling trusted exerted a benign effect on task performance through organization-based self-esteem. ...
Article
Although prior literature has generally shown that feeling trusted plays a crucial role in boosting employee performance, little attention has been paid to exploring how and when feeling trusted promotes service performance. Borrowing from the Pygmalion effect and conservation of resources theory, we craft and scrutinize a cross-level framework elucidating why and when feeling trusted shapes service performance by pinpointing relational energy as a linchpin mechanism, and feeling trusted differentiation as a key contingency. A three-wave survey design is used to examine these assumptions with data culled from 505 hotel employee–leader dyads nested in 97 groups affiliated with 16 hotels in China. As anticipated, we found that feeling trusted can evoke high relational energy, which in turn improves service performance. In addition, these observed effects of feeling trusted become stronger when feeling trusted differentiation is low rather than high. Overall, we conclude by discussing the theoretical and practical implications of our findings.
... This paper proposes that CSR positively affects the level of organizational trust based on the "influential model of trust" theory [33,34]. Then, organizational trust may increase the quality of an employee's organizational com-mitment [35,36]. Organizational commitment indicates the extent to which employees not only feel psychological attachment but also intend to contribute to achieving the goals of the organization [37][38][39]. ...
... Hur and his colleagues also [25] reported that CSR practices increase the degree of organizational civility norms, which in turn enhance the employees' job calling, eventually diminishing customer-directed counterproductive work behavior. Thus, this paper expects that CSR may decrease the level of employees' unethical behaviors [29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45]. ...
... Previous studies have demonstrated that organizational trust is closely associated with employee's attitudes toward organization, including organizational commitment [29,30,35,36]. Organizational commitment can be defined as the extent to which an employee not only feels psychological attachment but also has the intention to contribute to achieving the goals of the organization [37][38][39]. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on an employee’s negative behavior, in addition to its intermediating mechanism (i.e., mediators and moderator) in the relationship. This paper proposes that CSR may diminish an employee’s negative behavior, such as counterproductive work behavior. Relying on the context–attitude–behavior framework, this study investigated the mediators and moderator of the relationship between CSR and counterproductive work behavior. Specifically, this study hypothesized that not only does CSR diminish the level of counterproductive work behavior by sequentially boosting the level of employees’ organizational trust and commitment, but their work overload also negatively moderates the association between CSR and organizational trust. Utilizing three-wave time-lagged online survey data from 342 employees in South Korean companies, this study tested the hypotheses by building a moderated mediation model with structural equation modeling analysis. The results indicate that CSR decreases the level of employees’ counterproductive work behavior through enhancing their organizational trust and commitment. Moreover, work overload negatively moderates the association between CSR and organizational trust. The findings of this study make theoretical and practical contributions to the CSR literature.
... Trustors' positive expectations are often unspoken and may be misinterpreted by trustees; therefore, trust and felt trust do not always align (Brower et al., 2009). In the limited literature, it has been found that felt trust alleviates the trustees' emotional exhaustion (Baer et al., 2015), and promotes their job satisfaction (Lester & Brower, 2003), responsibility norms (Salamon & Robinson, 2008), organization-based self-esteem (Lau et al., 2014), and promotive voice behavior (Hao et al., 2021). The question to be answered, then, is do both trust and felt trust promote employees' knowledgesharing intention? ...
... Further, people usually feel indebted when they receive favors, and try to return at least as much value as they have received to avoid hurting the giving party (Cropanzano & Mitchell, 2005;Gouldner, 1960). Felt trust represents being relied on, and refusing to share knowledge offends this expectation (Brower et al., 2009;Salamon & Robinson, 2008). The resulting pressure forces trustees to share knowledge to avoid emotional stress or potential sanctions. ...
... In contrast, individuals with a weak positive reciprocity belief place more emphasis on taking rather than giving, and have little interest in reciprocating when knowledge is shared with them (Cheng et al., 2021). Even though felt trust generates pressure for an obligation and serves as positive feedback (Brower et al., 2009;Lester & Brower, 2003;Salamon & Robinson, 2008), these individuals take it less seriously. Therefore, we formed the following hypothesis: Hypothesis 4: Positive reciprocity belief will positively moderate the relationship between felt trust and knowledge-sharing intention, such that the relationship will be stronger at higher levels of positive reciprocity belief. ...
Article
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Few of the many studies on trust have taken felt trust into consideration. In this study we compared the effects of trust and felt trust on employees’ knowledge-sharing intention, and tested positive reciprocity belief as a moderator of these relationships. We analyzed survey data from 710 respondents employed at 26 high-tech companies located in Zhejiang and Guangdong Provinces, China, and tested the hypotheses using regression analysis. The results demonstrate that both trust and felt trust promoted the respondents’ knowledge-sharing intention, and that both effects were stronger at higher (vs. lower) levels of positive reciprocity belief. To promote knowledge-sharing intention, we recommend that individuals convey their trust in others in addition to demonstrating their own trustworthiness, especially to those who endorse positive reciprocity. Further, organizations should adopt more practices to assure knowledge donors feel appreciated and relied upon.
... This perceived trust will also lead to positive employee outcomes (Zheng, Hall, & Schyns, 2019). Employee feelings of being trusted by their supervisors, termed felt trust, also influence their workplace behaviors and attitudes (Salamon & Robinson, 2008). Felt trust may be a more direct influence on employees' attitudes and behaviors than supervisor actual trust (Zheng et al., 2019). ...
... Felt Mistrust. Felt mistrust was measured as a four-item scale designed to determine if the respondents' feel that their supervisor's trust in them has decreased since they were moved to a work from home schedule (inspired by and adapted from Salamon & Robinson, 2008). We adapted the items by reversing trust to mistrust, changing the tense, and adding the phrase "Since moving to a work from home schedule" at the start of each statement. ...
Article
Organizations shifted employees to a work from home schedule as a protective health measure during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper depicts the path through which the abrupt workplace disruptions can trigger employees’ perceptions of felt mistrust, intensify work to life conflict, and cause a psychological contract breach. In study 1, we conducted an experiment with 133 college students and found that switching to a work from home schedule with enhanced supervisor control increased the psychological contract breach through felt mistrust. In Study 2, we surveyed 239 adults who worked from home during the pandemic. Results underline the role of work to life conflict as a mediator through which disruptions and felt mistrust influenced the breach of psychological contract. Further, coping strategies were found to mitigate this detrimental effect. Overall, our findings suggest that sudden shifts in management practices can challenge workplace relationships during environmental shocks.
... Trust scholars have suggested that trust from coworkers can engender greater belonging, more empowerment, and access to key information and resources (Colquitt et al., 2007), thereby motivating trustees to perform at a higher level to live up to their reputation and maintain their status as a trusted group member. Others (e.g., Lau et al., 2014;Salamon & Robinson, 2008) have also noted that felt trust from coworkers motivates employees to perform at a high level. Drawing on a motivational perspective, prior studies theorized and demonstrated that felt trust from coworkers can increase job performance by leveraging heightened social exchange (Cropanzano & Mitchell, 2005) and enhanced self-evaluations (Lau et al., 2014). ...
... Our findings extend existing studies on self-presentation that identify perceived communion (Fragale & Grant, 2015) and likability (Pfeffer et al., 2006) as mediators for the self-presentation − employee outcome links. These results also support prior studies (e.g., Lau et al., 2014;Salamon & Robinson, 2008) noting that felt trust motivates employees to live up to the positive expectations of others by behaving in responsible, communal, and ethical ways and performing well in their jobs. However, these results are somewhat different from Baer et al.'s (2015) finding that feeling trusted by one's supervisor results in a higher perceived workload and reputation maintenance concerns that leave employees emotionally exhausted and performing poorly. ...
Article
Full-text available
We theorized and tested an integrated model that examines the simultaneous effects of authentic self-expression and self-enhancement (including authentic and exaggerated self enhancement) on employee outcomes. Using a multi-source, two-wave survey design and a sample of 143 working groups from 566 employees, we tested the indirect effects of self-presentation on job performance through (a) trust from coworkers and (b) felt trust from coworkers. We found that through trust from coworkers, authentic self-expression had a positive indirect effect on job performance, whereas authentic and exaggerated self-enhancement had negative indirect effects. Via felt trust from coworkers, authentic self-enhancement had a positive indirect effect on job performance, whereas exaggerated self-enhancement had a negative indirect effect. In addition, we identified a boundary condition of these relationships. The positive relationship between authentic self-expression and trust from coworkers and the negative relationship between exaggerated self-enhancement and trust from coworkers were stronger when working for highly authentic leaders. Contrary to expectations, the relationship between authentic self-enhancement and trust from coworkers was negative and significant when working for less authentic leaders.
... Recent empirical studies have also reported that feeling trusted is positively related to organizational performance at the individual level and the collective level (Lau et al., 2014;Salamon & Robinson, 2008). Specifically, Salamon and Robinson (2008) found that employees' collective perception of feeling trusted by management is positively associated with the performance criteria of sales volume and customer service performance. ...
... Recent empirical studies have also reported that feeling trusted is positively related to organizational performance at the individual level and the collective level (Lau et al., 2014;Salamon & Robinson, 2008). Specifically, Salamon and Robinson (2008) found that employees' collective perception of feeling trusted by management is positively associated with the performance criteria of sales volume and customer service performance. In addition, Lau et al. (2014) found that feeling trusted is positively related to school teachers' task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) within the school. ...
Article
This study extends our understanding of humble leadership as an important trust-engendering leadership style that influences employee behaviors. Drawing on social exchange theory, we articulate how humble leaders’ employee-centric behaviors signal trust and facilitate a social exchange relationship between leaders and followers. Specifically, we posit that a leader’s humble leadership behaviors are positively related to employees’ task performance and organizational citizenship behavior via feelings of being trusted by one’s supervisor. We also predict that the interaction between humble leadership and employee job autonomy will influence employees’ appraisal of feeling trusted. We tested our moderated-mediation model using experimental vignette data and three-wave survey data collected from 233 employees and their supervisors working at a large Chinese internet company. Study results support our hypotheses that humble leadership, and its interaction with employee job autonomy, contribute to feeling trusted by their supervisor. Furthermore, we found that humble leadership behavior, via enhanced perceptions of feeling trusted, predicted supervisor-rated employee task performance and organizational citizenship behavior toward the organization. The implications for theory and practice are discussed.
