Article

High Self‐Control Predicts Good Adjustment, Less Pathology, Better Grades, and Interpersonal Success

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Abstract

What good is self-control? We incorporated a new measure of individual differences in self-control into two large investigations of a broad spectrum of behaviors. The new scale showed good internal consistency and retest reliability. Higher scores on self-control correlated with a higher grade point average, better adjustment (fewer reports of psychopathology, higher self-esteem), less binge eating and alcohol abuse, better relationships and interpersonal skills, secure attachment, and more optimal emotional responses. Tests for curvilinearity failed to indicate any drawbacks of so-called overcontrol, and the positive effects remained after controlling for social desirability. Low self-control is thus a significant risk factor for a broad range of personal and interpersonal problems.

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... Self-control can be defined as the ability to change one's behaviors or reactions and suppress unwanted impulses in order to adapt to a situation. Self-control is particularly relevant to motivational conflicts in which one must resist a pleasurable temptation in order to satisfy a long-term goal (Tangney et al., 2004;Hofmann et al., 2014). Individuals who less frequently control their reactions are considered lower in dispositional self-control (Tangney et al., 2004;Duckworth and Steinberg, 2015). ...
... Self-control is particularly relevant to motivational conflicts in which one must resist a pleasurable temptation in order to satisfy a long-term goal (Tangney et al., 2004;Hofmann et al., 2014). Individuals who less frequently control their reactions are considered lower in dispositional self-control (Tangney et al., 2004;Duckworth and Steinberg, 2015). Research conducted by Hofmann et al. (2014) indicates that level of self-control is a significant predictor of well-being and satisfaction with life. ...
... Pilarska and Baumaister's (2018) Polish adaptation of the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS) (Tangney et al., 2004) was used to measure dispositional self-control. The BSCS is a thirteen-item self-report questionnaire that consists of four positively worded statements and nine negatively worded statements. ...
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Physical activity is an important determinant of a healthy lifestyle. Regular participation in sports-related activities contributes to the maintenance of good psychophysiological and social health. Long-term physical activity has a positive impact on subjective well-being and can reduce stress. Karate is a specific physical activity which focuses on self-regulation and self-development; therefore, it may reduce impulsivity and improve self-control. Good self-control is also related to satisfaction with life and well-being. The presented study aimed to examine the possible intermediate impact of self-control and emotion regulation on the relationship between karate training and satisfaction with life. Fifty-eight karate practitioners and fifty-nine control subjects participated in the research. The Satisfaction With Life Scale and the Brief Self-Control Scale were applied in order to assess life satisfaction and the general level of self-control. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire was used to assess suppression and reappraisal, both of which are distinct aspects of emotion regulation. The direct and indirect relationships between karate training and satisfaction with life were investigated using a linear regression model that included self-control, suppression and reappraisal as mediating variables. No direct effects of karate training on satisfaction with life were found, whereas karate training was indirectly associated with satisfaction with life via the indirect path that leads through self-control and reappraisal. This indicates that self-control and reappraisal fully mediate the impact of karate training on subjective well-being. Karate training can therefore play an important role in shaping volitional and personality characteristics, both of which contribute to increasing the well-being of trainees.
... Perilaku akademik kontraproduktif di kalangan mahasiswa terkait kepribadian masing-masing individu (dalam hal ini sifat kehati-hatian atau conscientiousness) dengan dimediasi pengendalian diri (self control). Pengendalian diri menurut Tangney et al. (2004) adalah kemampuan untuk mengesampingkan atau mengubah respons dalam diri seseorang, maupun untuk mengurangi kecenderungan perilaku yang tidak diinginkan dan menahan diri dari tindakan tersebut. Kapasitas untuk pengendalian diri jelas merupakan kom-ponen penting dari conscientiousness (sifat kehati-hatian) dalam menyelesaikan tugas, memenuhi komitmen, dan selain itu mengurus bisnis memerlukan kemampuan untuk mengontrol dan mengarahkan perilaku secara strategis (Tangney et al., 2004). ...
... Pengendalian diri menurut Tangney et al. (2004) adalah kemampuan untuk mengesampingkan atau mengubah respons dalam diri seseorang, maupun untuk mengurangi kecenderungan perilaku yang tidak diinginkan dan menahan diri dari tindakan tersebut. Kapasitas untuk pengendalian diri jelas merupakan kom-ponen penting dari conscientiousness (sifat kehati-hatian) dalam menyelesaikan tugas, memenuhi komitmen, dan selain itu mengurus bisnis memerlukan kemampuan untuk mengontrol dan mengarahkan perilaku secara strategis (Tangney et al., 2004). Kehati-hatian (conscientiousness) menurut Robbins dan Judge (2015) yaitu sebuah dimensi kepribadian yang menjelaskan seseorang yang bertanggung jawab, dapat diandalkan, persisten, dan teratur. ...
... Pengendalian diri menurut Tangney et al. (2004) adalah kemampuan untuk mengesampingkan atau mengubah respons dalam diri seseorang, maupun untuk mengurangi kecenderungan perilaku yang tidak diinginkan dan menahan diri dari tindakan tersebut. Tangney et al. (2004) juga menjelaskan bahwa perbedaan individu yang substansial ada dalam kapasitas orang untuk mengontrol diri. ...
Article
Every individual has a different conscientiousness, this causes different reactionsof self-control and ultimately counterproductive academic behaviors that occur arealso different. The research objective to be achieved is to examine the influence ofthe nature of self-control and conscientiousness on academic behavior is counterproductive, and self-control on academic behavior is counterproductive, and examine the role of mediator variable restraint on the effect of precautionary nature of the academic behavior is counterproductive. Based on the research results that the first hypothesis which states the nature conscientiousness have a negative effect on academic counterproductive behavior is not supported. The second hypothesis which states the nature concientiousness have a positive effect on self-control is supported. The third hypothesis which states that self-control negative effect on academic counterproductive behavior is not supported. The fourth hypothesis which states restraint mediating influence of the nature of prudence on academic behavior counterproductive partially supported mediation. Someone who has a personality trait conscientiousness and low self-control tend to behave academic counterproductive.
... Self-control is often conceptualized as the capacity to suppress or override immediate desires to achieve a long-term objective (Baumeister et al., 2007;Metcalfe & Mischel, 1999;Tangney et al., 2004). Self-control, as willpower in general and executive function in particular, is considered to refer to mental functions that help people resist desires, manage competing tasks, and maintain attention. ...
... Therefore, self-control is essential for success in most aspects of life, particularly education, employment, and relationships (Inzlicht et al., 2014;de Ridder et al., 2012). A growing body of research demonstrated that high self-control is related to adaptive behaviors such as success work/school achievement, health-related behaviors, interpersonal success, less pathology, adjustment, life satisfaction, and well-being (de Ridder et al., 2012;Duckworth & Seligman, 2005;Ronen et al., 2016;Şimşir & Dilmaç, 2021;Tangney et al., 2004). Consistent with these results, a low level of self-control was related to maladaptive behavior such as criminality, drug addictions, behavioral addictions (e.g., smartphone, internet, social media), binge eating, bullying behaviors, and procrastination (de Ridder et al., 2012;Geng et al., 2018;Grasmick et al., 1993;Vainik et al., 2019). ...
... As stated earlier, people with low self-control scores are not able to resist impulses frequently and successfully (Baumeister et al., 1998;Ent et al., 2015;Tangney et al., 2004). Similarly, procrastinators have difficulty resisting their impulses (Ferrari & Emmons, 1995;Zhang et al., 2019). ...
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Self-control is always crucial in many areas of life. Therefore, self-control failure is the source of many of the difficulties people face in their lives and also at the center of several problems, especially among adolescents. In this regard, the purpose of the study was to examine the mediating role of multi-screen addiction (MSA) in the relationship between self-control and procrastination among adolescents by using structural equation modeling (SEM). A cross-sectional design and an online questionnaire was used in this study. The study group composed of 390 adolescents studying at various high schools in Turkey. The results of correlation analysis showed that self-control was negatively correlated with MSA and procrastination. MSA also positively correlated with procrastination. Furthermore, the findings showed that MSA mediated the relationship between self-control and procrastination. The fit index of the SEM was found to be satisfactory. The results of the study were addressed in the context of the existing literature, and then suggestions were presented. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-021-02472-2.
... In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between the GM-BHQ of healthy participants and the abovementioned motivation and interpersonal scales: BAS, SMS, and IRI. Additionally, to enrich our understanding of these associations, the authors employed two social psychological scales: the brief version of the Self-Control Scale (SCS: Tangney et al., 2004) and the Behavioral Inhibition System scale (BIS: Carver & White, 1994). The authors chose these scales because they are scales of inhibitive or restrictive motivation, which provides a good contrast with the BAS and SMS scales. ...
... However, the present research employed a 5-point Likert scale as is similarly done in Briggs et al. (Briggs et al., 1980). The Self-Control Scale (SCS) developed by Tangney et al. (Tangney et al. 2004) measures dispositional self-regulatory behaviors. The current research employed the 13-item brief version because the vast majority of researchers have used it. ...
... This difference indicates that the BIS may be associated with regional GMV positively and negatively, but not with whole-brain GMV by canceling these correlations with each other. Likewise, the Self-Control Scale (SCS), which measures the inhibition of some undesirable behaviors and has to do with human morals or discipline (Tangney et al. 2004), was not significantly associated with the GM-BHQ. These differences are essential to understanding the features of the GM-BHQ more accurately. ...
