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High Self‐Control Predicts Good Adjustment, Less Pathology, Better Grades, and Interpersonal Success

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Abstract

What good is self-control? We incorporated a new measure of individual differences in self-control into two large investigations of a broad spectrum of behaviors. The new scale showed good internal consistency and retest reliability. Higher scores on self-control correlated with a higher grade point average, better adjustment (fewer reports of psychopathology, higher self-esteem), less binge eating and alcohol abuse, better relationships and interpersonal skills, secure attachment, and more optimal emotional responses. Tests for curvilinearity failed to indicate any drawbacks of so-called overcontrol, and the positive effects remained after controlling for social desirability. Low self-control is thus a significant risk factor for a broad range of personal and interpersonal problems.

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... Self-control is defined as the individual's capacity to override dominant responses, including thoughts, emotions, and actions, in order to reach long-term goals [19,20]. Individuals that scored higher on self-control scales do better in various domains, including health and health associated behaviors [21,22]. Different factors have been found to have an effect on self-control, among which, the level of physical activity was a consistent one. ...
... Previous research has attributed procrastination to exhausted self-control resources [23]. On the other hand, people with higher self-control were found to be more able to resist short-term temptations therefore less likely to procrastinate [22,24,25]. Based on the literature reviewed above, it is plausible to presume that physical activity is positively correlated with self-control, which, in turn, is negatively associated with academic procrastination. ...
... The Self-Control Scale (SCS) [22] was used to assess self-control. This scale involves five dimensions and 19 items in total. ...
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Previous studies have suggested that physical activity may decrease academic procrastination; however, few studies have explored the underlying mechanisms of how physical activity exerts an effect on academic procrastination. This study aimed to examine the mediating effects of self-control and self-efficacy in the relationship between physical activity and academic procrastination among Chinese university students. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used in this study. The sample comprised 564 university students from a university in Zhejiang, China. The physical activity rating scale-3 (PARS-3), self-control scale (SCS), generalized self-efficacy scale (GSES), and procrastination assessment scale-students (PASS) were used to investigate university students' physical activity, self-control, self-efficacy, and academic procrastination respectively. The Percentile-Bootstrap technique was performed to examine the mediating effects of self-control and self-efficacy on the association between physical activity and academic procrastination. Results: Physical activity significantly predicted higher levels of self-control and self-efficacy, as well as lower levels of academic procrastination. Self-control and self-efficacy were significant mediators between physical activity and academic procrastination. Conclusion: This study indicated that physical activity interventions targeting the improvement of self-control and self-efficacy may reduce academic procrastination in university students.
... Selfcontrol failure makes it difficult for individuals to make decisions and act in ways that are consistent with their goals and values. Self-control is an individual's ability to repress or adjust their internal reactions, as well as to stop undesirable behavioral inclinations and avoid exhibiting them (Tangney et al., 2004). According to Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990), the behaviors of individuals with low selfcontrol are primarily governed by immediate gratification and short-term goals. ...
... The scale was developed to identify situations involving self-control by Tangney et al. (2004). The short form of the scale consists of 13 items and is a Likert-type scale rated from 1 to 5. The Turkish adaptation of the scale was carried out by Nebioğlu et al. (2012). ...
... The function of the self-control system is to pursue the intended goals of individuals. It enables an individual to make purposeful choices, persist in challenging tasks and perform at an optimal level (Tangney et al., 2004). In addition, self-control can be improved by setting, monitoring and implementing goals (Inzlicht et al., 2014). ...
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This study examined the mediating role of self-control and goal striving in the relationship between need satisfaction, life goals and Internet addiction. A total number of 320 university students participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Need Satisfaction Scale, The Scale of Setting Life Goals with Respect to Positive Psychotherapy, Brief Self-Control Scale, Goal Striving Scale, Internet Addiction Test and Personal Information Form. Structural equation modeling and bootstrapping were used to test the hypothesized model. Structural equation modeling results provide evidence for indirect effects of need satisfaction on Internet addiction fully mediated by self-control and goal striving. Besides, goal striving and self-control fully mediated the relationship between life goals and Internet addiction. The findings emphasized the role of self-control and goal striving in explaining the relationship between life goals, need satisfaction and Internet addiction. The findings of the research were discussed in the light of the literature and research, and suggestions were presented.