... Trust scholars suggested that trust from coworkers can engender greater belonging, more empowerment, and access to key information and resources (Colquitt et al., 2007), thereby motivating trustees to perform at a higher level to live up to their reputation and maintain their status as a trusted group member. Numerous scholars (e.g., Lau et al., 2014;Salamon & Robinson, 2008) also noted that felt trust from coworkers motivates employees to perform at a high level. Drawing on a motivational perspective, prior studies theorize and demonstrate that felt trust from coworkers can increase job performance by leveraging heightened social exchange (Cropanzano & Mitchell, 2005) and enhanced self-evaluations (Lau et al., 2014). ...
... Our findings extend existing studies on self-presentation that identify perceived communion (Fragale & Grant, 2015) and likability (Pfeffer et al., 2006) as mediators for the self-presentation−employee outcome links. These results also support prior studies (e.g., Lau et al., 2014;Salamon & Robinson, 2008) noting that felt trust motivates employees to live up to the positive expectations of others by behaving in responsible, communal, and ethical ways and performing well in their jobs. However, these results are somewhat different from Baer et al.'s (2015) finding that feeling trusted by one's supervisor results in a higher perceived AUTHENTICITY OR SELF-ENHANCEMENT? 32 workload and reputation maintenance concerns leaves employees emotionally exhausted and thereby decreases job performance. ...
... Feeling trusted-the sense that another party accepts vulnerability to an individual's actions-is a socioemotional resource that conveys to employees they are valued and perceived positively (Baer, Dhensa-Kahlon, Colquitt, Rodell, Outlaw, & Long, 2015;Brower, Lester, Korsgaard, & Dineen, 2009;Lau, Lam, & Wen, 2014). The literature has focused on the notion that feeling trusted is a benefit to employees and their organizations, with several studies demonstrating a link to improved job performance (Brower et al., 2009;Deutsch Salamon & Robinson, 2008;Lau et al., 2014). Accordingly, it is intuitive that scholars have suggested supervisors should allocate as much trust as possible to their employees (Kahn, 1990;Lawler, 1992;Mishra & Mishra, 2012;Pfeffer, 1998;Spreitzer & Mishra, 1999). ...
... Being trusted can be a positive experience that contributes to satisfaction, commitment, and performance (Brower et al., 2000). It is intuitive, therefore, that theoretical and practical treatments have emphasized the positives of being trusted for employees and their organizations (Deutsch Salamon & Robinson, 2008;Lau et al., 2014;Mishra & Mishra, 2012). Yet, this prescription may rely on an untenable assumption-that all employees want a high level of trusting behaviors from their supervisors. ...
Article
Many of society’s pressing challenges — conflict, discrimination, well-being — can be linked to injustice within organizations. Effectively addressing workplace injustice requires scholars to broaden our understanding of what it means to “do justice” in organizations. In this symposium, we aim to “broaden our sight” (Academy of Management, 2020) by bringing together a diverse panel of leading scholars who are tackling critical questions related to the obstacles and challenges associated with fostering justice and fairness in the workplace. Using disparate methodologies (e.g., experiments, field studies, interviews) and theoretical frameworks (e.g., appraisal theory, fairness theory, goal prioritization, moral disengagement), our presenters provide insight into (a) the situational factors that can impact whether managers act justly, (b) who is likely to enact justice and the role of emotions in the process of enactment, (c) how managers make sense of having acted unjustly, (d) how perceptions of unfairness can stem from a mismatch between the amount of trust one desires and receives, and (e) the process by which managers are personally blamed and held accountable for unfair situations. The symposium will conclude with an interactive discussion that highlights key themes and directions for future research as well as practical insights into how managers and organizations might promote fairer workplaces by encouraging justice enactment among managers and effectively managing fairness for employees.
... However, the professional community is a sophisticated group containing multiple dimensions, including shared norms, collective responsibilities, collaboration, and reflective dialogue [11][12][13]. Shared norms and a sense of collective responsibility shape the school culture, which is devoted to the ongoing development of students, and thus provide the foundation for effective collaboration and reflective dialogue among community members [14]. Furthermore, collaboration and reflective dialogue offer a much more direct means of enhancing teachers' professional capacities and keeping them continuously engaged in teaching [15]. ...
... The professional community provides a means for teachers to extend their capacity to achieve the desired teaching results and voice collective aspirations [39], and has the potential to improve instruction and enhance student achievement [40,41]. Regarding the four dimensions of the professional community, Salamon and Robinson [14] reported that in organizations with high responsibility norms, individuals were more likely to engage in activities that advanced progress toward achieving the organization's goals. One recent study found that individuals' collective sense of conscientiousness was deployed in the service of goal-directed activity and helped them to better manage other job resources [42]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The sustainable development of education requires the continuous engagement of teachers, and the professional community has long been considered an important facilitator of teacher engagement. However, teachers’ professional community has often been analyzed as a unified construct, and thus the question of how teacher engagement is enhanced remains unanswered. Based on the conservation of resources theory, in this study, we investigated how teacher work engagement was affected by the crossover of job resources between the professional community (including shared norms, collective responsibility, collaboration, and reflective dialogue) and teachers (self-efficacy). The sample included 1123 primary and secondary school teachers in China. Covariance structural modeling was used to test our hypotheses. Shared norms and collective responsibility played a fundamental role and positively predicted collaboration, which in turn enhanced reflective dialogue. Teacher self-efficacy partially mediated the effect of the four dimensions of the professional community on teachers’ work engagement. The findings of this study indicate that the professional community offers valuable organizational and social resources that can be used by teachers to enhance their personal resources, such as self-efficacy, and thus become more engaged in their work. Shared norms and collective responsibility serve to shape a growth-oriented school culture that stimulates teachers’ willingness to collaborate and improves their confidence in teaching, and thus should be stressed by school leaders when introducing changes.
... Researchers have investigated the notion of shared feelings or perceptions have been investigated in diverse contexts. These include collective trust (Salamon and Robinson, 2008), collective psychological ownership (Pierce and Jussila, 2010) and collective engagement (Kleinaltenkamp et al., 2019). Collective felt trust relates to global perceptions of relational beliefs that employees have related to trustworthiness (Salamon and Robinson, 2008). ...
... These include collective trust (Salamon and Robinson, 2008), collective psychological ownership (Pierce and Jussila, 2010) and collective engagement (Kleinaltenkamp et al., 2019). Collective felt trust relates to global perceptions of relational beliefs that employees have related to trustworthiness (Salamon and Robinson, 2008). Collective psychological ownership is a shared mindset of possession viewed as a group-level phenomenon (Pierce and Jussila, 2010). ...
Article
Purpose–Recent marketing research provides conceptual models to investigate the well-being of collectives, but service system well-being (SSW) remains untested empirically. This research conceptualises and develops a measure for SSW at the micro, meso and macro levels. Design/methodology/approach–Using a series of studies, a multidimensional SSW scale is developed and validated to ensure its generalisability. After the development of preliminary items, Study 1 (N = 435 of service employees) was used to purify items using factor analyses. Study 2 (N = 592 of service employees) used Structural equation modelling (SEM) with AMOS and SmartPLS to test the scale’s dimensionality, reliability, and validity. Findings–The results confirm the validity and reliability of the nine dimensions of SSW. The measure was validated as a third-order micro-, meso- and macro-level construct. The dimensions of existential and transformative well-being contribute to micro-level well-being. The dimensions of social, community and collaborative well-being contribute to meso-level well-being. Government, leadership, strategic and resource well-being drive macro-level well-being. In addition, a nomological network was specified to assess the impact of SSW on service actor life satisfaction and customer orientation. Research implications- We contribute to services literature by theorising SSW as a hierarchical structure and empirically validating the dimensions and micro-meso-macro levels that contribute to SSW. Practical implications–The SSW scale is a useful diagnostic tool for assessing levels of well-being across different systems and providing insights that can develop strategies and programs to improve the well-being of collectives. Originality/value– The research is the first study to theorise the micro-meso and macro levels of service system well-being and operationally validate the SSW construct. Keywords Service system, Multilevel, Collective Well-being Paper type Research paper
... Feeling trusted-the sense that another party accepts vulnerability to an individual's actions-is a socioemotional resource that conveys to employees they are valued and perceived positively (Baer, Dhensa-Kahlon, Colquitt, Rodell, Outlaw, & Long, 2015;Brower, Lester, Korsgaard, & Dineen, 2009;Lau, Lam, & Wen, 2014). The literature has focused on the notion that feeling trusted is a benefit to employees and their organizations, with several studies demonstrating a link to improved job performance (Brower et al., 2009;Deutsch Salamon & Robinson, 2008;Lau et al., 2014). Accordingly, it is intuitive that scholars have suggested supervisors should allocate as much trust as possible to their employees (Kahn, 1990;Lawler, 1992;Mishra & Mishra, 2012;Pfeffer, 1998;Spreitzer & Mishra, 1999). ...
... Being trusted can be a positive experience that contributes to satisfaction, commitment, and performance (Brower et al., 2000). It is intuitive, therefore, that theoretical and practical treatments have emphasized the positives of being trusted for employees and their organizations (Deutsch Salamon & Robinson, 2008;Lau et al., 2014;Mishra & Mishra, 2012). Yet, this prescription may rely on an untenable assumption-that all employees want a high level of trusting behaviors from their supervisors. ...
... Growth is a natural phenomenon and there is no organization in the world that is expected to be static. Organizations are like living things and they must grow from one stage to another if they are performing optimally and this is manifested in the continual improvement of profit, market share, sales and customer satisfaction (Salamon & Robinson, 2008). In fact, the ability of any business to succeed and remain sustainable in the long-term is contingent on the level of profitability. ...