Article
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Motivation, defined as the energizing of behavior in pursuit of a goal, is a fundamental element of our interaction with the world and with each other. Furthermore, as it is known that cooperation leads to higher levels of performance than do individual conditions, empathic concern is also crucial to all forms of helping relationships. A growing number of studies indicate that motivation and empathy are associated not only with organizational performance and study achievements, but also with the human brain. However, to date, no definite neuroimaging-derived measures are available to measure motivation and empathy objectively. The current research evaluated the association of motivation and empathy with the whole brain using the gray-matter brain healthcare quotient (GM-BHQ), an MRI-based quotient. Participants were 47 healthy adults. All subjects underwent structural T1-weighted imaging. Motivation levels were evaluated using four motivation scales: Behavioral Activation System (BAS), Self-Monitoring Scale (SMS), Self-Control Scale (SCS), and Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS). Interaction levels, including empathic concern, were evaluated using four subscales of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). It was found that the GM-BHQ was most significantly sensitive to the BAS scale ( p = 0.002). Furthermore, the GM-BHQ was moderately sensitive to the SMS ( p = 0.028) and subscales of the IRI ( p = 0.044 for Fantasy and p = 0.036 for Empathic Concern). However, no significant association was found between the GM-BHQ and other variables (BIS and SCS). These results suggest that the GM-BHQ might reflect motivation and empathic concern.
... The Brief Self-Control Scale developed by Tangney et al., (2004) was administered to assess the self-control of the participants. This scale contains thirteen items to evaluate self-control and is composed of questions including "I am good at resisting temptation" and "I wish I had more self-discipline". ...
... The Cronbach"s alpha indicated the internal consistency of the BSCS in the current study as 0.70. This measure is considered a valid and reliable tool to assess self-control that has been using largely in previous research (Ali et al., 2019;Malouf et al., 2014;Tangney, Baumeister, & Boone, 2004). The thirteen items of this scale covers contents concerning controlling impulses and emotions and thoughts, as well as covers contents related to performance and habits regulation. ...
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Self-control is considered to link with a wide range of adaptive behavior. This study aims to illustrate whether physical activity, physical fitness, and sports experience have some associations with self-control in individuals with visual impairment, and is there any difference between self-control among visually impaired athletes versus non-athletes. A total of 220 participants including 110 players and 110 non-players participated in the study. Data were collected through a questionnaire consisted of demographic information, sports participation , and experience-related questions (7-items-IPAQ), and a brief self-control scale. The analysis revealed that the score of the self-control scale was significantly higher in participants with playing experience comparative to those no playing experience. Sports experience and physical activity were positively related to self-control scores, whereas body mass index (BMI) and resting heart rate (RHR) of all participants were negatively related to self-control scores. Findings suggest that the ability of self-control can be enhanced through participation in sports and physical activity among visually impaired individuals. Professionals and policymakers should consider strategies to promote physical activity and sports participation in individuals with visual impairment to enhance positive personality traits.
... Ταυτόχρονα, είναι σημαντική η εμπλοκή των γονέων στη διαχείριση του χρόνου. Πιο συγκεκριμένα, η επιβολή κανόνων, στο χρόνο μελέτης, ο έλεγχος του ελεύθερου χρόνου που δαπανάται στην ενασχόληση με την τεχνολογία και η καθιέρωση μίας ρουτίνας μελέτης όχι μόνο διεκπεραιωτικού χαρακτήρα (Φράγκου, 2007), συμβάλλουν στην αυτορρύθμιση και τον αυτοέλεγχο των μαθητών, που είναι ζωτικής σημασίας, για την υψηλή επίδοση και όχι μόνο (Tangney, 2004). Εξάλλου, η διαμόρφωση των κατάλληλων συνθηκών μελέτης, είναι άλλη μια παράμετρος που έχει συνδεθεί με την καλή επίδοση των μαθητών (Φράγκου, 2007) η οποία βέβαια, δεν μπορεί να αποσυνδεθεί από κοινωνικοοικονομικούς παράγοντες, όπως το εισόδημα των γονέων και ο τόπος κατοικίας τους. ...
... Το περιβάλλον, όμως, όπου ανατρέφεται ένα παιδί συμβάλλει στην καλλιέργεια της αυτοπεποίθησης (Hosogi et al. in 2012, στο Discroll, 2013 και του αυτοελέγχου, που είναι κρίσιμες παράμετροι για τη σχολική επιτυχία. Πιο συγκεκριμένα, έχει βρεθεί ότι υψηλές επιδόσεις στην κλίμακα του αυτοελέγχου, σχετίζονται με υψηλότερα ακαδημαϊκά επιτεύγματα, καλύτερη κοινωνική προσαρμογή, λιγότερα προβλήματα ψυχοπαθολογίας και υψηλή αυτοπεποίθηση (Tangney, Baumeister, Boone, 2004). Ταυτόχρονα, οι γονείς που ενισχύουν την αυτονομία και χρησιμοποιούν δημοκρατικές μεθόδους πειθαρχίας, συμβάλλουν στη δημιουργία υψηλής αυτοεκτίμησης (Noor, 2009). ...
... Self-control Self-control was measured using the 10-item Brief Self-Control Scale (Tangney et al., 2004), a measure of dispositional self-control. Sample items include "I'm good at resisting temptation." ...
... The items were rated on a 5-point scale (1 = Very much like me to 5 = Not at all like me). Following the protocol by Tangney et al. (2004), a single variable for self-control was created by averaging scores on all ten items. Internal consistency was acceptable in the present data (α = .76). ...
Article
Empirical knowledge on what specific aspects of mental health are associated with spirituality is limited, and explanations for the mechanisms underlying this association is scarce. Furthermore, there is limited research on this association among individuals from non-Christian religious backgrounds and non-Western countries. The current study examined relations between spirituality and aspects of mental health in 1,544 adolescents from diverse religious backgrounds in two Eastern countries, India and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Additionally, we examined mediating and moderating factors. Adolescents (58% female) ages 11–15 years completed a questionnaire on aspects of their mental health, spirituality, and self-control abilities. Results showed that spirituality had a significant positive association with life satisfaction and a significant negative association with internalizing problems, but a non-significant relation with externalizing problems, controlling for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Self-control completely mediated the association between spirituality and life satisfaction, and this mediational relation was only present for adolescents from the UAE. Results support prior research suggesting positive associations between spirituality and adaptive mental health outcomes and extend these findings to adolescents from diverse religious backgrounds in non-Western countries. These findings have important clinical and policy implications for supporting the role of spirituality in an adolescent’s life.
... Taken together, these findings suggest that electrodermal reactivity may not represent a reliable, biological marker of impulsivity. The absence of an association between impulsivity and SCR in study might also reflect the nature of the stimulus used in this study, which employed a thrilling roller coaster drop, and earlier work that has presented anger inducing stimuli and has required a behavioral response (Tangney et al., 2004). ...
Article
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People with high levels of psychopathic traits are often described as fearless and lacking in emotional depth, particularly when evaluating threats in their environments. Skin conductance responsivity (SCR) to negative emotional stimuli represents a robust autonomic correlate of conduct problem behavior in children (Fanti et al., in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews , 100, 98–107, 2019). However, studies that have examined threat-related processing in youth with conduct problems have tended to use a variety of negative stimuli that might induce various and unspecific negative emotions. Few studies have taken in to account the moderating effects of anxiety on the relationship of distinct psychopathic traits (e.g., narcissism, callousness, impulsivity) with SCR to a fear inducing stimulus. In this study, we examined SCR to a virtual reality rollercoaster drop – that is, a discrete fear inducing event – in a sample of 75 youths (61 males; M = 14 years, SD = 1.4) enrolled in a non-mainstream school. The rollercoaster drop was used to more clearly examine an event-related response to a discrete threat, rather than examining SCR throughout the rollercoaster ride. We used the teacher-reported Antisocial Process Screening Device (Frick & Hare, in Antisocial process screening device: APSD . Toronto: Multi-Health Systems, 2001) to examine the relations of distinct psychopathic traits with SCR and self-reported anxiety. Lower anxiety was associated with higher callousness, but only in youths with low SCR to discrete threat. These findings suggest that fear and anxiety show complex and interactive relations with distinct psychopathic traits.
... Trait Self-Control. Participants next completed the 13 item trait self-control scale (Tangney et al., 2004). Each item was measured on a 1-7 scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree, and the items were averaged (M = 4.01, SD = 0.93, = .82). ...
Article
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The asymmetry hypothesis of counteractive control theory suggests that—at least for successful self-regulators—exposure to temptations facilitates the accessibility of goal-related cognitive constructs, whereas exposure to goals inhibits the accessibility of temptation-related cognitive constructs. Using a lexical decision task, Fishbach et al., 2003 (Study 3) found that this asymmetry existed even at an automatic level of processing. In this attempted replication, 221 students completed a lexical decision task that included goal-related and temptation-related stimuli words preceded by either a goal-related prime, a temptation-related prime, or an irrelevant prime. Unlike the original study, we found only significant priming effects, where temptation-primes facilitated the recognition of goal-related words and goal-primes likewise facilitated the recognition of temptation-related words. We did not replicate the previously reported asymmetry. Additionally, we found no significant moderation of the hypothesized priming asymmetry by any of the traits of self-regulatory success, construal level, temptation strength, or self-control, again failing to replicate prior findings. The same priming patterns were found among participants who completed the study in-lab and those who completed the study online. This replication study suggests that the cognitive associations between goals and temptations are relatively symmetric and faciliatory, at least during the initial, automatic level of cognitive processing.