... Self-control is often defined as the capacity to inhibit impulses and, hence, the ability to forego short-term temptations in order to pursue long-term goals, whereas low self-control is associated with pleasure-seeking, less consideration for longterm consequences, difficulties to control impulses and limited deliberation (Tangney et al., 2004;de Ridder et al., 2012). With the disposition to discount long-term consequences and to seek pleasure, low self-control individuals engage more in hedonic consumption in research paradigms where immediate pleasure is pitted against the option to pursue normative long-term goals (Kopetz et al., 2018;Jia et al., 2019b;Vosgerau et al., 2020). ...
... Several studies have shown that selecting and using hedonic consumption under stressful conditions may be motivated by emotional regulation (e.g., Tice et al., 2001;Atalay and Meloy, 2011;Dorman Ilan et al., 2019). Mead et al. (2016), moreover, show that pleasure can offset stress if it is sufficiently potent and can benefit subsequent goal pursuit and long-term affective wellbeing -which are also hallmarks of high self-control (Tangney et al., 2004;de Ridder et al., 2012). Higher-grade students, who also tend to be higher in self-control (Mischel et al., 1988;Tangney et al., 2004), mostly avoid hedonic consumption but when they indulge in hedonic consumption they do so more deliberately allowing them to reap greater pleasure from it than lower-grade students (Jia et al., 2019a). ...
... Mead et al. (2016), moreover, show that pleasure can offset stress if it is sufficiently potent and can benefit subsequent goal pursuit and long-term affective wellbeing -which are also hallmarks of high self-control (Tangney et al., 2004;de Ridder et al., 2012). Higher-grade students, who also tend to be higher in self-control (Mischel et al., 1988;Tangney et al., 2004), mostly avoid hedonic consumption but when they indulge in hedonic consumption they do so more deliberately allowing them to reap greater pleasure from it than lower-grade students (Jia et al., 2019a). Taken together, this research suggests that high self-control individuals may be more motivated by emotional regulation under stressful conditions and may reap greater pleasure from hedonic consumption as they mostly refrain from pleasure pursuits. ...
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Hedonic consumption is pleasant but can interfere with the capacity to self-regulate. In stressful moments, when self-regulation is arguably still important, individuals often indulge in hedonic consumption. In two experiments, we investigate whether hedonic consumption negatively affects self-regulation under moderately stressful conditions and whether selecting hedonic consumption under moderately stressful conditions is driven by high or low self-control. In both studies, participants were randomly exposed to a mental arithmetic task that was either completed under time pressure with performance feedback (moderate stress) or without time pressure and without feedback (no stress). Experiment 1 assigned participants to a hedonic (vs. neutral) consumption task and then measured impulse control via a color-word Stroop task. Experiment 2 measured self-control as a second independent variable and recorded hedonic (vs. neutral) consumption. The results show that moderate stress buffered the negative effect that hedonic consumption has on self-regulation under no stress conditions and that high rather than low self-control predicts hedonic over neutral consumption under stress. These findings indicate that hedonic consumption in response to moderate stress may be a strategic choice to reap the pleasure benefit of hedonic consumption while the costs to self-regulation are low.
... A potentially meaningful but currently unexamined antecedent of interpersonal trust in high-reliability organizations is the leader's trait selfcontrol. This is an element of general self-regulation in which people exert control over responses to achieve goals and conform to standards when facing stressful situations Tangney et al., 2004). Over the past decade, there has been an ongoing debate about the costs and benefits of self-control (Baumeister & Alquist, 2009;Block, 2002;Letzring et al., 2005;Röseler et al., 2021;Zabelina et al., 2007;Zuo et al., 2020). ...
