Article

Ambulatory Arterial Stiffness Index Is Increased in Hypertensive Childhood Disease

Division of Paediatric Nephrology, University of Bern, 3010 Berne, Switzerland.
Pediatric Research (Impact Factor: 2.31). 04/2008; 64(3):303-7. DOI: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e31817d9bc5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Arterial hypertension in adults is often associated with an increased arterial stiffness, which correlates with the ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) as derived from ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate whether children with diagnosed hypertension have an increased AASI as in hypertensive adults. AASI was calculated from 185 ambulatory BP measurements of 114 hypertensive and 71 normotensive, healthy children. Hypertensive children had higher AASI values compared with their normotensive healthy counterparts (0.370 +/- 0.120 versus 0.204 +/- 0.199, p < 0.0001). Children with longer duration of hypertension or a history of primary or secondary aortic coarctation displayed even more elevated AASI values. A receiver operator curve derived cut-off of AASI set at 0.301 distinguished (p < 0.0001) hypertensive from normotensive children with an odds ratio of 8.2, a sensitivity of 81%, and a specificity of 65%. Moreover, AASI correlated with pulse and systolic BP. In conclusion, AASI is elevated in hypertensive children and correlates with the duration and the origin of hypertension in childhood.

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    • "There are limited data on kidney damage/renal dysfunction in children with HTN. Lubrano et al. [121] recently showed that children with even mildly elevated BP and higher BP load (>40 %) had lower glomerular filtration rate and higher proteinuria, suggesting early renal damage. Moreover, microalbuminuria lowering halts the progression of LVH or induces its regression in children and adolescents with essential HTN [122]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood HTN (hypertension) has become a widely investigated topic within the last decade due to its increasing prevalence. In the present review, we examine new developments and trends that have significantly contributed to aetiology, diagnosis, evaluation and management of childhood HTN. Many recent reports document an increasing prevalence of HTN, mainly essential HTN, in children worldwide. This is probably related to the increase of childhood obesity, although obesity is not the only factor. Evidence has been accumulating to suggest a rather complex interplay between obesity, uric acid level, dietary sodium intake, inflammation, inheritance and other factors, which lead to increased risk of developing HTN in childhood and adulthood. The detection and monitoring of HTN has significantly improved with the use of ABPM (ambulatory blood pressure monitoring), which allows not only for a more accurate classification and staging of HTN, but also for the calculation of more sophisticated parameters such as the AASI (ambulatory arterial stiffness index). Measurement of arterial stiffness enables assessment of arterial dysfunction, which may precede structural vascular changes evaluated by carotid intima media thickness. Sustained HTN eventually leads to end-organ damage [LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy), central nervous system], which in turn increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. New developments in childhood HTN, as outlined in the present review, will hopefully contribute to better screening and management of HTN in children.
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    ABSTRACT: Ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI), a measure derived from ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements, is a marker of arterial stiffness and a predictor of cardiovascular mortality. Yet, AASI has been contested due to its dependence on the degree of the nocturnal BP reduction in hypertensive patients. Excluding night-time BP readings, and thus the dipping information, we demonstrate that daytime AASI remains elevated in hypertensive children and adults and maintains the relationship with age, pulse pressure and systolic or diastolic BP.
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    ABSTRACT: Ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) is a novel index derived from the linear relationship between 24-h ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) measurements. This study investigated whether 'home arterial stiffness index' (HASI) based on self-home BP measurements is similar to AASI. A total of 483 hypertensive subjects underwent 24-h ambulatory and 6-day home BP monitoring. AASI and HASI were defined as one minus the respective regression slope of diastolic on systolic BP. Mean HASI (0.66+/-0.17) was higher than 24-h (0.33+/-0.15) daytime (0.50+/-0.18) and nighttime AASI (0.37+/-0.19, P<0.001 for all comparisons vs. HASI) and was weakly correlated with 24-h (r=0.14, P<0.01) daytime (r=0.14, P<0.01) and nighttime AASI (r=0.09, P=0.05). Compared to 24-h AASI, HASI was less closely associated with age (r=0.46 and 0.10 respectively, P<0.001 for difference), systolic home BP (r=0.30 and 0.09, P<0.001) and pulse pressure (r=0.52 and 0.20, P<0.001), as well as with 24-h ambulatory systolic BP (r=0.21 and 0.05, P<0.05) and pulse pressure (r=0.56 and 0.25, P<0.001). No satisfactory agreement was observed between HASI and 24-h (agreement 63%, kappa 0.02) daytime (agreement 65%, kappa 0.1) or nighttime AASI (agreement 63%, kappa 0.03) in detecting subjects at the top quartile of the respective distributions. HASI appears to be similar but also has important differences from AASI and is less closely associated with markers of arterial stiffness. These data do not support the view that home BP measurements can replace ambulatory monitoring in the assessment of the arterial stiffness index.
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