... We wanted to ensure that individuals did not differ on these important traits across experimental conditions. Trait selfcontrol was measured using the Brief Self Control Scale (Tangney et al., 2004), which contains 13 items (e.g., "I am good at resisting temptation"; 1 = completely disagree to 7 = completely agree; ...
Article
Exposure to violent video games can cause a wide array of harmful consequences to adolescents. This study shows preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of a brief intervention to decrease aggression and increase self-control following exposure to a violent video game. Participants (157 high-school students; age range: 13–19) were randomly assigned to play a violent or nonviolent video game for 25 min. Next, they were exposed to an intervention (i.e., a brief article) designed to induce weak versus strong beliefs in self-control capabilities. We also included a neutral article unrelated to self-control. After reading the article, aggression and self-control-related variables (i.e., impulses inhibition, cognitive performance) were measured. Aggression was operationalized using the intensity and duration of aversive noise participants gave an accomplice on the Competitive Reaction Time Task, impulse inhibition was operationalized using the ability to resist eating candies, and cognitive performance was operationalized using the “spot the differences” task. Our results found that adolescents who played a violent video game were more aggressive and reported lower levels of impulse inhibition (i.e., ate more candies). However, inducing beliefs in self-control capabilities by reading a brief article stating that the human’s brain is a powerful tool for exercising self-control eliminated these harmful effects. The interaction was nonsignificant for cognitive performance. Overall, our study offers initial evidence that a brief intervention might help limit the harmful consequences of exposure to violent video games on adolescents.
... Under the state of ego depletion, individuals' willingness and ability to self-control decrease, which may lead to the failure of subsequent self-control activities (Baumeister et al., 1998. Self-control is the process by which people overcome impulse, habit or automated response, and consciously control their behaviors, including inhibiting impulse to incorrect behaviors and activating correct behaviors (Tangney et al., 2004;Hagger et al., 2010;Hale and Borys, 2013). Workers' self-control is essential for maintaining a high level of safety behaviors (Probst and Brubaker, 2001). ...
Article
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As an important influencing factor of construction workers' safety performance, safety stressor has received increasing attention. However, no consensus has been reached on the relationship between different types of safety stressors and the subdimensions of safety performance, and the mechanism by which safety stressors influence safety performance remains unclear. This study proposed a multiple mediation model with ego depletion and self-efficacy as mediators between safety stressors and workers' safety performance. Data were collected from 335 construction workers in China. Results demonstrated that: (1) the three types of safety stressors (i.e., safety role ambiguity, safety role conflict, and interpersonal safety conflict) all had negative effects on workers' safety performance (i.e., safety compliance and safety participation); (2) self-efficacy mediated all the relationships between the three safety stressors and safety performance; (3) ego depletion only mediated part of the relationships between the three safety stressors and safety performance; and (4) only part of the multiple-step mediating effects through ego depletion and self-efficacy were supported. This study made contributions by shedding light on the mechanism by which safety stressors influence workers' safety performance and providing more empirical evidence for the relationship between various safety stressors and the subdimensions of safety performance. Additionally, targeted strategies for improving workers' safety performance were proposed according to the findings.
... Additionally, self-control was considered a control variable, due to its association with problematic smartphone use [71][72][73]. Referring to the previous instrument [74,75], we measured self-control with four items on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = "strongly disagree", 5 = "strongly agree"): (1) "I have a hard time breaking bad habits" (reverse coded); (2) "Sometimes I cannot stop myself from doing something, even if I know it is wrong" (reverse coded); (3) "I often act without thinking through all the alternatives" (reverse coded); and (4) "I wish I had more self-discipline" (reverse coded). The four items were averaged, with higher scores suggesting higher levels of self-control (M = 2.87, SD = 0.77, Cronbach's α = 0.74). ...
Article
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The pervasiveness of smartphones and the popularity of short-form video applications (SVAs), such as TikTok, among middle-aged Chinese adults have raised concerns about problematic SVAs use. Although a plethora of research has examined problematic smartphone use among teenagers and young adults, scarce attention has been paid to the middle-aged group. This study integrates the psychopathological approach and the compensatory use approach to explicate problematic SVAs use among middle-aged Chinese adults. We aim to examine the relationship between stress and problematic SVAs use via the mediating roles of duration of use and flow experience. A total of 194 middle-aged adults from across the nation participated in an online survey. The results showed that stress was positively associated with problematic SVAs use. We also found that duration of use positively mediated the relationship between stress and problematic SVAs use. Furthermore, a serial mediation effect of duration of use and flow experience was found. The findings suggest that the aforementioned two approaches are complementary to each other in explicating problematic SVAs use, but the compensatory use approach explains more than the psychopathological approach does. Flow experience extends the original compensatory use approach and demonstrates the importance of incorporating techno-psychological predictors in understanding problematic SVAs use.
... Furthermore, we investigated the role of self-control. It is associated with numerous indicators of wellbeing, such as happiness [44], self-esteem [45], satisfaction with life [46], and mental health [47]. ...
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Background: Reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic are diverse. People who experience the situation as stressful (COVID-19 stress) appear vulnerable to developing general mental distress. Moreover, existential crises can arise. The identification of buffering factors and their effect over time is therefore highly relevant. The current study examined longitudinal protective effects of meaningfulness and self-control and negative effects of crisis of meaning on general mental distress. Methods: N=431 participants from Germany and Austria (mean age: 42 years) completed an online survey in both April/May (T1) and July/August 2020 (T2). We examined (i) whether two personal resources, meaningfulness, and self-control, measured at T1, moderated the longitudinal effect of COVID-19 stress (T1) on general mental distress (T2), and (ii) whether crisis of meaning (T1) mediated the latter effect. Results: Meaningfulness and self-control predicted lower symptoms of anxiety and depression over time, and crisis of meaning predicted higher symptoms. Meaningfulness but not self-control buffered the longitudinal effect of COVID-19 stress on general mental distress. COVID-19 stress was associated with crisis of meaning which, in further consequence, predicted general mental distress three months later. Conclusions: Meaningfulness and self-control appear to have generally protective effects on psychological distress. Moreover, meaningfulness seems to be particularly protective when people feel burdened by the situation. Strengthening this resource is thus especially appropriate for vulnerable populations. Measures that support meaningfulness will also prevent the emergence of crises of meaning, which can be triggered by acute stress reactions and appear to affect mental health in the longer term.
... This was measured using the Self-control Scale (Chinese version) compiled by Tangney et al. 34 The scale includes 13 items (eg, "I refuse things that are bad for me."). All items were scored on a five-point Likert scale (1=not at all, 5=very much), with higher scores indicating a higher level of selfcontrol. ...
Article
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Introduction: Mobile phones bring much convenience to college students' lives, but they also cause problems. Few studies have explored the effect of the fear of missing out (FoMO) on problematic mobile phone use among college students. This study tested the mediating effect of self-control in the relationship between FoMO and problematic mobile phone use. It also explored the moderating roles of perceived social support and future orientation in the relationship between these variables. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used in this study. Materials include the Fear of Missing Out Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, Self-control Scale (Chinese version), Mobile Phone Addiction Index, and Consideration of Future Consequences Scale. Of 3606 participants, 3189 completed the questionnaire. SPSS 21 was used to analyze the mediation and moderation effects. Results: The results showed that problematic mobile phone use was positively predicted by FoMO. The relationship between FoMO and problematic mobile phone use was partially mediated by self-control. When the scores of perceived social support and future orientation were high, the negative effect of FoMO on problematic mobile phone use was reduced. Conclusion: The negative effect of FoMO on problematic mobile phone use through self-control was moderated by perceived social support and future orientation.
... To measure perceived self-control, we followed Righetti and Finkenauer's (2011) study, which created a perceived self-control scale based on Tangney et al. (2004). Specifically, we selected three items that reflected perceived self-control at a global level. ...
... As mentioned, enhanced self-control is a key theoretical mechanism for change in the SNAP intervention (12). Selfcontrol has been described as a distinctive individual concept that is reliably associated with individuals' capacity to override immediately rewarding behaviors and engage in continued, effortful, goal-oriented behavior (15)(16)(17). Impulsivity may represent an important contributory factor to self-control (18). In impulsive choice, self-control relates to the ability to delay gratification and select the larger, delayed reward. ...
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Background: Stop, Now And Plan (SNAP) is a cognitive behavioral-based psychosocial intervention that has a strong evidence base for treating youth with high aggression and externalizing behaviors, many of whom have disruptive behavior disorders. In a pre-post design, we tested whether SNAP could improve externalizing behaviors, assessed by the parent-rated Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and also improve behavioral measures of impulsivity in children with high aggression and impulsivity. We then investigated whether any improvement in externalizing behavior or impulsivity was associated with gray matter volume (GMV) changes assessed using structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI). We also recruited typically developing youth who were assessed twice without undergoing the SNAP intervention. Methods: Ten children who were participating in SNAP treatment completed the entire study protocol. CBCL measures, behavioral measures of impulsivity, and sMRI scanning was conducted pre-SNAP and then 13 weeks later post-SNAP. Twelve healthy controls also completed the study; they were rated on the CBCL, performed the same behavioral measure of impulsivity, and underwent sMRI twice, separated by 13 weeks. They did not receive the SNAP intervention. Result: At baseline, SNAP participants had higher CBCL scores and performed worse on the impulsivity task compared with the healthy controls. At the second visit, SNAP participants still had higher scores on the CBCL compared with normally-developing controls, but their performance on the impulsivity task had improved to the point where their results were indistinguishable from the healthy controls. Structural magnetic resonance imaging in the SNAP participants further revealed that improvements in impulsivity were associated with GMV changes in the frontotemporal region. Conclusion: These results suggest that SNAP led to improvement in behavioral measures of impulsivity in a cohort of boys with high externalizing behavior. Improvement in impulsivity was also associated with increased GMV changes. The mechanism behind these brain changes is unknown but could relate to cognitive behavioral therapy and contingency management interventions, important components of SNAP, that target frontotemporal brain regions. Clinically, this study offers new evidence for the potential targeting of brain regions by non-invasive modalities, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, to improve externalizing behavior and impulsivity.