... The ability to exhibit self-control appears to be stable across the lifespan, predicting a broad range of desirable outcomes (Gailliot et al., 2012). People high in self-control are more empathic toward others and less aggressive than those with low self-control (Tangney et al., 2004), are more reliable and better able to keep promises (Finkel & Campbell, 2001;Peetz & Kammrath, 2011), and are more likely to accomplish their goals (Duckworth et al., 2016). ...
... Leader trait self-control was assessed using the 14-item scale developed by Tangney et al. (2004) as in Study 1. The Cronbach's alpha was .91. ...
Article
Drawing from the theory of met expectations, this study aims to create new knowledge on the antecedents of follower trust in leaders in the context of high-reliability organizations. We hypothesize that highly self-controlled leaders instill more trust than leaders with less self-control, as the former tend to meet follower expectations. This work combines data from a field survey (N = 256) and a multi-wave field study (N = 106), using samples of professional firefighters to support our hypotheses that met follower expectations mediate the relationship between leader trait self-control and follower trust in the leader. Our research highlights the importance of met expectations in high-reliability contexts and demonstrates the value of leader trait self-control in building trustful relationships.
... There is a long-standing tradition of conceiving selfcontrol as an individual difference variable (Tangney et al., 2004). However, the bulk of research on if-then planning has investigated the effects of instructing participants how to form plans for a goal (e.g., Chapman & Armitage, 2012) or simply assigning participants a suitable if-then plan (e.g., Keller et al., 2021). ...
... We used the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS; Tangney et al., 2004) and the If-Then Planning Scale (ITPS; Bieleke & Keller, 2021) to assess individual differences in domain-general self-control and if-then planning, respectively. The BSCS consists of 13 statements, gauging participants' agreement to potential self-descriptions like "I am good at resisting temptation" and "Sometimes I can't stop myself from doing something, even if I know it is wrong." ...
... Barlow and colleagues (2020) showed that both goal disengagement and especially goal reengagement were negatively related to anxiety and depression. We additionally expected anxiety and depression to be correlated negatively with domain-general self-control (e.g., Tangney et al., 2004) and positively with boredom (e.g., Sommers & Vodanovich, 2000). ...
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Disengaging from unattainable goals and reengaging in alternative goals is essential for effective goal pursuit; yet, surprisingly little is known about associated personality factors. Here, we focused on individual differences in self-control (domain-general self-control, if–then planning) and boredom (boredom proneness, boredom avoidance and escape tendencies). Concerning goal adjustment in everyday life (Study 1; N = 323 crowdworkers), if–then planning was associated with worse disengagement and better reengagement. While boredom proneness was associated with poorer reengagement, boredom avoidance and escape tendencies were associated with better reengagement. When goal striving was thwarted during the COVID-19 pandemic (Study 2; N = 97 students), similar associations emerged along with links to anxiety and depression. However, disengagement was no longer associated with if–then planning but instead with better self-control and higher boredom proneness. These results show differential relationships of goal disengagement and reengagement with self-control and boredom, paving the way to a better understanding of who struggles or shines when effective goal adjustment is required.
... Self-control is defined as "the aspect of inhibitory control that involves resisting temptations and not acting impulsively or prematurely" (Diamond, 2013, p. 137). It has previously been linked to harmful and maladaptive behaviors and disorders such as addiction (Bühringer et al., 2008;Hare et al., 2009;Moffitt et al., 2011;Tangney et al., 2004). Cognitive control is thought to play a role in selfcontrol in that prepotent, but goal-irrelevant, impulses must be overridden to achieve successful self-control. ...
