Declining Hospitalization Rate of Esophageal Variceal Bleeding in the United States

ArticleinClinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 6(6):689-95; quiz 605 · June 2008
DOI: 10.1016/j.cgh.2008.02.049 · Source: PubMed
In recent years, there have been many advances in the primary and secondary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate nationwide trends in the hospitalization rate of bleeding esophageal varices in the advent of these new modalities. In addition, our aims were to study the incidence trends of nonbleeding esophageal varices over the past 2 decades while studying hospitalization rates for cirrhosis over the same study period. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used for inpatient data analysis (1988-2002) and the State Ambulatory Surgery Database was used for outpatient analysis. Patients discharged with International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, Clinical Modification discharge diagnoses related to esophageal varices were included. The hospitalization rate of bleeding varices increased 13.7% from 10.9 per 100,000 in the 1988 to 1990 period to 12.4 per 100,000 in the 1994 to 1996 period (P < .01), and then decreased 14.5% to 10.6 per 100,000 in the 2000 to 2002 period (P < .01). In-hospital nonbleeding varices increased 55% from 6.0 to 9.3 per 100,000 from the 1988 to 1990 period to the 2000 to 2002 period (P < .01). Outpatient nonbleeding esophageal varices increased 20% from 5.5 to 6.6 per 100,000 from 1997 to 2003. The hospitalization rate for bleeding esophageal varices has been on the decline in recent years and may be a reflection of the advances in primary and secondary prophylaxis. The incidence rate of nonbleeding esophageal varices is increasing and likely is owing to the increasing burden of portal hypertensive liver disease in the nation.
    • "[21][22][23][24][25]Owing to the adherence to the guidelines for primary and secondary prophylaxes in treating varices, the hospitalization rate for bleeding varices has been decreasing in America. [26] The present study observed that the decreased length of hospital stay when treating variceal bleeding implied the improvement of clinical care in Taiwan, such as vasoconstrictor prescription (e.g., terlipressin), endoscopic hemostasis, and adherence to the indication guidelines for prophylactic antibiotics. In contrast, the present study also observed the increase in medical expenses, which was similar to that in the previous study of Viviane and Alan. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis is related to high mortality and medical expenses. The purpose of present studies was to analyze the medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding among patients with cirrhosis and potential influencing clinical factors. A total of 151,863 patients with cirrhosis with International Classification of Diseases-9 codes 456.0 and 456.20 were analyzed from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2010. Time intervals were divided into three phases for analysis as T1 (1996–2000), T2 (2001–2005), and T3 (2006–2010). The endpoints were prevalence, length of hospital stay, medical expenses, and mortality rate. Our results showed that more patients were <65 years (75.6%) and of male sex (78.5%). Patients were mostly from teaching hospitals (90.8%) with high hospital volume (50.9%) and high doctor service load (51.1%). The prevalence of acute esophageal variceal bleeding and mean length of hospital stay decreased over the years (P < 0.001), but the overall medical expenses increased (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that older age, female sex, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score >1, patients from teaching hospitals, and medium to high or very high patient numbers were independent factors for longer hospital stay and higher medical expenses. Aged patients, female sex, increased CCI score, and low doctor service volume were independent factors for both in-hospital and 5-year mortality. Patients from teaching hospitals and medium to high or very high service volume hospitals were independent factors for in-hospital mortality, but not 5-year mortality. Medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding increased despite the decreased prevalence rate and length of hospital stay in Taiwan. Aged patients, female sex, patients with increased CCI score from teaching hospitals, and medium to high or very high patient numbers were the independent factors for increased medical expenses.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2016
    • "Esophageal varices develop in 30-60% of cirrhotics, eventually 30% of them bleed.[12] Survivors of a bleeding episode have a 70% risk of recurrence within 1 year.[34] (Acute variceal bleeding is an emergency to be managed by experienced staff).[5678] "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aim: Balloon tamponade has been widely available in emergency situations of acute variceal bleeding. To lessen the complications of Balloon tamponade, a new special type of stent for exclusive use in acute variceal bleeding has been developed. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness and safety of the new self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) in the initial control of acute variceal bleeding. We also hypothesized that using SEMS can bridge the acute bleeding episode converting endoscopic management by sclerotherapy or band ligation to an elective procedure. Patients and Methods: Twenty patients with acute variceal bleeding were included in the study and 16 of them were allocated to receive stent treatment. Results: Stent deployment was successful in 15 of 16 patients (93.75%). Technical errors were reported in 3 (18.75%) patients. Initial control of variceal bleeding was reported in 14 (out of 16) (87.5%) patients. The mean duration of the procedure was 10 (±6) min. Mortality was reported in 4 (25.0%) patients. Conclusion: SEMS is a safe and effective mean to control acute variceal bleeding.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Portal hypertension is the most common complication of cirrhosis accounting for significant morbidity and mortality mainly because of variceal hemorrhage, ascites, bacterial infections, hepatic encephalopathy, and hepatorenal syndrome. Advances in the diagnosis and management of portal hypertension over the last year are reviewed. The measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient provides important prognostic information in patients with portal hypertension. Noninvasive testing with transient elastography, capsule endoscopy, and computed tomography scanning for the diagnosis of esophageal varices is promising but more information is needed. Easily obtainable clinical data have been identified in patients with acute variceal bleeding that provides important information in determining initial response to therapy and prognosis. New therapies for patients with dilutional hyponatremia with vasopressin antagonists are promising and may improve the management of this condition. Terlipressin is the best medical therapy currently available for the management of hepatorenal syndrome as confirmed in recent studies. Patients with advanced liver disease benefit from the long-term administration of norfloxacin as it prevents the development of hepatorenal syndrome and improves survival. The ongoing advances in the diagnosis and management of patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension will improve the high morbidity and mortality of the complications of cirrhosis
    Article · Jun 2009
Show more