... Self-control is the ability to override inner responses like thoughts, emotions, and behavior, usually to control undesirable behavioral tendencies according to overarching goals. Poor self-control is related to negative outcomes in life such as bad adjustment, pathology, poorer academic performance, and interpersonal relationships (Tangney, Baumeister., & Boone, 2004). Even so, individuals may deplete resources at different rates in consequence of a resource depleting task, also referred to as depletion sensitivity (Salmon, Adriaanse, Vet, Fennis, & Ridder, 2014). ...
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Encountering hostile clients among customer service roles is common. Their job role demands expected emotional adjustment called emotional labor. They employ a particular type of emotional labor, called surface acting emotional labor (SAEL), when they wear an emotional mask to hide what one truly feels in a situation to show a different desirable emotion. In the strength model of self-control, SAEL is considered a resource-depleting task. It is assumed that some limited resource gets depleted when one engages in overriding inner responses for an overarching goal. SAEL as a resource-depleting emotional labor is predicted to negatively affect subsequent unrelated resource-depleting tasks. However, some individuals get mentally fatigued faster than others. This individual difference in rate of resource depletion is called depletion sensitivity (DS). In this paper, I examined whether surface acting emotional labor predicts self-control as manifested by typically controlled tempting behavior, compulsive buying (CB) through individual differences in depletion sensitivity. A total of 116 customer service employees answered an online survey measuring emotional labor, depletion sensitivity, and recent compulsive buying behavior with acceptable to excellent internal consistency reliability. Results from mediation analysis showed that SAEL has no direct, but has an indirect relationship with CB, mediated by DS. The findings suggest that the maladaptive emotional regulation in the workplace promotes poor self-control, specifically shopping behavior, through individual difference in depletion sensitivity. The strength model of self-control is supported. Future studies may look into the role of implicit theories of self-control for intervention.
... Self-control was operationally defined as the adolescents' ability to handle temptation, bad habits, laziness, careless speech, lack of concentration and patience, etc. It was assessed using the 13-item Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS; Tangney et al., 2004). This variables was measured on a five-point Likert scale (1 = Strongly disagree, 2 = Disagree, 3 = Neutral, 4 = Agree, and 5 = Strongly agree). ...
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Pathological gaming among adolescents has been reported to hamper the achievement of a balanced life and to threaten the development of social competencies. Despite the increasing social concerns on the adolescent users, however, the mechanism of gaming behavior of adolescents has not been sufficiently examined. This study explored the mechanism of pathological gaming among adolescents from 3-year longitudinal data of 778 Korean adolescent gamers, by analyzing the effects of negative affects (i.e., anxiety, loneliness, and academic stress) on the degree of pathological gaming through the mediation variables (i.e., aggression and self-control) based on the stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) framework. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to uncover potential risk groups, and through partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) analysis, the mediation pathways to pathological gaming were compared between the risk group and the non-risk group. The results highlighted the key role of academic stress on the degree of pathological gaming. In the entire group, academic stress primarily increased pathological gaming through self-control. The mediation path of self-control was the most influential result in the risk group. Aggression was the key mediator between loneliness and pathological gaming in the non-risk group. The theoretical and practical implications of the results were discussed.
... People who flourished were more likely to have better self-control ( Basson & Rothmann, 2018;Howell, 2009;Peter et al., 2011), which, in turn, could be related to the ability to resist an impulse (e.g., do not play excessively) and/or to override it with more desirable behaviors. Research in other domains suggested that enhanced self-control improves adherence to medication, exercising, and diabetes self-management (Englert & Rummel, 2016;Gonzalez et al., 2016;Siebolds et al., 2006), and hence it seems to provide some protection against binge eating and, alcohol abuse (Hofmann et al., 2012;Tangney et al., 2004). We believe that it is fruitful to investigate if self-control, resulting from flourishing, may play a role in promoting RG adherence among gamblers in future studies. ...
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Responsible gambling (RG) is a practical approach to contain potential gambling-associated harms to an acceptable level. However, few studies have proposed a theoretical framework to account for significant individual differences in RG adherence, which hinders an effective RG promotion in public. To address this missing link, the current study aims to identify psychological need factors associated with adherence to RG practices. We applied the self-determination theory (SDT) to explore the association between the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (i.e., relatedness, competency, and autonomy) and RG adherence in a probability Chinese community adult sample (N = 1002; 55.7% women and M age = 44.28 years), acquired from a telephone survey conducted in the 2018 fall with a two-stage cluster random sampling method. We found that the three types of basic needs satisfaction were significantly and positively related to RG adherence via a full mediation of flourishing. The findings provide practical insights to understanding individual differences in RG adherence and designing corresponding SDT-based interventions for gambling communities globally.
... Self control, atau kemampuan kapasitas diri seseorang untuk mengubah tanggapan atau reaksi dirinya sendiri, merupakan aspek penting dalam kehidupan seseorang. Semakin tinggi self control seseorang, semakin baik pula kemampuan seseorang dalam mengatur kehidupan mereka menjadi lebih baik, lebih bahagia, dan lebih sehat (Tangney, Baumeister, Boone, 2004). Sebaliknya, individu yang memiliki self control yang rendah dapat menyebabkan dirinya mengalami berbagai masalah di kehidupan, seperti obesitas, penyalahgunaan zat, perjudian, dan masalah lainnya. ...
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Objektif. Studi ini bertujuan untuk melihat gambaran hubungan antara harga diri, pengendalian diri, dan adiksi game online pada pemain game online di Indonesia.Metode. Total dari 230 pengguna game online Total partisipan sebanyak 230 partisipan termasuk 147 laki-laki (63,91%) dan 83 perempuan (36,08%), dengan rata-rata umur 20-24 tahun berpartisipasi dalam penelitian dan diminta untuk mengisi self report menggunakan kuesioner online. Kuesioner yang digunakan terkait data demografi dan karakteristik sampel, alat ukur adiksi game online (dimodifikasi dari alat ukur Internet Addiction dari Young, 1998), alat ukur harga diri (Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale), dan Alat ukur self control (Brief Self Control Scale). Hasil. Penelitian bertujuan untuk melihat gambaran hubungan antara ketiga variabel, yaitu harga diri, pengendalian diri, dan adiksi game online. Berdasarkan hasil analisis yang dilakukan, ditemukan bahwa variabel Self control memiliki hubungan negatif yang signifikan terhadap adiksi game online (r= -.508, p= .00**) Variabel self esteem memiliki hubungan positif yang signifikan terhadap self control (r= 0,488, p= 0,00**). Sedangkan untuk variabel self esteem tidak memiliki hubungan yang signifikan terhadap adiksi game online (r= .320, p=.102*). Jika ditinjau dari persentase pengaruh tiap variabel self esteem dan self control terhadap variabel adiksi game online, didapatkan nilai korelasi kedua variabel self esteem dan self control sebesar R2=0,267, p0,05**. Dengan demikian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa bahwa 26,7% varians dari adiksi game online dapat dijelaskan oleh variabel self esteem dan self control dan 73.3% varians dari adiksi game online dijelaskan oleh faktor lain.
... Self-regulation (SR; see Nigg, 2017 for a recent theoretical review) is an important human ability correlating with quality of life in many domains including mental health (Tangney et al., 2004). Low SR is often linked with the repeating of maladaptive behaviors, despite their negative consequences (e.g. ...
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Procrastination is a self-regulation failure in which people irrationally delay intended actions which leads to lower performance, satisfaction from achievements, and quality of life. Trait procrastination is estimated to affect 15% to 20% of the total population, and previous studies have shown procrastination to be related to impulsivity, emotion dysregulation, and executive dysfunctions, making it a good nonclinical example of a self-regulation disorder. Our previous fMRI results revealed impaired error processing (lower error-related activity of the anterior cingulate cortex) and lack of ability to intensify executive-control during the punishment context (no increase in activity in prefrontal regions) in procrastinators. This led us to the question of whether procrastination is related to impaired learning on errors and punishments. Low (LP) and high (HP) procrastinating students took part in a modified monetary probabilistic reversal learning task with separated reward and punishment conditions. Half of the participants started with reward and half with the punishment condition. Several learning models and model-free measures were applied to the collected behavioral data. Results suggest lower flexibility in the learning task in HP subjects, which can further decrease during the punishment condition. Moreover, HP subjects who began with the punishment condition tended to be less flexible throughout the rest of the task. These results suggest that impaired learning from errors and punishments may prevent highly procrastinating subjects from correcting their behaviors and add to the persistence of procrastination. We also conclude that impaired learning on errors and punishments might be a more general mechanism underpinning other self-regulation disorders. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... In the same vein, previous studies have reported substantial negative correlations between −.61 and −.74 Wolff, Bieleke, Stähler, & Schüler, 2021), meaning that measures of boredom proneness and self-control share between 35-55% of their variance. Critically, low self-control has been consistently associated with engaging in more maladaptive behaviors and in less adaptive behaviors (de Ridder et al., 2012;Moffitt et al., 2011;Tangney et al., 2004), closely mirroring research on the consequences of boredom proneness. Accordingly, another reason for the discrepancy between predictions made by functional accounts of boredom and research on boredom proneness might pertain to the cofound between boredom proneness and poor self-control. ...