... Participants also completed questionnaires to measure their trait self control (SCS; Tangney et al., 2004; Experiments 1-3) and impulsivity (BIS-11;Patton et al., 1995; Experiment 1) to examine the relationship between individual differences in MIRA, reward responsiveness, and selfcontrol/impulsivity (Wolff et al., 2016). The SCS and BIS-11 measure how individuals generally respond to short-term immediate rewards in their everyday lives and their ability to postpone short-term impulses to achieve longer-term goals, with higher SCS and lower BIS-11 scores indicating higher self-control and lower impulsivity in everyday life. ...
... Participants completed the Tangney self-control scale (SCS; Tangney et al., 2004) to measure their trait levels of selfcontrol. The SCS contains 36 items (e.g., "I never let myself lose control") and participants reported the degree to which the statement was true of them using a 5-point Likert scale from 1 (Not at all like me) to 5 (Very Much Like Me). ...
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In three separate experiments, we examined the reliability of and relationships between self-report measures and behavioral response time measures of reward sensitivity. Using a rewarded-Stroop task we showed that reward-associated, but task-irrelevant, information interfered with task performance (MIRA) in all three experiments, but individual differences in MIRA were unreliable both within-session and over a period of approximately 4 weeks, providing clear evidence that it is not a good individual differences measure. In contrast, when the task-relevant information was rewarded, individual differences in performance benefits were remarkably reliable, even when examining performance one year later, and with a different version of a rewarded Stroop task. Despite the high reliability of the behavioral measure of reward responsiveness, behavioral reward responsiveness was not associated with self-reported reward responsiveness scores using validated questionnaires but was associated with greater self-reported self-control. Results are discussed in terms of what is actually being measured in the rewarded Stroop task.
... The distinction between the two systems is central to the concepts of promotion versus prevention orientation (Higgins, 1998;Lockwood et al., 2002) and behavioral activation system (BAS) versus behavioral inhibition system (BIS) sensitivities (Carver & White, 1994). Similarly, trait self-control refers to people's chronic ability to inhibit their inner responses and impulses (Tangney et al., 2004). Thus, volition and inhibition/self-control are focused on how people direct their motivational energy. ...
... The 13-item Brief Self Control scale (Tangney et al., 2004) was used to assess trait self-control (α = 0.80). Example items include, "I am good at resisting temptation (reverse)" and "I have a hard time breaking bad habits." ...
... Our prediction was that moxie measured at Time 1 would predict goal investments at Time 2, which in turn would predict goal achievement at Time 3. If found, this mediational pattern would add support to our assertion that people high in moxie demonstrate a greater intensity of motivation by devoting more resources toward their goals. Because Study 6 found moderately positive correlations of moxie with self-control and grit, and because prior research has found that both self-control and grit predict goal achievement (Duckworth et al., 2007(Duckworth et al., , 2019Tang et al., 2021;Tangney et al., 2004), we included these two measures in this study. However, we expected the relationship between moxie and goal achievement to hold even after controlling for self-control and grit. ...
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Motivation intensity differs across individuals. While prior work has examined how situational factors contribute to these discrepancies, the present work takes an individual differences approach. We developed a new tool to measure a novel construct we call “moxie” to assess individual differences in motivation intensity. Seven studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the proposed Moxie Scale. A single factor structure was demonstrated through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and the Moxie Scale was shown to have high internal consistency and strong test–retest reliability. Convergent, discriminant, criterion-related, and incremental validity were established by exploring associations between moxie and the Big Five personality traits, as well as related motivational constructs such as grit, self-control, volition and inhibition systems, and procrastination. Moxie also predicted intrinsic and extrinsic motivation above other motivational constructs. Finally, moxie predicted goal achievement over time and mediational analyses indicated that this occurred because those high in moxie invested more resources into their goal. Collectively, these findings suggest that moxie is an important and distinct motivational construct and offer new insights regarding individual differences in motivational intensity.