Article
This paper investigated the impact of interpersonal deviant behaviour on organizational performance of oil servicing companies in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The measures of organizational performance utilized in this paper are productivity, growth and survival. The research design used was a cross-sectional survey. Using purposive sampling, five companies were drawn from the oil servicing sector and a total of eight hundred and two (802) employees from the five companies constituted the study population. A sample size of two hundred and sixty-six (266) employees was drawn using the Taro Yamane’s formula. Instruments for the variable were assessed for reliability using the Cronbach Alpha at a 0.7 threshold. The Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient as used to test the postulated hypotheses. The results revealed that interpersonal deviant behaviour has negative but significant correlation with the measures of organizational performance. Although interpersonal deviant behavior may start as a conflict between co-workers, it often mutates into other dimensions of deviance and spills over to the organization impacting on property, production system and organizational processes to the detriment of the performance of oil servicing companies. The study concluded that interpersonal deviant behaviour in the workplace is an issue of serious concern to management and recommended that strategies be put in place to control and mitigate conditions that trigger them. KEYWORDS: Deviant Behaviour, Interpersonal Deviance, Organizational Performance, Productivity, Growth, Survival
... To deal with the above mentioned problem, Access Bank developed a "professional development plan" for positions at each level detailing what was required in various categories (customer focus, error-free processing, liability generation, loan monitoring, innovation and creativity, decision making, delivering results, collaboration and team work, communication and "Access Person"). As HRM systems have been said to represent the "relationship, interaction and message between employee and employer" (Tzafrir, 2005(Tzafrir, :1601, the performance appraisal process is not only one of one of its most visible manifestations, but also a focal point for the articulation of the relationship (Deutsch-Salamon and Robinson, 2008). Risk and vulnerability, two quintessential features of trust, often come to the fore through this process. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abundant information in the literature suggests that the constant and effective implementation of formulated human resource management (HRM) policies and strategies affects how employees' appreciate the alignment of their personal goals and fit with the organization, and the extent to which the organization regard or respects the agreed terms of employment whether expressly stated or implied. (Mayer et al., 1995; Ross and La Croix, 1996; Dietz and Den Hartog, 2006; Searle et al., 2011b; Whitener, 2001). This objective of this paper is to appraise the training/ development strategies, recruitment strategies, performance appraisal and rewards strategies of Access Bank Plc. The game plan is to access the impact of these strategies on productivity (among other objectives), and to see if there are alternative approach to any of these. The role of internal and external factors (globalization, political-economic and organizational structure dimension) on the above mentioned strategies will also be appraised. Conclusions and recommendations on alternative approaches, solutions or strategies to follow (if any) will be thoroughly discussed and a clearer image of the "cause-and-effect" relationship of these strategies (approaches) and increased productivity will be drawn.
... 也强调从双方角度来考察主 [5] 。因此,对员工感到自己被上级 信任时对自己行为和意图的潜在影响知之甚少。 信任与被信任是两个不同的构念,它们关注不同的 主体 (信任的主体是施信方, 被信任的主体是受信方) , 现有文献中很少将这两个概念明确区分 (Brower et al., 2000) [4] 。基于对被信方的正面期望而认为被信任方是 可信的是主动信任;被信任方凭自身理解感知对方与自 己的信任关系,是感知信任或被信任感。现有文献多关 注信任方面,对"被信任"鲜有涉及 (Lau et al., 2007) [6] 。 到目前为止,人们的注意力都集中在信任如何影响行为 和绩效上,我们还不知行为和绩效是否受被信任的影响 及如何受到影响 (Kramer, 1996) [7] 。在实际组织中,员工 的行为不仅取决于他们对管理层的信任程度,还取决于 他们被管理层的信任程度 (Brower et al., 2000) [4] 。现存 的研究中大多数都是假定信任者对被信任者的信任能 被被信任者感受到,然而,由于环境中信息不对称等原 因的影响,可能存在信任者发出的信任的信号不能够被 被信任者接收,或者由于环境的干扰,被信任者误解了 接收到的信任的信号,因而不会产生被信任的感觉 (Spreitzer, 1995) [ [17] 提出当组织中的员工认为他们受 管理层信任时,会通过责任规范影响销售业绩和客户服 务,通过组织自尊感 (Lau et al., 2014) [12] 或情绪耗竭 (Baer et al., 2014) [11] 影响员工的工作绩效;员工感到自己被上 级信任会表现出更多建言行为(刘敏 et al., 2018) [24] 、组 织公民行为 (Brower et al., 2008) [25] 或强制性组织公民行 为(王红丽 et al., 2018) [26] ;感知信任影响员工的工作态 度如提高员工的组织承诺,降低员工的离职倾向 (孙秀 霞 et al., 2016) [14] , 也有可能带来不好的影响如引起情绪 耗竭 (Baer et al., 2014) [ ...
... Trust has already been linked in the literature to a variety of other leadership related positive perceptions, attitudes and behaviours, such as transformational leadership (Dirks and Ferrin, 2002), quality of managerial decisionmaking (Bijlsma and Koopman, 2003), protecting employees' rights and consideration for employees' needs and interests (Fairholm and Fairholm, 2000;Moye and Henkin, 2006) and effective leadership (Colquitt et al., 2012). Accordingly, there also exists some studies suggesting that employees' perceptions of ethical leader behaviour to be positively related to trust (Den Hartog and De Hoogh, 2009;Mulki et al., 2008;Salamon and Robinson, 2008). Thus, we argue that positive employee observations and evaluations about the ethicality of the leadership under which they working can be easily associated with their inclination to trust. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explain the effect of perceived ethical leadership and perceived distributive justice on internal whistleblowing intention through trust in leader as a mediator. Design/methodology/approach Following an empirical design, data were collected from 1,296 employees of Turkish financial institutions, located in Istanbul. To test four hypotheses structural equation modelling was applied. Findings Results reveal that trust in a leader fully mediates the positive effects of both ethical leadership and distributive justice on the internal whistleblowing intention. Originality/value This study enhances the understanding of the ethical leadership perception and distributive justice affecting the internal whistleblowing intention in Turkey that is a developing country. Although numerous studies on whistleblowing have been conducted, this study’s originality and contribution lay in the examination of trust in the leader as a missing link between the direct relations.
... Being perceived as trustworthy is known to lead to an increase in the level of the hormone oxytocin, which in turn helps the individual make stronger commitments and reduces stress (Zak, 2003). Being perceived as trustworthy increases one's sense of accountability, thus the employee forms an awareness of being responsible for the results they produce (Salamon & Robinson, 2008). It has been observed that being perceived as trustworthy is positively correlated to job performance and organizational citizenship behavior (Lau et al., 2014). ...
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This study has been conducted to find out if the trustee’s length of service has a moderator effect on the level of influence that self-esteem and extrinsic goal orientation have on the co-workers’ perceptions of the trustee’s trustworthiness. Research on the predictors of trust revolves around the frameworks of ultimate causation, ontogenic causation and proximate causation. This study focuses on trustee-related predictors in the formation of perceived trustworthiness, thus falling under the category of proximate causation studies. Trustworthiness is a trait with a multidimensional structure. The methods hereby applied have not allowed for a detailed assessment of each and every dimension, therefore integrity has been chosen as the main focus, since it is the most widely investigated dimension of trustworthiness. A field research was conducted with 80 software engineers employed in a software company that is horizontally aligned. Each participant, one-by-one, was assessed on how trustworthy they find each of their co-workers. Participants were also assessed for their levels of self-esteem and extrinsic goal orientation. Two data sets were collected from each participant; as truster (level of trust one holds for each co-worker), and as trustee (self- esteem, extrinsic goals, length of service); then these data were matched. The results indicate that the length of service has a moderation effect. Self-esteem is found to have a positive influence on the trustee’s perceived trustworthiness in cases where the length of service is relatively short. As the length of service increases, extrinsic goal orientation turns out to have a negative impact on the perceived trustworthiness of the trustee.
... Sometimes the public communication and policy measures can feel patronising, emphasising people's weaknesses and inability to control their own lives (Drury et al., 2019). This carries the danger of being a selffulfiling prophecy: People who are treated as irresponsible feel that responsibility can not be expected from them, while feeling that one is trusted tends to increase required responsible behaviour (Lau et al., 2014;Salamon & Robinson, 2008). For example, a systematic review on the mechanisms of change within motivational interviewing in relation to health behaviours (Copeland et al., 2015), found that of therapists' behaviours, the most promising mechanism was MI spirit: "collaboration, evoking the client's ideas about change and autonomy", which corresponds to the principle at hand: assigning autonomy to people as responsible agents. ...
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An effective response to crises like the COVID-19 pandemic is dependent on the public voluntarily adhering to governmental rules and guidelines. How the guidelines are communicated can significantly affect whether people will experience a sense of self-initiation and volition, protecting compliance from eroding. From the perspective of Self-Determination Theory, a broad theory on human motivation and its interpersonal determinants, effective communication involves the delicate combination of providing rules and structure in a caring and autonomy-supportive way. Research in applied domains from public messaging to education and health has shown that when social agents set limits in more autonomy-supportive, caring, and competence-fostering ways, it predicts autonomous forms of compliance, which in turn predict greater adherence and long-term persistence. Building on SDT, integrated with insights from social identity theory, we derive a practice-focused checklist with key communication guidelines to foster voluntary compliance in national crises such as the prevention of COVID-19 spread.
... The role of trust at the workplace has been widely discussed and acknowledged in the management literature (van Hoorn, 2018). Apart from the applied research suggesting the greater role of trust in organizational commitment (Tremblay et al., 2010) and performance (Salamon and Robinson, 2008), trust is also believed to promote flexibility in the workplace and the allocation of greater responsibility to the lower levels of the organization (van Hoorn, 2018). The findings of this study suggest that two levels of distrust exist in banking institutions. ...