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Functional accounts of boredom propose that boredom serves as an impartial signal to change something about the current situation, which should give rise to adaptive and maladaptive behavior alike. This contrasts with research on boredom proneness, which has overwhelmingly shown associations with maladaptive behavior. To shed light on this discrepancy, we disentangled boredom proneness from individual differences in (1) the urge to avoid and escape boredom and (2) adaptive and maladaptive ways of dealing with boredom. In a high-powered study (N = 636), psychometric network modeling revealed tight associations between boredom proneness and less adaptive and (especially) more maladaptive ways of dealing with boredom. However, its associations with the urge to avoid and escape boredom were rather weak. Importantly, a higher urge to avoid and escape boredom was linked not only to more maladaptive but also to more adaptive ways of dealing with boredom. This pattern of results was robust across various specific behaviors that have previously been linked to boredom. Our findings provide novel evidence for functional accounts of boredom from an individual difference perspective, cautioning against a shallow view of boredom as a purely maladaptive experience.
... While this study illustrates the predictive value of interpersonal resilience factors, another important factor to take into account is intrapersonal resilience factors, such as self-control (Tangney, Baumeister, and Boone 2004), personality resilience (Oshio et al. 2018), motivation or emotion regulation (Gross 1999). Personal resources may moderate the relationship between participants' memories of their teachers and their levels of efficacy. ...
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Research has already demonstrated the impact of positive and negative social interactions on one’s self-efficacy. In particular, empowering or degrading messages from school teachers may have a significant long-term effect on students’ self- efficacy. This is especially pertinent to students with ADHD symptoms, since they face increased challenges during childhood in school environment. The goals of the present study are to examine the relationships between memories of adults with ADHD and their social support and self-efficacy. 319 participants (253 (79.3%) females) reported their positive and negative memories of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ teachers, as well as current levels of perceived social support, ADHD symptoms’ severity and self-efficacy. Results indicated a serial mediation model, in which the positive and negative memories, family support and peer support mediated the relations between ADHD symptoms and self-efficacy. In addition, ADHD symptoms predicted fewer positive memories, and more negative memories, and social support mediated their relations with self-efficacy.
... Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS; Tangney et al., 2004). It is composed of 13 items measuring individual differences in self-control (e.g., "I refuse things that are bad for me," "I am able to work effectively toward long-term goals"). ...
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The Dark Triad composed of psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism, and also self-control are consistently related to 10 antisocial and criminal externalizing outcomes. In the present study, we examined whether self-control mediates the relationships between the Dark Triad and delinquency, conduct disorder, and crime seriousness outcomes. The sample consisted of 567 adolescents (M = 15.91 years, SD = 0.99 years, range = 14-15 18 years) from Portugal. Self-control mediated the association between psychopathy and Machiavellianism (but not narcissism) and self-reported juvenile delinquency, conduct disorder symptoms, and crime seriousness. One reason antisocial/criminal behaviors are common in those characterized by psycho-20 pathy and Machiavellianism relates to their deficits in self-control as suggested by general theories. Within the nomological network of dark traits, narcissism appears to have enduring and unmediated associations with externalizing features and conduct problems. Our findings add to the literature modeling 25 the Dark Triad along with self-control to elucidate its contributions to antisocial/criminal outcomes in youth.
... Self-control. Self-control was evaluated by the Brief Self-control Scale (Tangney, Baumeister, & Boone, 2004). This measure contains 13 items (e.g., "I have a hard time breaking bad habits") that are rated on a five-point scale (1 = almost never, 5 = almost always), and higher scores indicate higher levels of self-control (Cronbach's α = 0.84). ...
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Maintaining healthy eating habits requires self-control and this process can become unsuccessful in certain stressful situations (e.g., economic scarcity). This study tested whether self-compassion can buffer the negative impacts of economic scarcity on healthy eating behaviors and self-control. In the correlational Study 1 (n = 304) based on self-reports, a mediating effect of self-control between economic scarcity and healthy eating behaviors was found in females but not males, and that self-compassion moderated the direct relationship between economic scarcity and healthy eating behaviors in females. No significant moderated mediation effect was found. In Study 2, female participants (n = 113) completed economic scarcity (ES) (or abundance) and self-compassion (SC) (or writing-control (WC)) manipulations and a food-selection task. The ES + WC group chose more high-calorie food than the economic abundance (EA)+WC group and the ES + SC group, and the EA + SC group also selected more high-calorie food compared with the EA + WC group and the ES + SC group. In Study 3 (n = 136), similar manipulations and a dot-mixed task were used to measure self-control, and we found that the EA + audio-control (AC) group showed higher accuracy than the ES + AC group. These findings support the protective role of self-compassion in healthy eating behaviors and self-control impairments resulted from economic scarcity, which offer promises for promoting healthy lifestyles among individuals living in scarcity.
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Many internet news sites have introduced recommendation systems to help users mitigate information overload. However, these systems may exacerbate mindless information consumption by reducing opportunities for people to voluntarily select news. We propose prototypes of personal informatics tools based on a self-regulatory process and quantified self-theories, which can be used to help people fulfill a eudaimonic motivation through self-observation and self-control and thus lead to deliberate news consumption. A longitudinal field experiment demonstrates that self-control and self-observation tools promote deliberate news consumption and reveals synergistic effects between the two tools. Our results indicate that the effect of the self-observation tool persists longer.
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Although a litany of theoretical accounts exists to explain why mistreated employees engage in counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs), little is known about whether these mechanisms are complementary or mutually exclusive, or the effect of context on their explanatory strength. To address these gaps, this meta-analytic investigation tests four theoretically-derived mechanisms simultaneously to explain the robust relationship between leader mistreatment and employee CWB: (1) a social exchange perspective, which argues that mistreated employees engage in negative reciprocal behaviors to counterbalance experienced mistreatment; (2) a justice perspective, whereby mistreated employees experience moral outrage and engage in retributive behaviors against the organization and its members; (3) a stressor-emotion perspective, which suggests that mistreated employees engage in CWBs to cope with their negative affect; and (4) a self-regulatory perspective, which proposes that mistreated employees are simply unable to inhibit undesirable behaviors. Moreover, we also examine whether the above model holds across cultures that vary on power distance. Our meta-analytic structural equation model demonstrated that all but the justice mechanism significantly mediated the relationship between leader mistreatment and employee CWBs, with negative affect emerging as the strongest explanatory mechanism in both high and low power distance cultures. Given these surprising results, as the stressor-emotion perspective is less frequently invoked in the literature, this paper highlights not only the importance of investigating multiple mechanisms together when examining the leader mistreatment-employee CWB relationship, but also the need to develop more nuanced theorizing about these mechanisms, particularly for negative affect.
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Procrastination, which is defined as delaying an intended course of action despite negative outcomes, is demonstrated to have a deal with negative emotion including trait anxiety. Although highly anxious individuals showed impoverished control ability, no studies have indicated the role of self-control in the relationship between trait anxiety and procrastination, and its neural correlates. To this end, we used the sliding window method to calculate the temporal deviation of dynamic functional connectivity (FC) in 312 healthy participants who underwent the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. In line with our hypothesis, higher trait anxiety is linked to more procrastination via poorer self-control. Besides, the dynamic FC analyses showed that trait anxiety was positively correlated with dynamic FC variability in hippocampus–prefrontal cortex (HPC–PFC) pathways, including left rostral hippocampus–left superior frontal gyrus (left rHPC–left SFG), and left rHPC–right middle frontal gyrus (left rHPC–-MFG). Furthermore, the structural equation modeling (SEM) uncovered a mediated role of self-control in the association between the anxiety-specific brain connectivity and procrastination. These findings suggest that the HPC–PFC pathways may reflect impoverished regulatory ability over the negative thoughts for anxious individuals, and thereby incurs more procrastination, which enhances our understanding of how trait anxiety links to procrastination.
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Background: With the continued spread of smartphones and development of the internet, the potential negative effects arising from problematic smartphone use (PSU) in adolescents are being reported on an increasing basis. This study aimed to investigate whether altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is related to the psychological factors underlying PSU in adolescents. Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired from 47 adolescents with PSU and 46 healthy control adolescents (the CON group). Seed-based functional connectivity analyses were then performed to compare the two groups with respect to rsFC in the right inferior frontal gyrus, associated with various forms of self-control, and rsFC in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Results: Compared to the CON group, the PSU group exhibited a reduction in rsFC between the right inferior frontal gyrus and limbic areas, including the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, the left amygdala, and the right hippocampus. In addition, a reduction in fronto-limbic rsFC was associated with the severity of PSU, the degree of self-control, and the amount of time the subjects used their smartphones. Conclusion: Adolescents with PSU exhibited reduced levels of fronto-limbic functional connectivity; this mechanism is involved in salience attribution and self-control, attributes that are critical to the clinical manifestation of substance and behavioral addictions. Our data provide clear evidence for alterations in brain connectivity with respect to self-control in PSU.