... One such moderating factor may be self-control, which refers to the capacity for altering one's own responses, especially to bring them into line with standards such as ideals, values, morals, and social expectations, and to support the pursuit of long-term goals (Baumeister et al., 2007). It has been conceived that self-control would represent one of the most adaptive variables of the human psyche (Carver and Scheier, 1998;Tangney et al., 2004). Individuals with high self-control ability can better regulate emotions, improve poor interpersonal skills and subjective wellbeing, and form healthy behavioral patterns, while individuals with low self-control ability experience various problems in life, learning, and social behavior (Tangney et al., 2004;Vohs and Faber, 2007;Moffitt et al., 2011). ...
... It has been conceived that self-control would represent one of the most adaptive variables of the human psyche (Carver and Scheier, 1998;Tangney et al., 2004). Individuals with high self-control ability can better regulate emotions, improve poor interpersonal skills and subjective wellbeing, and form healthy behavioral patterns, while individuals with low self-control ability experience various problems in life, learning, and social behavior (Tangney et al., 2004;Vohs and Faber, 2007;Moffitt et al., 2011). Individuals with high self-control exhibit greater altruistic behavior and emotional control than those with low self-control (Wills et al., 1995(Wills et al., , 2007Peluso et al., 1999;Duckworth and Kern, 2011). ...
... A phenomenon that challenges self-control, especially among younger people, is mobile phone use (Wu et al., 2017). Mobile phone dependence, defined as excessive use and an intermittent craving to use a mobile phone (Ezoe et al., 2009), results in various social, behavioral, and affective problems in daily life (Billieux, 2012), is considered as problematic behavior (Toda et al., 2006). Mobile phone dependence occurs 27.4% of teenage users in Hong Kong (Leung, 2008). ...
Article
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Physical exercise can improve the psychological capital while the attitude toward physical exercise will affect one’s exercise behavior. However, moderating factors that may influence how physical exercise affects psychological capital remains unknown. We conducted a survey of 519 Chinese university students to investigate the mediating role of self-control between attitudes toward physical exercise and psychological capital, and whether this mediating role is moderated by mobile phone dependence. We found that attitudes toward physical exercise had a positive predictive effect on the psychological capital of university students. Besides, self-control mediated the relationship between attitudes toward physical exercise and psychological capital. The influence of self-control on psychological capital was moderated by mobile phone dependence: the influence of self-control on psychological capital decreased with higher mobile phone dependence. Our results suggest that attitudes toward physical exercise can positively predict the psychological capital of university students, with self-control playing a mediating role between them.
... On the other hand, it is nowadays widely acknowledged that relevant lifetime financial outcomes can be explained by differences in noncognitive traits during childhood (Lades et al., 2017). In particular, economists have been devoting increasing attention to the role of personal self-control as a predictor of saving behavior (Tangney et al., 2004;Bucciol, 2012;Achtziger et al., 2015;Rey-Ares et al., 2021). Self-control is defined as the ability to resist temptation and to overcome first impulses (Baumeister, 2002) and its role on wealth accumulation nowadays stands as one of the most relevant research questions among behavioral economists (Thaler, 2018). ...
... Previous literature on self-control strongly highlights its importance as a psychological resource that influences individuals' financial behavior through impulse buying (Achtziger et al., 2015). High self-control is positively related with goal achievement and the ability to manage unforeseen expenses (Tangney et al., 2004). By contrast, consumers who lack self-control make greater use of quick-access financial products and are more likely to have problems in dealing with over-indebtedness (Gathergood, 2012). ...
Article
Using novel US household survey data, we examine the role of financial socialization, meant as the exposure to financial concepts while growing up, and self-control in explaining saving behavior. We pay special attention to the potential existence of gender differences in the influence of parental teachings received early in life and self-control skills on saving habits. In addition, we analyze the relationship between financial socialization, self-control and the ownership of different financial products. Results indicate that financial socialization received early in life and self-control are positively associated with general saving habits. However, their contribution differs depending on the type of financial product being analyzed. Furthermore, the gender gap in saving propensity in the favor of males is mainly due to differences in characteristics rather than differences in coefficients.