Article
Purpose While prior studies have highlighted the brighter side of technology adoption in improving human resource (HR) functions, the dark side pertaining to the adoption of technology in people management within organizations has gone relatively unnoticed. The current study tries to demystify the dark side of electronic human resource management (e-HRM) by examining banking institutions in India which are believed to have undergone several transformations in recent years. Design/methodology/approach This study adopts an inductive qualitative approach to examine the research problem. In total, 53 semi-structured interviews were conducted with the employees of eight public sector banks in India. The interviews were transcribed. The analysis of the data was done using the thematic analysis technique. Findings The findings of the study suggest that there is a stratification of the workplace in banking institutions into digital natives and digital migrants. This social stratification is based on technology adoption and usage which has further created problems in the form of knowledge hiding and perceived workplace conflicts. Practical implications The findings of the current study have important theoretical and managerial implications. It not only extends the current scholarship on the transtheoretical model of change but it also has strong managerial implications as it highlights the need for the adoption of customized e-HRM training curriculums for the workforce based on their age, education, work experience and expertise. Originality/value Current research on the dark side of e-HRM is inadequate. Furthermore, the evolution of banking institutions from being a typical bureaucratic organization into a hybrid one has not been examined in the context of e-HRM.
... Trusting intentions influence trusting beliefs (Kim et al., 2009). Salamon and Robinson (2008) found that employees perform better when they perceive that management trusts them. Perceived trustworthiness generates more cooperation, which, in turn, results in more trust (trusting behavior). ...
Chapter
A context-specific trust such as organizational trust could underlie employee intention to cooperate more, regardless of individual differences in personality. This chapter sets out to investigate how employers could develop trust to augment employee cooperation via the provision of excessive extrinsic rewards. A two-stage laboratory scenario-based experiment (Study 2) is performed to explore whether employees who receive excessive extrinsic rewards will trust their organization more and as a result will be more willing to cooperate.
... For example, it would be interesting to explore how resilient teams can help build a more resilient organization, and whether the team-level resources of trust and potency can also be modeled at the organizational level. Finally, the scope of this article did not allow us to integrate the richness of the literature on trust in project management to describe other potential links that may exist between different forms of trust and project team resilience (e.g., swift trust, irrational trust, or felt trust) (McLaren & Loosemore, 2019;Salamon & Robinson, 2008;Weber, Malhotra & Murnighan, 2004). Additionally, due to the importance of trust for managing the inherent risk of project relationships, we believe that the link of trust and resilience can be extended to different levels of analysis (i.e., dyad, team, project, and organization levels) and include an integrated view of trust-resilient processes and capacities (see Fig. 1). ...
Article
Project teams are likely to work under a high degree of stress and interpersonal demands that usually diminish performance. The ability of a team to prosper in these adverse conditions has been studied using the construct of team resilience, but there is still little knowledge about the determinants of team resilience in a project-based environment. Therefore, we propose a model in which interpersonal trust (i.e., cognition and affect-based trust) and group potency drive the perception of team resilience in project team members. We tested the model in a sample of 214 construction project management team members belonging to 50 teams. Our results suggest that affect-based trust and group potency mediate the relationship between cognition-based trust and project team resilience. We discuss the implications of these results for research on project team resilience and, more generally, how these findings could help enrich the literature on project management.
... Another group of researchers began to investigate the consequences and mediating mechanisms of felt trust-the trustee's subjective feeling of being trusted by others. Specifically, these scholars theorized and showed that felt trust has important psychological effects (e.g., increasing trustees' sense of responsibility, empowerment, and organization-based self-esteem) that subsequently translate into performance benefits for trustees (Deutsch-Salamon & Robinson 2008, Gill et al. 2019, Lau et al. 2014. Another study considered psychological costs associated with feeling trusted that lead to emotional exhaustion among trustees (Baer et al. 2015), thereby challenging the implicit assumption that felt trust is always beneficial in work relationships. ...
Article
Over the past quarter century, trust has emerged as a core concept in organizational psychology and organizational behavior. We review the body of research amassed over that period using a field evolutionary lens and identify two “waves” that have shaped and progressed the field in specific and important ways: Wave 1, establishing foundational building blocks; Wave 2, questioning assumptions and examining alternatives. For each wave, we identify what has been learned and identify key questions that still need to be addressed. We also suggest researchers will need to evolve the fundamental questions asked in order to maintain the momentum of the literature into the next quarter century, and we speculate about what these might look like. Finally, as a result of recent organizational developments and societal disruptions, we anticipate the emergence of a third wave, aimed at examining their implications for trust in the workplace. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, Volume 9 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... Although some returners interpreted their manager's behavior as a lack of manager trustworthiness, particularly integrity or benevolence (see Table 4), others felt less trusted themselves from a competence perspective (Salamon and Robinson 2008). I'm a bit bored at work and I'm a bit disappointed that I'm not doing the same level of stuff that I was doing before, but I was working for different people before, so, maybe they understood my abilities a bit better. ...
Article
Temporal focus on past, present, and future of contributions to work is critical to understanding how employees and their line managers navigate career disruptions and minimize their potential for negative impact. This paper reframes temporal focus using a dyadic, relational perspective to explore how temporal focus (in-)congruence shapes resocialization experiences for returners and their line managers following maternity leave disruption. Our qualitative study draws on 54 interviews across 27 organizations and demonstrates that a congruent, broader temporal focus—that embraces the past, present, and future—is associated with more positive relational and career outcomes than an incongruent focus, where one dyadic partner holds a narrow temporal focus. Our findings explicate how the adoption of a broad versus narrow temporal focus creates a perception of maternity leave as either a brief interlude or a major disruption. A congruent, broader temporal focus allows returners and their line managers to reduce their reliance on typical motherhood biases and instead, consider the woman’s past, present, and potential future contributions over the course of her career. We highlight the importance of temporal focus congruence at a dyadic level and the value of adopting a broader temporal focus on careers while offering new insights regarding the temporal dynamics inherent to maternity leave transitions for both returners and their managers.
... According to Schoorman et al. (2007) trust provides many benefits in organizational life. Thus, an atmosphere of trust plays an important role in the creation and development of effective communication and high organizational performance (Salamon & Robinson, 2008). Moreover, Management science researchers have acknowledged the powerful role that organizational trust plays in innovation (Armenakis et al., 1993), in performance (Mayer & Gavin, 2005), in organizational change, and in organizational commitment (D. ...
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The recent interest of management researchers in the issue of organizational trust is mainly based on its indispensable role in efficient and effective management focused on human capital. Organizational trust is thus a phenomenon of uncertainty minimization, and the embodiment of a work climate that is worthy of the name. While organizational trust is understood as central to any exchange relationship, it has not been studied in a pre-birth approach to understand how it occurs in an organizational context. This paper aims to clarify the concept of organizational trust through different dimensions and forms, and to present a holistic overview of its antecedents levels taking into consideration all the variables that can directly or indirectly lead to organizational trust. The enrichment of the understanding of organizational trust is achieved by drawing on the affective and cognitive dimension of trust to clearly identify all the potential elements that can lead to organizational trust. Obviously, the theory mobilized in this research work is the theory of the social exchange which has been greatly shaken to study the exchange relations between the organization and its employees. For this purpose, various backgrounds are examined in this paper, including individual-level antecedents (Personality traits, propensity to trust), organizational-level antecedents (Organizational support, organizational effectiveness and Human resources policy), and cultural-level antecedents (Values, power distance, individualism/collectivism). The discussion and analysis of the different relationships with various antecedent levels of organizational trust has allowed us to propose a global theoretical framework in order to fundamentally identify multiple areas of future research and to contribute to the knowledge of the topic.
... From a social exchange perspective (Blau, 1964), a lack of trust has the potential to provoke deviant, retaliatory actions between two parties. Accordingly, after participants rated sense of agency, but before they rated displacement of responsibility, we asked them to rate their level of felt trust using a modified version of Salamon and Robinson's (2008) three-item measure. Specifically, participants indicated on a 7-point scale (1 = strongly disagree, 7 = strongly agree; α = 0.96) the extent to which they agreed with the following statements: "The researchers have faith in me," "The researchers trust me," and "The researchers have confidence in me." ...
Article
Organizations have long sought to mitigate risks associated with unsupervised employee conduct (e.g., employee deviance) through employee monitoring, an approach consistent with traditional theorizing. Yet the effectiveness of employee monitoring as a deviance deterrent has been called into question by emerging evidence suggesting that monitored employees may actually engage in higher levels of deviance. To address this critical tension and shed light on why and when monitoring leads to deviance, we draw upon social cognitive theory to examine the self-regulatory consequences of employee monitoring. We theorize that monitoring paradoxically creates conditions for more (not less) deviance by diminishing employees’ sense of agency, thereby facilitating moral disengagement via displacement of responsibility. Integrating fairness heuristic theory, we further argue that overall justice provides a powerful heuristic that mitigates the potential loss of sense of agency associated with monitoring. Accordingly, we suggest that employee perceptions of high justice will attenuate displacement of responsibility and, in turn, deviance. Across a field study and an experimental study, we find converging support for our predictions and rule out alternative explanations. This research provides important theoretical and practical insights into how monitoring can be used effectively without also promoting unintended consequences.
... The importance of trust in human relationship can be found in various aspects such as increasing organizational performance (Oh, 2019;Salamon & Robinson, 2008); reducing prejudice and encouraging cooperation (Dhont & Van Hiel, 2011;Woolley & Fishbach, 2017); business relationship (Franklin & Marshall, 2019) up to improving the quality of democracy (Warren, 2017). Moreover, trust as psychological variable can also be affected situationally, such as through personality and trustworthiness (Furumo et al., 2009) and oxytocin (Declerck et al., 2020;Kosfeld et al., 2005). ...