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In a school system in which young people receive an ever greater degree of self-determination, it is important to study how the teacher can influence young people’s motivation to work towards long-term goals in schoolwork. The purpose of this study is to investigate which teaching skills influence the volition of 16-year-olds. Structural equation modelling of cross-sectional surveys from one survey was used to estimate the path coefficients. The influence of teachers’ skills on 16-year-olds’ volition was estimated. The analysis indicates that the teacher’s perceived ability to influence pupil volition is present, but modest. Classroom management has a moderately-high effect on pupil volition, whilst the teacher’s press has only a moderate effect on pupil motivation. The teacher’s relationship-building efforts have little effect on either pupil motivation or volition. The indirect effect from pupil motivation to pupil volition is of moderately-high strength. However, a cross-sectional study does not allow us to test causal relationships amongst personal antecedents of pupil volition. Teachers may exercise some influence over 16-year-olds’ volition primarily by means of classroom management, but also in terms of pupil motivation via teacher press. Teachers may exploit this capacity to influence in order to improve pupil performance at school. For pupils lacking academic motivation, the teacher’s efforts to motivate and to strengthen pupil volition are important, including in terms of social levelling. The study provides new knowledge about teacher influence on the volition of Norwegian 16-year-olds. Keywords: adolescence, classroom management, motivation, Norway, teacher press, teacher’s relational building, volition, youth.
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The use of social media can have positive and negative effects on psychological well-being. The present article proposes that self-regulation and the related concept of self-control act as central boundary conditions of this relationship. Successfully self-regulated social media use can bolster psychological well-being through mood management and emotion-focused coping as well as through intrinsic need satisfaction. In contrast, poorly self-regulated forms of social media use can result in goal conflict, i.e., the displacement of, and distraction from other activities, which may negatively affect well-being. The article covers relevant factors that influence (un-)successful self-regulation of social media use, including media affordances, social dynamics, as well as trait and state user characteristics, including media habits and mindfulness.
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Emotions have strong impacts on decision making, yet research on the association between social interpersonal emotion and environmental decisions is limited. The present study uses experimental manipulation and cross-sectional investigation to examine how envy state and personality trait envy influence environmental actions. In Study 1, participants were manipulated to elicit benign and malicious envy, and it was found that benign envy acts as an antecedent of pro-environmental behavior, while malicious envy could contribute to behavior harmful to the environment. Study 2 replicated the results of Study 1 and examined the mediator of self-control through a correlational study. Consequently, people who are high in malicious envy tend to engage in more environmentally harmful activities rather than living a sustainable life, while dispositional benign envy could significantly predict pro-environmental behavior. Moreover, the link between dispositional malicious envy and environmental behavior can be explained by trait self-control, while the mediating effect was silent in dispositional benign envy. The findings shed new light on the impact of social interpersonal emotion on making environmental decisions and its related psychological mechanisms.
Chapter
Grit is a complex phenomenon that is typically conceptualized as the combination of perseverance of effort and consistency of interest. While multiple scales exist to measure grit, the 8-item Grit-S Scale and 12-item Grit-O Scale are the most widely used. Grit has been demonstrated to have positive relationships with academic outcomes, educational attainment, and psychological state of mind among adolescents and adults. Individuals with higher levels of grit have also been found to have lower levels of stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. It is unclear whether grit is domain-specific or if it transfers across environments. In addition to providing an overview of the research on grit, this chapter also highlights strategies for parents and teachers to foster grit and positive well-being in their students. Emerging intervention research suggests that grit may be malleable, although more studies are needed in this area. Further research should also focus on grit with marginalized and disadvantaged populations.
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Recent empirical research has shown that improving socio-emotional skills such as grit, conscientiousness and self-control leads to higher academic achievement and better life outcomes. However, both theoretical and empirical works have raised concerns about the reliability of the different methods used to measure socio-emotional skills. We compared the reliability and validity of the three leading measurements methods—a student-reported questionnaire, a teacher-reported questionnaire, and a behavioral task—in a sample of 3997 French students. Before analyzing the data, we polled 114 international researchers in cognitive development and education economics; most researchers in both fields predicted that the behavioral task would be the best method. We found instead that the teacher questionnaire was more predictive of students’ behavioral outcomes and of their grade progression, while the behavioral task was the least predictive. This work suggests that researchers may not be using optimal tools to measure socio-emotional skills in children.
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The current study aimed to clarify the relationships among loneliness, susceptibility to persuasion, self-control, and vulnerability to fraud among older adults. Especially, we wanted to investigate whether susceptibility to persuasion mediates the association between loneliness and vulnerability to fraud, and whether self-control moderates the relationship in this process. A moderated mediation model was examined with 252 Chinese older adults (Mage = 67.94, SD = 6.27) who completed questionnaires regarding loneliness, susceptibility to persuasion, self-control, and vulnerability to fraud. The results revealed that loneliness significantly predicted older adults’ vulnerability to fraud and susceptibility to persuasion partially mediated this relationship. Moreover, this mediating effect was only significant for older adults with low self-control. These findings enrich our understanding of how loneliness affects older adults’ vulnerability to fraud and provide practical guidance for establishing protections against fraud targeting older adults.
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This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between self-regulation processes, conscientiousness and symptom severity of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). 210 Iranian students of Tehran province universities (147 women and 63 men) were selected by convenient sampling and completed following scales: Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, Revised Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Questionnaire, Integrative Self-Knowledge Scale, Brief Self-Control Scale and 10 questions of conscientiousness from Goldberg Big 5 Personality Scale. The path analysis method showed the mediating role of conscientiousness in relationship between mindfulness and self-control with symptom severity of OCPD. Mindfulness was directly related to symptom severity of OCPD and conscientiousness played the mediator role between mindfulness and self-control with symptom severity of OCPD. It can be concluded that mindfulness may have a role in determining the severity of OCPD symptoms and the relationship between self-control and OCPD symptoms is due to conscientiousness.
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The development and validation of a new measure, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) is described. The EDI is a 64 item, self-report, multiscale measure designed for the assessment of psychological and behavioral traits common in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia. The EDI consists of eight sub-scales measuring: 1) Drive for Thinness, 2) Bulimia, 3) Body Dissatisfaction, 4) Ineffectiveness, 5) Perfectionism, 6) Interpersonal Distrust, 7) Interoceptive Awareness and 8) Maturity Fears. Reliability (internal consistency) is established for all subscales and several indices of validity are presented. First, AN patients (N = 113) are differentiated from female comparison (FC) subjects (N = 577) using a cross-validation procedure. Secondly, patient self-report subscale scores agree with clinician ratings of subscale traits. Thirdly, clinically recovered AN patients score similarly to FCs on all subscales. Finally, convergent and discriminate validity are established for subscales. The EDI was also administered to groups of normal weight bulimic women, obese, and normal weight but formerly obese women, as well as a male comparison group. Group differences are reported and the potential utility of the EDI is discussed.
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Data from a longitudinal study of a large sample of boys followed from kindergarten to high school were used to test two alternative hypotheses concerning the association between delinquency and accidents. The first hypothesis proposes that delinquency and accidents are correlated because they are both the product of a failure to learn self-control during childhood. The alternative hypothesis proposes that self-control during childhood will explain part of the association between delinquency and accidents during adolescence, but delinquency will still increase the risk for accidents. Linear structural equation modelling was used to test the alternative hypotheses with data collected from teachers, mothers and self-reports, at 6, 10, 14 and 15 years of age. Results supported the hypothesis that childhood self-control levels only explain part of the association between driving accidents and delinquency during early adolescence, and delinquency increases the risk of accidents. Results also indicated that the association between delinquency and accidents increased with age, suggesting that the risk of accidents during adolescence increases as involvement in delinquency increases. Details of a case of delinquent behaviour which led to a fatal car accident are given. It was also suggested that longitudinal studies of the association between self-control and antisocial behaviour should focus on their early development during the preschool years.
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This article assesses empirically whether Gottfredson and Hirschi's “general theory” can account for the “gender gap” in crime and, when rival theories are included in the analysis, can explain criminal behavior for both males and females. Based on a sample of 555 adults, the results indicate that the relationship of gender to crime becomes nonsignificant when self-control is introduced into the analysis. Further, when males and females are analyzed separately, self-control is related, albeit differently, to males' and females' criminal involvement. These results suggest that Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory should be incorporated into future empirical assessments of gender and crime.
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Procrastination is variously described as harmful, innocuous, or even beneficial. Two longitudinal studies examined procrastination among students. Procrastinators reported lower stress and less illness than nonprocrastinators early in the semester, but they reported higher stress and more illness late in the term, and overall they were sicker. Procrastinators also received lower grades on all assignments. Procrastination thus appears to be a self-defeating behavior pattern marked by short-term benefits and long-term costs.
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This study uses academic dishonesty as a unique type of fraudulent behavior upon which to test Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory of crime. The study utilizes self‐report data from a survey of undergraduate students enrolled in sociology courses at a large southwestern university. With these data, the authors examine a number of the core theoretical propositions of Gottfredson and Hirschi's theory. That is, we test issues concerning the dimensionality of low self‐control, the influence of parenting on the development of self‐control, the association between levels of self‐control and involvement in academic dishonesty, and the interactive effects of low self‐control and opportunity on the frequency of academic dishonesty. The results of our analyses, although rather mixed, do provide qualified support for the theory.