... For example, support from friends has been demonstrated to be negatively related to cyberbullying perpetration (Fanti et al. 2012) and cyberbullying victimization (Ubertini 2011). Fourth, self-control, which is defined as the ability to interrupt and refrain from unwanted behavioral tendencies (Tangney et al. 2004), is likely an individual protective factor that could lower the risk of cyberbullying involvement (Baldry et al. 2015). ...
... Self-control was measured by eight items extracted from the Self-Control Scale (Tangney et al. 2004) (e.g., "I have a hard time breaking bad habits." and "Sometimes I can't stop myself from doing something, even if I know it is wrong."). ...
Article
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Cyberbullying may negatively affect youth’s development. Because knowledge of the onset and course of cyberbullying during middle childhood and early adolescence is limited, studies of its antecedents, heterogeneous profiles, and transitions are needed to inform prevention and intervention efforts. The current longitudinal study explored the profiles and transitions of cyberbullying perpetration and victimization from middle childhood to early adolescence, along with their multi-contextual risk and protective factors. A total of 4326 Chinese elementary school students (44.6% female, Mage = 9.94) participated in self-report assessments at four time points with six-month intervals. The profiles and transitions of cyberbullying were modeled using latent profile analysis and latent transition analysis. Three cyberbullying profiles were identified: non-involved, cyberbully-victims, and cybervictims. The findings on the development of cyberbullying showed that: (1) its prevalence rate decreased from middle to late childhood and then increased during the transition to early adolescence; and (2) its stability increased from middle childhood to early adolescence. Multi-contextual risk and protective factors of profile memberships and transitions were also examined. The findings suggested that: (1) family abuse and peer aggression were stable risk factors for cyberbully-victims; (2) high-quality friendships and self-control were stable protective factors for cyberbully-victims; (3) family abuse and depressive symptoms were stable risk factors for cybervictims; and (4) significant predictive effects of family abuse, high-quality friendships, perceived parental warmth, and self-control were found for the transitions in cyberbullying profiles. These results supported multi-contextual models of the development and transitions of cyberbullying in Chinese children.
... Self-Control Given that addictive smartphone use involves the failure to refrain from excessive smartphone use Kwon et al., 2013), poorer self-control-i.e., the control over impulses in pursuit of long-term goals (Tangney et al., 2004)-likely constitutes an important aspect of addictive smartphone use. Similarly, the social control theory (Hirschi, 1969) and framework of behavioral addiction (Brown, 1993(Brown, , 1997 postulate that smartphone addiction may stem from one's failure to control growing impulses for smartphone engagement. ...
... Three scales were used to assess aspects of protective personality traits: self-control, grit, and mindfulness. The 13-item brief self-control scale was employed to measure individual differences in trait-level self-control (α = 0.51; e.g., "I am good at resisting temptation"; Tangney et al., 2004). After reverse scoring some items, a summed score was used to index self-control, with higher scores indicating greater tendency for self-control. ...
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Given that crucial psychological attributes of smartphone addiction have been studied in isolation from each other, we examined latent profiles of emotional distress (depression, stress, loneliness, and fear of missing out; i.e., FoMO); protective traits (self-control, mindfulness, grit); the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and approach system (BAS; drive, reward responsiveness, and fun seeking) in relation to addictive smartphone use. We identified three distinctive profiles, using five fit statistics: AIC, BIC, adjusted BIC, an entropy, and LRT. The self-controlled, gritty, and mindful profile (22.7%) was characterized by heightened levels of self-control, grit, and mindfulness but lower levels of emotional distress, BIS, and BAS. The emotionally distressed profile (29.8%) was distinguished by elevated levels of depression, stress, loneliness, FoMO, and BIS, but relatively lower protective traits and BAS. Lastly, the approach sensitive profile (47.5%) corresponded to the normative group characterized by relatively higher BAS but mostly average levels of emotional distress and protective traits. When both global and pairwise comparisons between profiles were performed using Wald tests, we found that the self-controlled, gritty, and mindful profile was associated with significantly lower smartphone addiction tendencies than emotionally distressed or approach sensitive profiles, while the latter two did not differ from each other. These results still held when multiple covariates (age, sex, and income) were controlled for. Using a sophisticated person-centered approach, our findings underscore multidimensional psychological profiles that have different associations with smartphone addiction.