Article
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Political trust, conceptually understood as a trust in politics, refers to the positive expectation from the citizen that the government, as an institution leader, will deliver citizen’s best interest through policies and regulations. Political trust is considered as one of the indicators that mark legitimation of existing government in addition to the result from election. Trust in politics is a fundamental element that can connect government and citizens for which benefit policies acceptance and avoid political conflict. The dynamic interaction between government and citizens is the most valuable aspect in democracy, of which the government, as the highest administrator, carries aspiration from the public. For Indonesia, a democratic country with its uniqueness in culture, it is crucial to investigate factors that might contribute as the dimensions of political trust. Such comprehensive understanding can inform the betterment of the democratic practices in Indonesia towards a more robust democracy. In this review study, the author analyzed political trust from a psychological perspective and proposes four basic dimensions to understand political trust from Indonesian perspective. These are cultural dimension, gender dimension, subjective preference dimension, and performance dimension.
... From a social exchange perspective (Blau, 1964), a lack of trust has the potential to provoke deviant, retaliatory actions between two parties. Accordingly, after participants rated sense of agency, but before they rated displacement of responsibility, we asked them to rate their level of felt trust using a modified version of Salamon and Robinson's (2008) three-item measure. Specifically, participants indicated on a 7-point scale (1 = strongly disagree, 7 = strongly agree; α = 0.96) the extent to which they agreed with the following statements: "The researchers have faith in me," "The researchers trust me," and "The researchers have confidence in me." ...
... Follower perceptions of felt trust operate through a reverse process in which followers make attributions for their leader's trusting behaviors. At the core of felt trust is the sense that another person has positive expectations of an individual's behavior and, accordingly, is willing to take relational risks with that individual (Brower, Lester, Korsgaard, & Dineen, 2009;Deutsch Salamon & Robinson, 2008;Lau et al., 2014). Leader behaviors that require vulnerability are interpreted as a perceived willingness to be vulnerable. ...
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Theory on the impact of ethical leadership has traditionally been based on a deontological approach to morality. Underlying this perspective is the assumption that all leader behaviors which encourage “normatively appropriate conduct” will influence followers in a similar fashion. Put differently, the current consensus seems to suggest that actions which focus on preventing unethical behavior—attending to “the wrong”—will have the same impact as actions that focus on promoting ethical behavior—attending to “the right.” Taking a within‐person approach, we draw upon social exchange theory to challenge this consensus and build theory that suggests a follower's felt trust from their leader will be differentially impacted by prevention‐ versus promotion‐focused ethical leadership. We also explore how these different types of ethical leadership may indirectly, through felt trust, impact citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. Finally, we consider how the role of the “moral manager” may interact with the “moral person” by identifying leader moral hypocrisy as an important between‐person moderator of these effects. Given the importance of ethical decision‐making in organizations and the calls for increased ethical leadership, our findings have important implications for both theory and practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Article
Purpose COVID-19 highlighted the potential value of improving knowledge sharing (KS) processes among hospital estates and facilities management (HEFM) departments. Organisational trust (OT) is a recognised predictor of KS interactions, but the interplay of impersonal and interpersonal OT components is yet to be investigated fully. In response to recent calls, this study aims to explore the effect of organisational features on personal trust and OT components required for KS episodes, in the context of the English National Health Service (NHS). Design/methodology/approach A qualitative, exploratory grounded theory approach was selected, using primary data from 22 semi-structured interviews and secondary data from grey literature. A model of trust for KS among employees from geographically distributed units with pooled interdependence was synthesised from a review of the literature and used to connect the organisational features to different trust mechanisms. Findings This study identifies four organisational features with a compound barrier-effect on impersonal-based OT, interpersonal-based OT and personal trust for KS interactions: lack of professional development, inappropriate reward and incentive systems, reorganisations/organisational change and benchmarking. Research limitations/implications This study sought to generate theory about the interplay of organisational barriers and trust components required for KS, not to describe HEFM KS across the entire NHS. Future studies with more comprehensive data collections can build on this exploratory study by quantitatively testing the compound barrier effect of the organisational features. Practical implications Practitioners can benefit from the insights into the barriers inhibiting trust mechanisms required for effective KS processes. These can inform policymakers in English and potentially other health-care systems in designing enhanced collaborative arrangements, which are required as future crises, e.g. pandemics and climate change hazards, will require increasingly complex solutions. Originality/value This study addresses the interplay between personal trust, impersonal OT and interpersonal OT for KS by identifying the compound barrier effects of underlying organisational barriers common to personal trust and OT.
Article
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The pitch is an important part of the entrepreneur–investor relationship. To come to an agreement, entrepreneurs and investors need to trust each other. However, how does trust arise between them, and how does trust evolve during the few minutes of a pitch? With the aim to develop propositions, we build on previous studies in entrepreneurship and venture funding. Therefore, we rely on the main concepts of trust useful to analyze the interpersonal relationship during a pitch: behavioral trust and transformative trust. We discuss the place of formal documents diffused prior to the pitch and the importance of the oral presentation. We conclude by suggesting testable proposition on the evolution of trust during the pitch.
Article
Purpose Whether employees always disengage from knowledge hiding in a mastery climate is not answered well. This study aims to examine the paradoxical effects of perceived mastery climate (PMC) on evasive knowledge hiding (EKH). Design/methodology/approach Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to analyze data collected from 148 full-time employees at two-time points. Findings PMC exerts a positive effect on EKH via perceived status (PS) in organization but also has a negative effect on it via perceived social support. Perceived procedural justice attenuates the positive effect of PS on EKH. Practical implications Managers need to notice the paradoxical effects of PMC and keep procedural justice to reduce the positive effect of mastery climate on knowledge hiding. Originality/value This study contributes to knowledge hiding literature by investigating two opposite influencing mechanisms of mastery climate, and the moderating effects of perceived procedural justice.
Article
Purpose This study aims to explore how information technology (IT) companies that provide professional information systems/IT solutions to business clients can enhance employees’ service innovation performance. Design/methodology/approach Self-reported data were collected from 251 employees over two periods, along with their supervisor-reported data. The model was tested using structural equation modeling. Findings Employees’ engagement fully mediates the impact of innovative self-efficacy and social identification on service innovation performance. Employees’ customer orientation and feeling trusted both strengthen the transformation of service innovation engagement into service innovation performance. However, IT employees’ embeddedness, unexpectedly, significantly weakens the link between engagement and performance in business-to-business (B2B) service innovation contexts. Research limitations/implications The sample was collected in Taiwan, where the IT industry is dominant and employees’ values and team interactions are influenced by Chinese culture. Data drawn from a single industry, involving a particular culture, limit claims of external validity. Practical implications Managers can encourage participative decision-making, or hold official platforms where peers and clients can exchange ideas, leading to higher levels of feeling trusted and customer orientation, which both strengthen the link between service innovation engagement and performance. Moreover, highly embedded members can easily discuss novel ideas with team members and obtain improvement-oriented feedback, which ensures highly embedded members can keep focusing on service innovation. Originality/value This study provides a more nuanced picture of predictive factors for individual innovation behavior in B2B service innovation contexts in which employees provide business clients with professional, innovative IT solutions through team-based projects.
Article
Leaders across the globe have the accountability of leading their team members, ensuring a high level of trust in workplace (TWP) to flourish and enabling organizations towards goal achievement. These leaders work closely with their employees by recognizing their strengths and appreciating their accomplishment. They empower employees to higher levels of performance, thus creating value for stakeholders. The purpose of this research was to investigate the mediating role of TWP between positive leadership and flourishing. A total of 203 employees from the top 10 information technology (IT) organizations participated in the survey and completed three standardized, valid and reliable instruments. It was found that employees do experience positive leadership, flourishing and TWP to a moderate extent. A significant relationship was found between positive leadership, flourishing and TWP. These two moderately affected employees flourishing at the workplace. A model was developed and tested, it was found to be a good fit. Positive leadership behaviour (PLB) and TWP significantly influenced flourishing of employees. TWP mediated the relationship between PLB and flourishing. Findings of this study suggest that positive leaders are perceived as someone who recognize and focus on the strengths and accomplishments of employees. The research outcome will help develop strategies for leaders to explore and imbibe positive leadership approaches which would aid in developing a positive relationship between the constructs to engage employees better and move towards organizational success. The study is an attempt to examine the relationship between the constructs and contribute towards PLB, TWP and flourishing theory in the Indian IT context.
Article
Leaders’ perceptions of their teams are critical sources of contextual social information influencing leadership behaviors. In this paper, we extend affect‐as‐social‐information theory to understand how and why team helping behaviors predict leaders’ mistreatment of their teams in the form of abusive supervision and positive leader behavior in the form of empowering leadership, both through leaders’ perceptions of team positive affective tone. In addition, based on social information processing, we examine the cue of leaders’ perceptions of team task performance as a factor that helps us understand when the relationship between positive affective tone and leadership behaviors may be attenuated. In two text‐based scenario studies, a video‐based scenario study, and a multi‐source field study, we found evidence that team helping behavior is antecedent to abusive and empowering leadership behaviors, and that this relationship is fully mediated by leaders’ perceptions of team positive affective tone. Moreover, our results support team task performance as a factor that decreases the degree to which affective tone is related to abusive supervision. We discuss our findings as a caution to scholars’ assumptions about the directionality of leader‐team influence, emphasizing the need to acknowledge upward effects in workplace mistreatment research in the leader‐team relationship.
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EU-Projekt "Digitales Vertrauen und Teamwork" Diese Studie resultiert aus der EFRE-Forschungsstudie „Digitales Vertrauen und Teamwork“ (DigVertr), gefördert von der Europäischen Union und dem Land Niedersachsen. Das Ziel des Projekts ist es, anwendungsorientiertes Knowhow für die Region Uelzen zu generieren. Es soll die Wirtschaft und Struktur des Landkreises fördern. Dazu wurden Kooperationen mit Forschungseinrichtungen, Fachhochschulen und Unternehmen in der digitalen Wirtschaft eingegangen. Zudem haben verschiedene Kooperationspartner ihr Knowhow an die Unternehmen/öffentliche Institutionen in der Region Uelzen transferiert. Das Folgeprojekt ist "Digital Trust at the Workplace".