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Using student interviews, teacher ratings, and achievement test outcomes, we validated a strategy model of student self-regulated learning as a theoretical construct. Forty-four male and 36 female high school students were asked to describe their use of 14 self-regulated learning strategies in six contexts, and their teachers rated these students for their self-regulated learning during class. Factor analyses of the teachers' ratings along with students' scores on a standardized test of mathematics and English revealed a single self-regulated learning factor that accounted for nearly 80% of the explained variance and two smaller factors that were labeled Student Verbal Expressiveness and Achievement. Students' reports of using self-regulated learning strategies during a structured interview correlated .70 with the obtained teachers' rating factor and were negatively related to the Student Verbal Expressiveness and Achievement factors. Our results indicate both convergent and discriminative validity for a self-regulated learning construct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The development and validation of a new measure, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) is described. The EDI is a 64 item, self-report, multiscale measure designed for the assessment of psychological and behavioral traits common in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia. The EDI consists of eight subscales measuring: Drive for Thinness, Bilimia, Body Dissatisfaction, Ineffectiveness, Perfectionism, Interpersonal Distrust, Interoceptive Awareness and Maturity Fears. Reliability (internal consistency) is established for all subscales and several indices of validity are presented. First, AN patients (N=113) are differentiated from femal comparison (FC) subjects (N=577) using a cross-validation procedure. Secondly, patient self-report subscale scores agree with clinician ratings of subscale traits. Thirdly, clinically recovered AN patients score similarly to FCs on all subscales. Finally, convergent and discriminant validity are established for subscales. The EDI was also administered to groups of normal weight bulimic women, obese, and normal weight but formerly obese women, as well as a male comparison group. Group differences are reported and the potential utility of the EDI is discussed.
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This article explores the possibility that romantic love is an attachment process--a biosocial process by which affectional bonds are formed between adult lovers, just as affectional bonds are formed earlier in life between human infants and their parents. Key components of attachment theory, developed by Bowlby, Ainsworth, and others to explain the development of affectional bonds in infancy, were translated into terms appropriate to adult romantic love. The translation centered on the three major styles of attachment in infancy--secure, avoidant, and anxious/ambivalent--and on the notion that continuity of relationship style is due in part to mental models (Bowlby's "inner working models") of self and social life. These models, and hence a person's attachment style, are seen as determined in part by childhood relationships with parents. Two questionnaire studies indicated that relative prevalence of the three attachment styles is roughly the same in adulthood as in infancy, the three kinds of adults differ predictably in the way they experience romantic love, and attachment style is related in theoretically meaningful ways to mental models of self and social relationships and to relationship experiences with parents. Implications for theories of romantic love are discussed, as are measurement problems and other issues related to future tests of the attachment perspective.
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Both guilt and empathic perspective taking have been linked to prosocial, relationship-enhancing effects. Study 1 found that shame was linked to personal distress, whereas guilt was linked to perspective taking. In Studies 2 and 3, subjects were asked to describe a recent experience of interpersonal conflict, once from their own perspective, and once from the perspective of the other person. Guilt-prone people and guilt-dominated stories were linked to better perspective taking (measured by changes between the two versions of the story) than others. Shame had no effect. Guilt improved relationship outcomes but shame harmed them. Path analysis suggested that trait guilt-proneness leads to perspective taking, which leads to actual guilt feelings, which produces beneficial relationship outcomes. Guilt feelings may mediate the relationship-enhancing effects of empathy.
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This article proposes that binge eating is motivated by a desire to escape from self-awareness. Binge eaters suffer from high standards and expectations, especially an acute sensitivity to the difficult (perceived) demands of others. When they fall short of these standards, they develop an aversive pattern of high self-awareness, characterized by unflattering views of self and concern over how they are perceived by others. These aversive self-perceptions are accompanied by emotional distress, which often includes anxiety and depression. To escape from this unpleasant state, binge eaters attempt the cognitive response of narrowing attention to the immediate stimulus environment and avoiding broadly meaningful thought. This narrowing of attention disengages normal inhibitions against eating and fosters an uncritical acceptance of irrational beliefs and thoughts. The escape model is capable of integrating much of the available evidence about binge eating.
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Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale is a widely used measure of global self-esteem; however, the unidimensional nature of the scale has been questioned. A unidimensional confirmatory factor analytic model was tested and found consistent to the data.
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In this study, we sought preliminary information about the relationships among measures of self-efficacy, self-regulation, collaborative learning behavior, and grades. The collaborative verbal behavior of 20 students in a computer course was observed. Also, students responded to a questionnaire to assess their academic self-efficacy. A teacher rated each student's self-regulated learning behaviors. The measures were taken at various points throughout the school year, and the data were analyzed using path analysis. Although students scoring higher on self-regulation tended to score higher also on the measures of collaborative verbal behavior than did those who scored lower on self-regulation, scores on self-regulation rather than on verbal engagement were correlated with grades. The findings were discussed in the light of social cognitive theory and recommendations were made for further study.
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Claims that attributions and their related behaviors may reflect a type of perceived control that is generally overlooked. People attempt to gain control by bringing the environment into line with their wishes (primary control) and by bringing themselves into line with environmental forces (secondary control). Four manifestations of secondary control are considered: (a) Attributions to severely limited ability can serve to enhance predictive control and protect against disappointment; (b) attributions to chance can reflect illusory control, since people often construe chance as a personal characteristic akin to an ability ("luck"); (c) attributions to powerful others permit vicarious control when the individual identifies with these others; and (d) the preceding attributions may foster interpretive control, in which the individual seeks to understand and derive meaning from otherwise uncontrollable events in order to accept them. (5½ p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Research on the link between the self and emotional distress has produced many measures that have unknown conceptual and empirical interrelations. The authors identified two classes of self-related variables shown previously to be important predictors of emotional distress. The first class, termed self-regulatory vari- ables, included ego-resiliency, ego-control, ego-strength, and har- diness. The second class, termed self-structure variables, included self-complexity, self-discrepancy, self-consistency, self- attitude ambivalence, and role conflict. Using a two-step struc- tural equation modeling (SEM) strategy, the authors examined first the factor structure of this set of measures. Second, they determined that Elasticity and Permeability (two self-regulatory factors) accounted for unique variance in the prediction of per- ceived emotional distress (Agitation and Dejection), whereas Self-Discrepancy and Self-Complexity (two self-structure factors) did not.
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The general theory of crime (Gottfredson and Hirschi 1990) proposes that self-control is the primary individual-level cause of crime and that its effect is contingent on criminal opportunity. This study conducted a prospective test of self-control and opportunity as predictors of property crime and personal crime among drug-using offenders. Each predictor had a main effect; property crimes and personal crimes were more frequent among offenders lower on self-control and those with higher opportunity. A significant interaction between these predictors was also detected. About four percent of the variance in each type of crime was explained by these predictors. Results support the proposition that self-control is a causal factor in criminal behavior and suggest that its effect is partially contingent on opportunity, but self-control and opportunity, as measured here, had very modest explanatory power.
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• In the last half-generation or so there has been increased emphasis on an understanding of personality functioning. It is asked what, if anything, is known or agreed to in this field. Is there a typical mother of schizophrenics, for example? In all the talk about the "creative personality" or the "authoritarian personality" just what is meant by these terms? What really is "hysteria"? Doctor Jack Block's monograph introduces the California Q-set—a method for describing comprehensively in contemporary psychodynamic terms an individual's personality. This method for encoding personality evaluation will prove highly useful in research applications by psychiatrists, psychologists, and sociologists, for it permits quantitative comparisons and calibrations of their evaluations of patients. He compares the Q-sort procedure with conventional rating methods and adjective check lists. He considers in detail the various forms of application of Q-sort procedure and appropriate statistical procedures to employ for these applications. Included in the Appendices are conversion tables for calculation of Q-sort correlations, California Q-set descriptions of various clinical concepts to be employed for calibration purposes, and an adjective Q-set for use by non-professional sorters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved) • In the last half-generation or so there has been increased emphasis on an understanding of personality functioning. It is asked what, if anything, is known or agreed to in this field. Is there a typical mother of schizophrenics, for example? In all the talk about the "creative personality" or the "authoritarian personality" just what is meant by these terms? What really is "hysteria"? Doctor Jack Block's monograph introduces the California Q-set—a method for describing comprehensively in contemporary psychodynamic terms an individual's personality. This method for encoding personality evaluation will prove highly useful in research applications by psychiatrists, psychologists, and sociologists, for it permits quantitative comparisons and calibrations of their evaluations of patients. He compares the Q-sort procedure with conventional rating methods and adjective check lists. He considers in detail the various forms of application of Q-sort procedure and appropriate statistical procedures to employ for these applications. Included in the Appendices are conversion tables for calculation of Q-sort correlations, California Q-set descriptions of various clinical concepts to be employed for calibration purposes, and an adjective Q-set for use by non-professional sorters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Previous research has indicated the potential value of Anger Control Training as an intervention in work with individuals who have acted aggressively towards others. However, the general suitability of this method for work with convicted violent offenders has not been explored in any systematic way. This paper reports results from a small scale survey of offenders (n = 39) with convictions for violence and placed on probation. The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which lack or loss of control had contributed to the occurrence of violent acts. Data were gathered from supervising Probation Officers by means of a structured questionnaire and interview schedule, in which offence incidents were to be described and analysed using a prescribed set of guidelines. Results suggest that loss of self-control is seen as having played an important part in acts of personal violence, and that a significant proportion of offender/clients may be able to benefit from direct training in self-control and be motivated to change. The study involved only an indirect form of data collection, and future research is recommended to examine these issues in more depth using direct interview and psychometric assessments.
