Teen driver crash risk and associations with smoking and drowsy driving
Center for Injury Research and Prevention (formerly TraumaLink), The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.Accident Analysis & Prevention (Impact Factor: 1.87). 06/2008; 40(3):869-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2007.10.001
Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for young people in the United States. The goal of this study was to identify risk factor profiles of teen and young adult drivers involved in crashes. General demographic and behavioral as well as driving-related factors were considered. Analysis of a nationally representative telephone survey of U.S. young drivers ages 14 to 22 (N=900) conducted in 2005 was restricted to 506 licensed drivers (learners excluded). Statistically significant univariate associations between factors of interest and the primary outcome, crash involvement (ever) as a driver, were identified and included within a multivariate logistic regression model, controlling for potential demographic confounders. Aside from length of licensure, only driving alone while drowsy and being a current smoker were associated with having been in a crash. Gaining a better understanding of these behaviors could enhance the development of more customized interventions for new drivers.
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- "Also, young drivers drive late at night, a time when the biological need for sleep is greatest, and which may involve alcohol consumption and carrying peers who can be a negative influence upon their behaviour (Papadakaki et al., 2008). Driving whilst tired can contribute to young driver crashes (Hutchens et al., 2008) through such mechanisms as reduced hazard perception ability and slower reaction times. "
ABSTRACT: Background: Volitional risky driving behaviours such as drink- and drug-driving (i.e. substance-impaired driving) and speeding contribute to the overrepresentation of young novice drivers in road crash fatalities, and crash risk is greatest during the first year of independent driving in particular. Aims: To explore the: (1) self-reported compliance of drivers with road rules regarding substance-impaired driving and other risky driving behaviours (e.g., speeding, driving while tired), one year after progression from a Learner to a Provisional (intermediate) licence; and (2) interrelationships between substance-impaired driving and other risky driving behaviours (e.g., crashes, offences, and Police avoidance). Methods: Drivers (n = 1076; 319 males) aged 18–20 years were surveyed regarding their sociodemographics (age, gender) and self-reported driving behaviours including crashes, offences, Police avoidance, and driving intentions. Results: A relatively small proportion of participants reported driving after taking drugs (6.3% of males, 1.3% of females) and drinking alcohol (18.5% of males, 11.8% of females). In comparison, a considerable proportion of participants reported at least occasionally exceeding speed limits (86.7% of novices), and risky behaviours like driving when tired (83.6% of novices). Substance-impaired driving was associated with avoiding Police, speeding, risky driving intentions, and self-reported crashes and offences. Forty-three percent of respondents who drove after taking drugs also reported alcohol-impaired driving. Discussion and Conclusions: Behaviours of concern include drink driving, speeding, novice driving errors such as misjudging the speed of oncoming vehicles, violations of graduated driver licensing passenger restrictions, driving tired, driving faster if in a bad mood, and active punishment avoidance. Given the interrelationships between the risky driving behaviours, a deeper understanding of influential factors is required to inform targeted and general countermeasure implementation and evaluation during this critical driving period. Notwithstanding this, a combination of enforcement, education, and engineering efforts appear necessary to improve the road safety of the young novice driver, and for the drink-driving young novice driver in particular.
- "Many different populations of drivers are potentially at risk for fatigue-related crashes. These include: young males who are more likely to be sleep deprived and/or drive at night (Pack et al., 1995); young drivers driving alone while drowsy (Hutchens et al., 2008); commercial vehicle (e.g., truck) operators who typically spend many hours on the road (Wylie et al., 1996); individuals with sleep apnoea (Tippin et al., 2009); and older adults with perceptual (Owsley et al., 1998) or attention deficits (Ball et al., 1988; Parasuraman and Nestor, 1991), or those taking prescription medications that may make them more susceptible to the effects of fatigue (Cooper et al., 2011). Fatigue impairs both driving performance as well as cognitive functioning, and thus impairs the ability of drivers to judge whether it is safe to continue driving (Brown, 1997). "
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- "This trait has been shown to correlate with risky health behaviours (op. cit.) and to be associated with crash involvement in young drivers . A four item scale developed by Kohn and Schooler [ in ] will be used to measure 'Normlessness'. "
ABSTRACT: Regular cycling has been shown to improve health and has a role in tackling the threats posed by obesity and inactivity. Cycle collisions, particularly those involving motorised vehicles, can lead to significant mortality and morbidity and are currently a barrier to wider uptake of cycling. There is evidence that the conspicuity of cyclists is a factor in many injury collisions. Low-cost, easy to use retro-reflective and fluorescent clothing and accessories ('conspicuity aids') are available. Their effectiveness in reducing cycling collisions is unknown. The study is designed to investigate the relationship between the use of conspicuity aids and risk of collision or evasion crashes for utility and commuter cyclists in the UK. A matched case-control study is proposed. Cases are adult commuter and utility cyclists involved in a crash resulting from a collision or attempted evasion of a collision with another road user recruited at a UK emergency department. Controls are commuter and utility cyclists matched by journey purpose, time and day of travel and geographical area recruited at public and private cycle parking sites. Data on the use of conspicuity aids, crash circumstances, demographics, cycling experience, safety equipment use, journey characteristics and route will be collected using self-completed questionnaires and maps. Conditional logistic regression will be used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the risk of a crash when using any item of fluorescent or reflective clothing or equipment. This study will provide information on the effectiveness of conspicuity aids in reducing the risk of injury to cyclists resulting from crashes involving other road users.
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