Chapter
The massive growth of emerging economies in last two decades has attracted many global companies to expand their physical presence in these countries. But the ability to take advantage of those opportunities is only available to companies that appreciate the environmental challenges and complexity of the region. The lexicon of extant literature focuses on enhancing supply chain leadership and development of efficient and effective strategies in developed economies, yet the corresponding literature in emerging economies is very fragmented. The aim of this chapter is to synthesize the current literature to understand the phenomenon including its definitions, dimensions, and constructs and to propose a conceptual model for successful supply chain leadership in emerging markets. The study tries to understand and establish the impact of various factors of supply chain leadership, which leads to sustainable supply chain performance. Collaboration and information management emerge as the major drivers for supply chain leadership in emerging markets and identifies trust as a mediating factor.
Article
Family firms are known for having a strong culture and shared values, which arise from the ways in which family traditions and dynamics influence the business. Value congruence is known for having positive effects on employees’ affective commitment, which is strongly connected to organisational performance. Thus, one can assume that a strong family influence on a business entails strong congruency between employees’ and firms’ values. To explore this topic in more depth, the present paper employs theoretical strands from family business research and person-organisation-fit theory. To examine the relationship between family influence, value congruence and their effect on affective commitment, this study conducted an online survey among 15 family firms that were categorized according to their family influence. The paper compared firms with weak and strong family influence in terms of employees’ value congruence and their affective commitment, as well as considered potential influencing factors such as leadership, management stewardship, and tenure. Different methods were used to analyse the data. The findings indicate that family firms with a strong family influence have higher levels of perceived value congruence and affective commitment among employees.
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Bu çalışmanın amacı, sosyo-teknik kolaylaştırıcılar olan güven, içsel ve dışsal ödül ile bilgi yönetim sisteminin, bilgi paylaşımı ve algılanan örgütsel performans üzerindeki etkilerini araştırmaktır. Nevşehir’de faaliyet gösteren konaklama işletmelerinde çalışanlardan oluşan örneklemden anket yöntemiyle veri toplanmış ve değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre; güven, içsel ödül, dışsal ödül ve bilgi yönetim sistemi ile bilgi paylaşımı niyeti, bilgi paylaşımı davranışı ve algılanan örgütsel performans arasında pozitif yönlü ilişki olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Regresyon analizi sonuçlarına göre ise içsel ödülün bilgi paylaşımı niyetini, davranışını ve algılanan örgütsel performansı; aynı şekilde bilgi yönetim sistemi kalitesinin de bilgi paylaşımı davranışını ve algılanan örgütsel performansı pozitif yönlü etkilediği saptanmıştır.
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Autonomy is defined in terms of the degree of capability of a system or machine to function without human intervention. Degrees of autonomy can vary from requiring fully engaged human involvement at one extreme to having none at the other extreme. Levels of trust on the part of humans concerns the extent of belief or confidence in the system. When a system with some degree of autonomy makes decisions and carries out its functions, trust in the system may rise or fall in accordance with perceptions or measurements of the system performance. Measurement of trust is typically related to ethical, moral, social and legal norms of society, along with metrics related to taking responsibility. Trust is related to cybersecurity in that insecure systems inherently have low trust. The work of this paper surveys and explores concepts of trust in terms of relationships between humans and systems. An ontology that characterizes this relationship is provided. Trust issues as they pertain to the areas of cybersecurity and autonomy are characterized. The concept of anti-autonomy and counter measures that apply to autonomous weapon systems is also included.
Chapter
This chapter describes the appropriate methodology and method for the research in this book and provides the justification for such a choice. The first section begins with an overview of established research methods in the studies of trust, cooperation, reward, locus of control, and psychological contract in the disciplines of psychology, organizational behavior, and human resources management. Existing literature is reviewed to determine various commonly used qualitative, quantitative, and mixed research methods. The next section rationalizes the research design to answer the research questions and elaborates the procedure of the research.
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While the job characteristics model has generally portrayed a positive relation between job autonomy and work outcomes, researchers have started to suggest that under certain circumstances, the role of autonomy is more ambivalent. For example, social context can affect the perception of autonomy, so it is seen as a type of neglect if exercised in circumstances of suboptimal relations between a supervisor and a supervisee. In this study, we aim to test this assertion using a moderated mediation model applied on matched responses from 451 pairs of academic scientific employees. Results showed an overall positive association between job autonomy and work outcomes. However, this was moderated by the social context in the form of a trusting relationship towards the autonomy‐granting supervisor. We can conclude that autonomy yields the highest benefits to the employee only in positive social contexts, because this is vital for attitudinal gains, namely, higher job satisfaction, ultimately translating to performance gains too.
Article
Peers may help others avoid violating organisational information security policies (ISPs). This study explores how peer monitoring reduces employee ISP violation intention. We propose that peer monitoring discourages employees from violating ISP. Moreover, trust plays an important role. Trust not only facilitates peer monitoring, but also moderates the effect of peer monitoring on employee ISP violation intention. In addition, collective responsibility leads to peer monitoring. We test our research model with data from two waves of surveys of 254 employees in the United States conducted two weeks apart. We utilise four scenarios in the second wave of surveys capturing the dependent variable and measure all other constructs in the first wave of surveys. Our results suggest that peer monitoring decreases one’s intention to violate ISPs. Furthermore, both collective responsibility and trust contribute to peer monitoring. Finally, trust amplifies the effect of peer monitoring on employees’ intention to violate ISPs. We discuss the theoretical contributions and practical implications.
Conference Paper
This research aimed to determine factors that affect employee retention, a case study in one of the top electricity organization. The objectives of this research were: 1) study the factors that can affect employee retention in an organization; 2) Explain the influences factors that affect employee retention in an organization. The questionnaires were used as a data collection instrument for 400 sets. The data analysis was used descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation (S.D.), and the hypothesis testing in this research was multiple linear regression analysis (MRA) at a significant level of .05. In this research, the results presented that 1) the overall level of Employee retention was neutral when considering independent variables from high to low, the results revealed that deeply high level of organizational commitment was highest; then followed by the job satisfaction; and the job satisfaction in the work was the least, 2) the results from the hypothesis testing of the Influence Factors that impact effect to employee retention, a case study in one of the top electricity organization. The most influencing factor was the organizational commitment, followed by job satisfaction and organizational culture respectively at a significant level of 0.05. http://online.anyflip.com/nmtug/tbvo/mobile/index.html == Vol. 1 No. 1 (2020): AU Virtual International Conference 2020
Conference Paper
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Bu çalışmada, sosyo-teknik kolaylaştırıcılar olan güven, içsel ve dışsal ödül ile bilgi yönetim sisteminin, bilgi paylaşımı ve örgütsel performans üzerindeki etkileri araştırılmıştır. Nevşehir ilinde faaliyet gösteren konaklama işletmelerinde çalışanlardan oluşan örneklemden anket yöntemiyle veri toplanmış ve değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre; güven, içsel ödül, dışsal ödül ve bilgi yönetim sistemi ile bilgi paylaşımı niyeti, bilgi paylaşımı davranışı ve örgütsel performans arasında pozitif yönlü ilişki olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Regresyon analizi sonuçlarına göre ise içsel ödülün bilgi paylaşımı niyeti, davranışı ve örgütsel performansı; aynı şekilde bilgi yönetim sistemi kalitesinin de bilgi paylaşımı davranışını ve örgütsel performansı pozitif yönlü etkilediği saptanmıştır.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the double-edged effects of supervisor bottom-line mentality (BLM) on subordinates' work-related behaviors (work performance and knowledge hiding) and the moderating role of subordinate gender. Design/methodology/approach The theoretical model was tested using a sample of 218 three-wave multi-source data collected from employees of five firms in southern China. Findings The results revealed that supervisor BLM is positively associated with subordinate BLM. Although subordinate BLM can enhance their work performance, it can also lead to knowledge hiding toward coworkers. Furthermore, these indirect effects are moderated by subordinate gender. Practical implications Managers should pay more attention to the potential positive and negative consequences of supervisor BLM and intervene to mitigate the negative impact of BLM. Originality/value This study is among the first to examine how supervisor BLM can be a mixed blessing and elicit both positive and negative behaviors from their subordinates. Moreover, by illuminating how subordinate gender moderates the relationship between supervisor BLM and subordinates' work-related behaviors, we enrich and extend the BLM literature.
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Although the mechanism of internal branding is related to both organizational factors and employees’ personal factors, the existing research mainly focuses on organizational factors. Thus, the literature on the formation and function of internal branding from the employee perspective is scarce. In this multisource study, we applied self-categorization theory to test the relationships among employees’ feeling trusted, perceived insider status, self-efficacy and taking-charge behaviour within the framework of internal branding. Data from 169 employee-supervisor dyads from the hotel industry in Northwest China revealed that employees’ perception of feeling trusted is an important factor that causes them to internalize their hotel employer’s brand and categorize themselves as “insiders” who regard the hotel brand as part of themselves and present brand-aligned behaviour to achieve brand success. In addition, employee self-efficacy is an important boundary-level variable that facilitates the transformation of brand internalization to brand-aligned behaviour. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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The study examined the effect of accounting records on performance of business organizations with a case of CWAY Water Company limited in Port Harcourt. A descriptive survey design guided the study. The population of the study was 90 respondents comprising of Management staff and other staff of CWAY Water Company, Port Harcourt. The entire population was used and sampled for the study. Three research questions were answered while two null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance using z-test in the study. The instrument used for data collection was a self-structured questionnaire validated by three experts and reliability coefficient of 0.84 was obtained through Pearson Product Moment correlation (PPMC) coefficient for the instrument. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics of mean with standard deviation. It was found that efficiency of accounting, availability of accounting records ,effectiveness of accounting records, affects the performance of CWAY Water Company, Port Harcourt. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that effective records should be maintained always.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study examined the relationship between various characteristics of organizations-including resource inputs, context, rules and regulations, goals, climate, and informal systems-and the effectiveness and efficiency of organizations. Data were collected from 172 secondary schools Discriminant analyses of the data with the organizations categorized along effectiveness and efficiency domains revealed that different sets or configurations of organizational characteristics were meaningfully related to the different organizational classifications.