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Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) is a self-report inventory designed to assess Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Reward Dependence, the three primary dimensions of his Biosocial Learning Model of normal and abnormal personality. We examined the structural validity of the TPQ and the relations among the TPQ lower- and higher-order scales to those of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; Tellegen, 1982) in a sample of 1,236 adults. The factor structure of the TPQ was congruent with Cloninger's predicted three-factor genotypic structure with one notable exception: the component scales of the Reward Dependence dimension share essentially no variance, and thus load on different factors. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that the TPQ and the MPQ share considerable variance, but that each inventory contains variance unpredicted by the other. In addition, the TPQ Harm Avoidance dimension appears to tap primarily a Negative Emotionality or neuroticism factor, rather than a disposition toward behavioral inhibition. These results support a number of Cloninger's predictions concerning the structural and external validity of the TPQ, but also suggest that the TPQ may fail to adequately operationalize several components of his model.
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In this study, the authors tested two hypotheses drawn from the general theory of crime. The first hypothesis is that low self-control is a major individual-level cause of crime. The second, that the effect of self-control is contingent on criminal opportunity. The measure of self-control used was a 23-item self-report index. To measure criminal opportunity, two proxy variables were used: gender and crime-involved friends. Crime measures included number of criminal acts of force and number of criminal acts of fraud reported in a 6-month recall period by a sample of 522 criminal offenders. Self-control was lower among offenders reporting more crimes of force and fraud, but the variance explained by self-control was low in each case. The relationship between self-control and fraud crimes was contingent on criminal opportunity, but the relationship between self-control and force crimes was not. Implications of these findings for the general theory of crime are reviewed.
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The possibility that love and work in adulthood are functionally similar to attachment and exploration in infancy and early childhood was investigated. Key components of attachment theory—developed by Bowlby, Ainsworth, and others to explain the role of attachment in exploratory behavior—were translated into terms appropriate to adult love and work. The translation centered on the 3 major types of infant attachment and exploration identified by Ainsworth: secure, anxious/ambivalent, and avoidant. Two questionnaire studies indicated that relations between adult attachment type and work orientation are similar to attachment/exploration dynamics in infancy and early childhood, suggesting that the dynamics may be similar across the life span. Implications for research on the link between love and work are discussed, as are measurement problems and other issues related to future tests of an attachment-theoretical approach to the study of adults.
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The present study investigated problem drinking and symptoms of disordered eating in relation to (a) restrained drinking and eating, and (b) cognitive self-control. One hundred and ninety-eight high school students (97 males and 101 females; mean age = 16.45 years) completed questionnaires that assessed problem drinking, symptoms of disordered eating, restrained eating and drinking, and cognitive self-control. Using principal components analysis, three factors with eigenvalues greater than 1 were found to summarize the interrelationships among the examined measures. For both sexes, the first two factors primarily reflected problem drinking and restrained drinking, and problem eating and restrained eating, respectively. The third factor reflected a more general problem with control underlying aspects of both problem drinking and problem eating.
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The present study examines the link between alcohol consumption and personality, using the California Psychological Inventory in a large well-adjusted sample and tests four hypotheses, including one that states that persons who drink no alcohol at all are less well adjusted than persons who drink moderate amounts. The results confirm the hypotheses. Alcohol consumed correlates positively with sociability and extraversion, but negatively with conscientiousness and willingness to conform. The results also show, in a large sample and using a comprehensive personality inventory, that persons who drink no alcohol at all are a little more withdrawn, a little less ambitious, a little less generally well-organised and competent, than people who drink in moderation.
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A self-report instrument that included a parental management scale, a self-control scale, and measures of deviance was administered to 289 university students. Models based on Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory were tested by using path analysis. The analysis generally supported Gottfredson and Hirschi's theory, and suggested the usefulness of a measure of self-control that includes cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects.
Article
Ethological attachment theory is a landmark of 20th century social and behavioral sciences theory and research. This new paradigm for understanding primary relationships across the lifespan evolved from John Bowlby's critique of psychoanalytic drive theory and his own clinical observations, supplemented by his knowledge of fields as diverse as primate ethology, control systems theory, and cognitive psychology. By the time he had written the first volume of his classic Attachment and Loss trilogy, Mary D. Salter Ainsworth's naturalistic observations in Uganda and Baltimore, and her theoretical and descriptive insights about maternal care and the secure base phenomenon had become integral to attachment theory. Patterns of Attachment reports the methods and key results of Ainsworth's landmark Baltimore Longitudinal Study. Following upon her naturalistic home observations in Uganda, the Baltimore project yielded a wealth of enduring, benchmark results on the nature of the child's tie to its primary caregiver and the importance of early experience. It also addressed a wide range of conceptual and methodological issues common to many developmental and longitudinal projects, especially issues of age appropriate assessment, quantifying behavior, and comprehending individual differences. In addition, Ainsworth and her students broke new ground, clarifying and defining new concepts, demonstrating the value of the ethological methods and insights about behavior. Today, as we enter the fourth generation of attachment study, we have a rich and growing catalogue of behavioral and narrative approaches to measuring attachment from infancy to adulthood. Each of them has roots in the Strange Situation and the secure base concept presented in Patterns of Attachment. It inclusion in the Psychology Press Classic Editions series reflects Patterns of Attachment's continuing significance and insures its availability to new generations of students, researchers, and clinicians.
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The relation of 4- to 6-year-olds' sociometric status to teacher- or peer-reported negative emotionality and regulation was examined across two semesters (Tl and T2), Social status at T2 was positively related to teacher-reported regulation and negatively related to emotional intensity, as well as peer-reported anger and crying. Regulation and emotionality (in combination) accounted for additional variance in T2 social status after controlling for initial social preference. Initial (Tl) social status infrequently predicted subsequent regulation and emotionality after controlling for scores on initial emotionality/regulation. Thus, emotionality/regulation predicted future social status whereas social status did not appear to account for changes in emotionality and regulation over time. Social behavior (aggression) did not mediate the relation of emotionality/regulation to later social status.
Article
Total SAT score, average grade earned in high school, and 32 personality variables are examined via forward multiple regression analyses to identify the best combination for predicting GPA in a sample of 201 psychology students. Average grade earned in high school enters first, accounting for 19% of the variance in GPA. Self-control enters second, and SAT third; these account for 9% and 5% of the variance, respectively. No other predictors accounted for substantial portions of variance. This pattern of results converges with findings reported by other investigators using other measures of personality. It was recommended that the global trait of self-control or conscientiousness be systematically assessed and used in college admissions decisions.
Article
The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, a widely used self-report instrument for evaluating individual self-esteem, was investigated using item response theory. Factor analysis identified a single common factor, contrary to some previous studies that extracted separate Self-Confidence and Self-Depreciation factors. A unidimensional model for graded item responses was fit to the data. A model that constrained the 10 items to equal discrimination was contrasted with a model allowing the discriminations to be estimated freely. The test of significance indicated that the unconstrained model better fit the data-that is, the 10 items of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale are not equally discriminating and are differentially related to self-esteem. The pattern of functioning of the items was examined with respect to their content, and observations are offered with implications for validating and developing future personality instruments.
Article
Disadvantaged preschool children attending a program of compensatory education were studied to determine if change in self-concept, delay of gratification, and exercise of self-control were related to growth in achievement. Girls displayed self-concept growth and a decline in delay of gratification, while boys showed growth in self-control. (Author/DST)
Article
Variations of the self-imposed delay-of-gratification situation in preschool were compared to determine when individual differences in this situation may predict aspects of cognitive and self-regulatory competence and coping in adolescence. Preschool children from a university community participated in experiments that varied features of the self-imposed delay situation. Experimental analyses of the cognitive–attentional processes that affect waiting in this situation helped identify conditions in which delay behavior would be most likely to reflect relevant cognitive and attentional competencies. As hypothesized, in those conditions, coherent patterns of statistically significant correlations were found between seconds of delay time in such conditions in preschool and cognitive and academic competence and ability to cope with frustration and stress in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined body shape preferences, body dissatisfaction, and self-focus between dieters and nondieters. Ss were 70 women. 35 were classified as chronic dieters, and 35 were classified as nondieters. Dieters were found to be more dissatisfied with their bodies than were nondieters. Although dieters did not have more stringent standards for body shape than nondieters, there was a larger discrepancy between ideal and current shape for dieters owing to their greater body weights. Dieters were also found to be highly and negatively self-focused on the Exner Sentence Completion Task. Dieting status was correlated with public rather than private self-consciousness, suggesting that dieters were concerned with their public image. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
On the basis of a series of recent investigations linking personality, social behavior, and social satisfaction, as well as the theoretical concept of relational competence, we propose a model of relationship satisfaction. The model is based on the notion that personality in general and empathy in particular affect relationship satisfaction through their influences on specific mediating behaviors. The tenets of the model were tested by assessing the key constructs for both members of 264 heterosexual romantic couples. In general, the model was strongly supported, as three separate facets of dispositional empathy had separate and predictable influences on self-reported behavior, which in turn significantly influenced partners' perceptions of those behaviors. Also as expected, perceptions of partner behavior were significant influences on one's satisfaction with the relationship. The model worked especially well for longer term relationships and somewhat better for predicting female behavior; the role of one facet of empathy—perspective taking—was especially strong for longer relationships. Thus, the model appears to be a fruitful way to examine the role of personality on social and psychological well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the relationship between individual differences in self-control at an early age and adult behavior, using data from a Finnish longitudinal study on the social development of 196 males and 173 females, followed up between ages 8–32 yrs. Results show that the concept of self-control was useful when the risks of crime and accidents were described: Low self-control in childhood and adolescence was a precursor to crime and accidents. However, the relationship between low self-control and crime and accidents was found to be non-linear, as significant results were obtained only for Ss exhibiting prominent negative behavior (above the 75th percentile) patterned with other problem behaviors. Findings suggest that problem behaviors and adverse life conditions accumulated in these Ss. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)