Mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region in Staphylococcus epidermidis recovered from conjunctiva and their association with susceptibility to various fluoroquinolones

Division for Vision Research, National Institute of Sensory Organs, National Tokyo Medical Center, 2-5-1 Higashigaoka, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8902, Japan.
The British journal of ophthalmology (Impact Factor: 2.98). 07/2008; 92(6):848-51. DOI: 10.1136/bjo.2007.129858
Source: PubMed


Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the prominent pathogens in ocular infection. The prevalence of mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) area in S epidermidis isolated from the ocular surface and its association with fluoroquinolone resistance has not been fully elucidated.
Mutations in the QRDR of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes of 138 isolates of S epidermidis recovered from the human conjunctival flora were analysed. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of four fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and tosufloxacin) against these isolates were also determined using agar dilution methods.
The MIC(90) values of levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and tosufloxacin were 3.13, 1.56, 0.78 and 3.13 microg/ml, respectively. The MIC values of all fluoroquinolones showed a bimodal distribution (susceptible strain and less susceptible strain). Mutations with amino acid substitution in the QRDR were present in 70 (50.7%) isolates. 19 different combinations of mutations were detected: 3 isolates (2.2%) had four mutations, 8 (5.8%) had three mutations, 43 (31.2%) had double mutations and 16 (11.6%) had single mutations. Isolates with mutations in the QRDR of both gyrA and parC (n = 53) were less susceptible to fluoroquinolones.
The present findings show that approximately half the S epidermidis isolates from the normal human conjunctiva have mutation(s) in the QRDR. The presence of mutations in both gyrA and parC is strongly associated with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones.

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Available from: Masakazu Yamada, Jul 29, 2015
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    • "While no GyrB mutations were found in this isolate, ParE contained three amino acid substitutions. Work by various investigators has found the same mutations described here and have shown that, while individual mutations can increase resistance to fluoroquinolones, high-level resistance is the result of multiple mutations that involve GyrA and ParC.10–18 Despite those multiple mutations, besifloxacin, and to a lesser extent moxifloxacin, maintained low MICs and potent bactericidal activity in the 24 h test period. "
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    ABSTRACT: Besifloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone that was recently approved for topical treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. The compound was shown to be active in vitro against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including isolates resistant to other antibacterials. Here, the bactericidal activity of besifloxacin was evaluated against the most common bacterial conjunctivitis pathogens. MIC, MBC and time-kill experiments with besifloxacin and comparators were performed according to CLSI guidelines. Quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) were sequenced using standard PCR-based techniques. MIC and MBC data indicated that besifloxacin was the most potent fluoroquinolone tested against Staphylococcus aureus (n = 30), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 15) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 35), while all fluoroquinolones were highly active against Haemophilus influenzae (n = 40). Besifloxacin MBC:MIC ratios were < or = 4 for 97.5% of all isolates tested (n = 120). All fluoroquinolones tested, as well as tobramycin, were bactericidal, while azithromycin was bactericidal against S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, but bacteriostatic against the staphylococci. Time-kill assays with all four species showed that besifloxacin caused > or = 1000-fold killing within 2 h for 11 of 12 isolates. Only one isolate treated with moxifloxacin and three ciprofloxacin-treated isolates achieved the same level of bactericidal activity under the same conditions. Unlike the comparator fluoroquinolones, besifloxacin maintained a high potency and bactericidal activity even against strains that contained multiple mutations in the genes encoding DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Overall, besifloxacin demonstrated rapid bactericidal activity against the four major human pathogens tested here, including isolates that showed in vitro resistance to other fluoroquinolones, beta-lactams, macrolides or aminoglycosides.
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