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Researchers for decades have believed that trust increases performance, but empirical evidence of this has been sparse. This study investigates the relationship between an employee’s trust in the plant manager and in the top management team with the employee’s in-role performance and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). Results support a fully mediated model in which trust in both management referents was positively related to focus of attention, which, in turn, was positively related to performance. The results raise questions about appropriate levels of analysis for outcome variables. Trust is mandatory for optimization of a system.... Without trust, each component will protect its own immediate interests to its own long-term detriment, and to the detriment of the entire system.- W. Edwards Deming (1994) Over three decades ago, Argyris (1964) proposed that trust in management is important for organizational performance. Recognition of the importance of trust in organizational relationships has grown rapidly in recent years, evidenced by a large number of publications on the topic addressing both academic and practitioner audiences (e.g., Annison & Wilford, 1998; Fukuyama, 1995; Mishra, 1996; Shaw, 1997). In spite of this interest, difficulties in defining and operationalizing trust have hampered the empirical study of its relationship with performance.
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Current conceptualizations of procedural justice focus largely on the individual level of analysis; no framework exists for examining procedural justice's social context. Empirical tests reported here offer some support for group-level and cross-level hypotheses. Work group perceptions of cohesion and supervisor visibility in demonstrating procedural justice were associated with the development of procedural justice climate. Procedural justice climate was positively associated with helping behaviors after the effects of individual procedural justice perceptions were controlled for.
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In this study, we investigated a neglected form of extrarole behavior called taking charge and sought to understand factors that motivate employees to engage in this activity. Taking charge is discretionary behavior intended to effect organizationally functional change. We obtained both self-report and coworker data for 275 white-collar employees from different organizations. Taking charge, as reported by coworkers, related to felt responsibility, self-efficacy, and perceptions of top management openness. These results expand current understanding of extrarole behavior and suggest ways in which organizations can motivate employees to go beyond the boundaries of their jobs to bring about positive change.
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We tested several hypotheses derived from an extended version of Shamir, House, and Arthur's (1993) theory of charismatic leadership. We used three different samples of subordinates to assess leader behavior, individual-level correlates, and unit-level correlates, respectively. We also examined the effects of charismatic behaviors and unit-level correlates on superiors' assessments of leaders' performance. The findings provide only very partial support for the theory and indicate a need for greater sensitivity to the multiple constituencies of leaders in theories and studies of charismatic leadership in organizations.
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The studies reported here evaluated the conditions under which the relationship between employees' trust in and support for organizational authorities will be more or less pronounced. We hypothesized that employees' trust in organizational authorities would be more strongly related to their support for the authorities when they perceived the outcomes associated with authorities' decisions to be relatively unfavorable. The results of three field studies, in markedly different contexts, supported this prediction. In essence, the establishment of trust seems to be a potent force in overcoming the otherwise adverse reactions that employees may exhibit in reaction to decisions yielding unfavorable outcomes. Theoretical implications for the literatures on organizational trust and organizational justice are discussed, as are some practical implications and limitations of the studies.
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On the basis of a review of 22 years of articles published in 46 behavioral science journals, we found a total of 96 independent studies that reported age–performance correlations. Total sample size was 38,983 and represented a broad cross-section of jobs and age groups. Meta-analysis procedures revealed that age and job performance generally were unrelated. Furthermore, there was little evidence that the type of performance measure (ratings vs. productivity measures) or type of job (professional vs. nonprofessional) moderated the relation between age and performance significantly. However, for very young employees the relation between age and job performance was consistent and modestly positive. Implications of these results for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Presents methods for assessing agreement among the judgments made by a single group of judges on a single variable in regard to a single target. For example, the group of judges could be editorial consultants, members of an assessment center, or members of a team. The single target could be a manuscript, a lower level manager, or a team. The variable on which the target is judged could be overall publishability in the case of the manuscript, managerial potential for the lower level manager, or a team cooperativeness for the team. The methods presented are based on new procedures for estimating interrater reliability. For such situations, these procedures furnish more accurate and interpretable estimates of agreement than estimates provided by procedures commonly used to estimate agreement, consistency, or interrater reliability. The proposed methods include processes for controlling for the spurious influences of response biases (e.g., positive leniency and social desirability) on estimates of interrater reliability. (49 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Although the study of organizational justice has increased markedly in the past few years, little work has focused on the relationship between justice perceptions and extrarole behaviors. This study examined the relationship between perceptions of fairness and organizational citizenship behaviors in a sample drawn from 2 firms in the midwestern US. A theoretical basis for a relationship between fairness and citizenship was drawn from equity theory and other theories of social exchange. Structural equation analysis with LISREL 7 found support for 4 hypotheses, including support for a relationship between perceptions of procedural justice and 4 of 5 citizenship dimensions. Conversely, perceptions of distributive justice failed to influence any dimension of citizenship. Implications for the relationship between procedural justice and citizenship are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study empirically examined the relationship between trust, leadership, and team performance with 2 objectives. The Ist objective was to empirically examine an assumption found in several literatures-that a team's trust in its leader has a significant effect on the team's performance. The 2nd objective was to explore a more complex and dynamic relationship between trust and team performance whereby trust in leadership mediates the relationship between past tram performance and future team performance. This relationship is derived by combining theories of trust with an attributional theory of leadership. Survey and archival data from a sample of men's college basketball teams provider; support for both hypotheses, indicating that bust in leadership is both a product and a determinant of ream performance.
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This cross-level field study, involving 187 employees from 35 groups in 20 organizations, examined how individuals' antisocial behaviors at work are shaped by the antisocial behavior of their coworkers. We found a positive relationship between the level of antisocial behavior exhibited by an individual and that exhibited by his or her coworkers. We also found that a number of factors moderated this relationship. Finally, we found that dissatisfaction with coworkers was higher when individuals engaged in less antisocial behavior than their coworkers.
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In this paper we draw on recent progress in the theory of (1) property rights, (2) agency, and (3) finance to develop a theory of ownership structure for the firm.1 In addition to tying together elements of the theory of each of these three areas, our analysis casts new light on and has implications for a variety of issues in the professional and popular literature, such as the definition of the firm, the “separation of ownership and control,” the “social responsibility” of business, the definition of a “corporate objective function,” the determination of an optimal capital structure, the specification of the content of credit agreements, the theory of organizations, and the supply side of the completeness-of-markets problem.
Article
On the basis of a review of 22 years of articles published in 46 behavioral science journals, we found a total of 96 independent studies that reported age-performance correlations. Total sample size was 38,983 and represented a broad cross-section of jobs and age groups. Meta-analysis procedures revealed that age and job performance generally were unrelated. Furthermore, there was little evidence that the type of performance measure (ratings vs. productivity measures) or type of job (professional vs. nonprofessional) moderated the relation between age and performance significantly. However, for very young employees the relation between age and job performance was consistent and modestly positive. Implications of these results for future research are discussed.
Article
A model hypothesizing that task interdependence affects supervisor-reported extrarole behavior indirectly through employee felt responsibility was tested in this study. The model was supported by path analysis in a sample of 290 health-care and administrative employees in two hospitals. The results (a) demonstrate the importance of asymmetric felt responsibility to extrarole behavior and (b) show the need to include mediating psychological states when testing the effects of workplace structures on extrarole behaviors. New scales for measured employee-perceived task interdependence are introduced.
Conference Paper
Although the study of organizational justice has increased markedly in the past few years, little work has focused on the relationship between justice perceptions and extrarole behaviors. This study examined the relationship between perceptions of fairness and organizational citizenship behaviors in a sample drawn from two firms in the midwestern United States. A theoretical basis for a relationship between fairness and citizenship was drawn from equity theory and other theories of social exchange. Structural equation analysis with LISREL 7 found support for four hypotheses, including support for a relationship between perceptions of procedural justice and four of five citizenship dimensions. Conversely, perceptions of distributive justice failed to influence any dimension of citizenship. Implications for the relationship between procedural justice and citizenship are discussed.
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Organizational and psychological climate research has been plagued by cross-level inference problems. This paper advocates treating the organization as the unit of theory for organizational climate while preserving the individual as the unit of theory for psychological climate. It examines multilevel conceptual problems in climate research and discusses strategies for improving the validity and assessing the reliability of measurement. Additional multilevel research on climate and other areas of organizational science, particularly organizational culture, is encouraged.
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Recent thinking about top management has been influenced by alternative models of man.1 Economic approaches to governance such as agency theory tend to assume some form of homo-economicus, which depict subordinates as individualistic, opportunistic, and self-serving. Alternatively, sociological and psychological approaches to governance such as stewardship theory depict subordinates as collectivists, pro-organizational, and trustworthy. Through this research, we attempt to reconcile the differences between these assumptions by proposing a model based upon the subordinate's psychological attributes and the organization's situational characteristics.
Article
Evidence is presented that (a) employees in an organization form global beliefs concerning the extent to which the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being, (b) such perceived organizational support reduces absenteeism, and (c) the relation between perceived organizational support and absenteeism is greater for employees with a strong exchange ideology than those with a weak exchange ideology. These findings support the social exchange view that employees’ commitment to the organization is strongly influenced by their perception of the organization’s commitment to them. Perceived organizational support is assumed to increase the employee’s affective attachment to the organization and his or her expectancy that greater effort toward meeting organizational goals will be rewarded. The extent to which these factors increase work effort would depend on the strength of the employee’s exchange ideology favoring the trade of work effort for material and symbolic benefits.
Article
In this study, the authors examined the findings and implications of the research on trust in leadership that has been conducted during the past 4 decades. First, the study provides estimates of the primary relationships between trust in leadership and key outcomes, antecedents, and correlates (k = 106). Second, the study explores how specifying the construct with alternative leadership referents (direct leaders vs. organizational leadership) and definitions (types of trust) results in systematically different relationships between trust in leadership and outcomes and antecedents. Direct leaders (e.g., supervisors) appear to be a particularly important referent of trust. Last, a theoretical framework is offered to provide parsimony to the expansive literature and to clarify the different perspectives on the construct of trust in leadership and its operation.
Article
A set of foundation issues that support employee work and service quality is conceptualized as a necessary but not sufficient cause of a climate for service, which in turn is proposed to be reflected in customer experiences. Climate for service rests on the foundation issues, but in addition it requires policies and practices that focus attention directly on service quality. Data were collected at multiple points in time from employees and customers of 134 branches of a bank and analyzed via structural equation modeling. Results indicated that the model in which the foundation issues yielded a climate for service, and climate for service in turn led to customer perceptions of service quality, fit the data well. However, subsequent cross-lagged analyses revealed the presence of a reciprocal effect for climate and customer perceptions. Implications of these results for theory and research are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This research used a procedural justice perspective to examine the impact of entrepreneurs' management of information flows in the form of feedback and influence on entrepreneur-investor relations. We conducted both an experiment with master's-level business students and a field survey of venture capitalists regarding their relations with the CEOs of their portfolio companies. The findings revealed the importance of timely feedback in promoting positive relations between investor and entrepreneur. Together, the studies provide strong evidence for the usefulness of procedural justice theory as a framework for understanding the management of interorganizational relations involving new ventures.
Article
Three studies are used to examine how surveillance and sanctioning systems affect cooperative behavior in dilemma situations. The first two studies demonstrate that a weak sanctioning system results in less cooperation than no sanctioning system; furthermore, results from the second study suggest that sanctions affect the type of decision people perceive they are making, prompting them to see it as a business rather than an ethical decision. The results from these studies are used to develop a theoretical model that postulates that the relationship between sanctions and cooperation is due to both a signaling effect, in which sanctions influence the type of decision that is perceived to be made, and a processing effect, in which the decision processing, including whether or not the strength of the sanction is considered, depends on the decision frame evoked. A third study provides support for the processing-effect hypothesis.
Article
Schmidt and Hunter (1989) critiqued the within-group interrater reliability statistic (r(wg)) described by James, Demaree, and Wolf(1984). Kozlowski and Hattrup (1992) responded to the Schmidt and Hunter critique and argued that r(wg) is a suitable index of interrater agreement. This article focuses on the interpretation of r(wg) as a measure of agreement among judges' ratings of a single target. A new derivation of r(wg) is given that underscores this interpretation.
Article
"This paper advocates a validational process utilizing a matrix of intercorrelations among tests representing at least two traits, each measured by at least two methods. Measures of the same trait should correlate higher with each other than they do with measures of different traits involving separate methods. Ideally, these validity values should also be higher than the correlations among different traits measure by the same method." Examples from the literature are described as well as problems in the application of the technique. 36 refs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This paper examines the theoretical and empirical relationships between employees' trust in their employers and their experiences of psychological contract breach by their employers, using data from a longitudinal field of 125 newly hired managers. Data were collected at three points in time over a two-and-a-half-year period: after the new hires negotiated and accepted an offer of employment; after 18 months on the job; and after 30 months on the job. Results show that the relationship between trust and psychological contract breach is strong and multifaceted. Initial trust in one's employer at time of hire was negatively related to psychological contract breach after 18 months on the job. Further, trust (along with unmet expectations) mediated the relationship between psychological contract breach and employees' subsequent contributions to the firm. Finally, initial trust in one's employer at the time of hire moderated the relationship between psychological contract breach and subsequent trust such that those with high initial trust experienced less decline in trust after a breach than did those with low initial trust.
Article
Scholars in various disciplines have considered the causes, nature, and effects of trust. Prior approaches to studying trust are considered, including characteristics of the trustor, the trustee, and the role of risk. A definition of trust and a model of its antecedents and outcomes are presented, which integrate research from multiple disciplines and differentiate trust from similar constructs. Several research propositions based on the model are presented.
Article
Avolume examining the hypothesis that "present organizational strategies developed and used by administrators lead to human and organizational decay." The author argues that the conflict between the individual and the organization can be a stimulant for growth as well as a cause for disintegration. Harvard Book List (edited) 1964 #637 (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two studies report a positive relationship of employees' perception of being valued and cared about by the organization with (a) conscientiousness in carrying out conventional job responsibilities, (b) expressed affective and calculative involvements in the organization, and (c) innovation on behalf of the organization in the absence of anticipated direct reward or personal recognition. In Study 1, involving six occupations, positive relationships of perceived support with job attendance and performance were found. In Study 2, using manufacturing hourly employees and managers, perceived support was positively related to affective attachment, performance outcome expectancies, and the constructiveness of anonymous suggestions for helping the organization. These results favor the extension and integration of emotion-based and calculative theories of organizational commitment into a social-exchange approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
F. L. Schmidt and J. E. Hunter (1989) critiqued the within-group interrater reliability statistic ( rwg) described by L. R. James et al (1984). S. W. Kozlowski and K. Hattrup (1992) responded to the Schmidt and Hunter critique and argued that rwg is a suitable index of interrater agreement. This article focuses on the interpretation of rwg as a measure of agreement among judges' ratings of a single target. A new derivation of rwg is given that underscores this interpretation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses the need to demonstrate agreement among individuals' perceptions of climate prior to averaging climate scores from the perspective of aggregation. It is shown that estimates of agreement based on group mean scores have been incorrectly interpreted as perceptual agreement among individuals. Of initial importance is a study by J. A. Drexler (see record 1977-22375-001), who concluded that a considerable proportion of the variance in climate perceptions was accounted for by organizational membership. This conclusion has been employed recently by other authors to support the assumption that individuals in the same environment tend to agree with climate perceptions (e.g., J. R. Hackman and E. E. Lawler, Hackman and G. R. Oldham, and Oldham et al—see PA, Vols 46:9858, 54:2031, and 57:2102, respectively). It is demonstrated that Drexler's analysis provided inflated estimates of agreement among individuals, and the logic of the approach is extended to other studies in which inflated estimates of agreement appeared likely. (54 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Recent theoretical developments have enabled the empirical study of trust for specific referents in organizations. The authors conducted a 14-month field study of employee trust for top management. A 9-month quasi-experiment found that the implementation of a more acceptable performance appraisal system increased trust for top management. The 3 proposed factors of trustworthiness (ability, benevolence, and integrity) mediated the relationship between perceptions of the appraisal system and trust. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study explores group members' felt responsibility for their group's processes and outcomes. Individuals' felt responsibility is their cognitive and affective acceptance of responsibility for an event. Felt responsibility includes two dimensions, an acceptance of voluntary causation of an event and acceptance of obligations or duties in relation to that event. In this study I hypothesized that members of groups in which the members created a group name and visual symbol would feel a higher degree of personal responsibility for the group, and make more accurate decisions, than members of who named the exercise itself. I also hypothesized that the members of groups in which the members explicitly justified their individual choices prior to the group decision making discussion would feel a higher degree of personal responsibility for the group, and make more accurate decisions, than the members of groups who did not. The participants in this study, MBA students, completed a group decision exercise. In half of the groups the members created a name for their group and drew a visual symbol of their group, in the other half of the groups the members named the exercise itself and drew a symbol for the exercise. For the other condition, in half of the groups the members explicitly justified their decision prior to the group discussion, in the other half of the groups the members did not. The participants completed a survey of their felt responsibility both prior to and after they received their group scores. None of the hypotheses were supported and I examine the possible reasons for this result. An exploratory analysis found that the measure of group process was significantly correlated with group members' felt responsibility and the groups' decision accuracy. Also, members with rankings more closely related to the group ranking and other members' rankings felt a higher degree of responsibility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) which is intended to (a) diagnose existing jobs to determine whether (and how) they might be redesigned to improve employee motivation and productivity and (b) evaluate the effects of job changes on employees. The instrument is based on a specific theory of how job design affects work motivation, and provides measures of (a) objective job dimensions, (b) individual psychological states resulting from these dimensions, (c) affective reactions of employees to the job and work setting, and (d) individual growth need strength (interpreted as the readiness of individuals to respond to "enriched" jobs). Reliability and validity data are summarized for 658 employees on 62 different jobs in 7 organizations who responded to a revised version of the instrument. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Presents a theoretical framework for understanding age-related differences in work attitudes and behavior. Based on a review of more than 185 research studies, age-related differences in 3 major categories of variables are examined: work attitudes, work behaviors, and values, needs, and preferences. The work attitudes include overall job satisfaction; satisfaction with work itself, pay, promotions, co-workers, and supervision; job involvement; internal work motivation; organizational commitment; and turnover intention. Among the behavioral characteristics are performance, turnover, absenteeism, and accidents. Consistent age-related differences are reported for a number of work attitudes and behaviors, but conceptual and methodological difficulties preclude identifying causal factors in the relationship between age and work attitudes and behaviors. Some theoretical orientations having utility for guiding theory development and research on age differences are discussed. (6 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Employee trust for the general manager is proposed as an internal organizational characteristic that provides a competitive advantage for the firm. This paper empirically examines the relationship between trust for a business unit's general manager and organizational performance. Trust was found to be significantly related to sales, profits and employee turnover in the restaurant industry. Managers who were either more or less trusted differed significantly in perceptions of their ability, benevolence and integrity. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The goals of the present study were (1) to demonstrate again that subjects in social decision tasks involving shared resources cannot be modelled as strategic money maximizers, and (2) to investigate further factors that affect the use of what we have called social decision heuristics. Subjects were led to believe that they were the first of six group members to extract points from a common pool of points. Each point extracted could possibly be exchanged for cash. The independent variables were the magnitude of the payoffs that subjects could receive (high vs. low), the divisibility of the resource (divisible vs. nondivisible), the perceived control of the last members over the group's outcomes (fate control vs. no fate control), and subjects' social values (cooperative vs. noncooperative). The results indicated that subjects anchored their decisions on an equal division heuristic. Subjects withdrew the fewest number of points when the resource was divisible, the payoffs were low, and there was fate control. The most points were taken when the resource was nondivisible, the payoffs were high, and subjects were classified as noncooperative. A model of the choice process in this task is discussed.