... We used the Self-Control Brief Scale (SCBS; Tangney et al., 2004) which provided a score of the ability to dominate one's responses and to stop undesired behavioral predispositions avoiding actions based on them. The SCBS consists of 13 items with a 5-point answer scale from 1 (not at all like me) to 5 (very much like me). ...
... The total score ranges from 13 to 65. High scores on the SCBS indicate high levels of self-control and correlate positively with good interpersonal skills, secure attachment style and adaptive emotional responses. The SCBS is newer than other scales and it has shown good reliability (Tangney et al., 2004). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient in our sample was 0.82. ...
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This research aims to bring new evidence concerning the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Flourishing Scale (FS-P) in a sample of the general Portuguese population. Participants consisted of 396 Portuguese adults between 18 and 52 years of age. We collected data mainly via an online survey following a snowball sampling strategy. We analyzed FS-P validity evidence based on its internal structure, measurement invariance across gender, reliability of test scores, homogeneity indices of the items, and validity evidence based on association with measures on life satisfaction (single-item), self-esteem (RSES), self-control (SCBS), loneliness (DJGLS), depression (CES-D 10), and distress (K6+). Confirmatory factor analysis showed a one-factor solution. Configural, metric, and scalar invariance across gender was tenable with adequate fit indices. The reliability analysis showed adequate internal consistency (McDonald’s Omega = 0.88) and adequate homogeneity indices for all items. We obtained positive correlations between FS-P scores and measures on life satisfaction, self-esteem, and self-control, and negative correlations with scores on loneliness, depression, and distress (significance level of 0.05). All correlations values were close to |0.50|. These results sustain the importance of such a practical short scale in research and clinical contexts.
... Self-control is widely considered the key mediating factor for outcomes related to one's ability to override, change, or interrupt undesired emotional and behavioral responses (Tangney et al., 2004). Investigations into self-control have demonstrated a robust association between low self-control and deviance (Vazsonyi et al., 2017) and maladaptive behaviors (i.e., substance misuse, recidivism, and failure to positively adapt) and high self-control and adaptive behaviors such as pro-social behaviors (Malouf et al., 2014). ...
... The Brief Self-Control Scale (Tangney et al., 2004) consists of 13 questions, about the degree to which participants are willing to control thoughts, emotions, and impulses to conform to the normal demands of life (e.g. 'I am good at resisting temptation'). ...
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Knowledge about one’s innate health is central to a variety of positive mental health markers. However, men living in prison rarely receive education about how to access these internal resources. As such, this study seeks to replicate and extend emerging data on an innate health intervention. Volunteers from HMP Nottingham, England (n=126) participated in normal prison programming and the intervention group (n=65) received an additional 3-day intensive. The primary question: Does innate health function as a mediator in the same way self-control does within an incarcerated population? We conducted a mediation analysis, tested social desirability bias, and examined the impact of the intervention on crucial variables. This study found higher levels of innate health, self-control, wellbeing, and prosocial behavior and lower levels of aggression in the intervention group as compared to the control group. Importantly, innate health did play a mediating role equivalent to and/or partnering with self-control.
... Prior studies have demonstrated the relationship between self-control and individual well-being. Studies have indicated that individuals with high levels of self-control are likely to report experiencing well-being from making effective life choices (Hofmann et al., 2014;Ouyang et al., 2015;Tangney et al., 2004). Correlation studies have shown that self-control and well-being are positively linked (Cheung et al., 2014;Hofmann et al., 2014). ...
... The Self-Control Measure developed by Tangney et al. (2004) was used to measure self-control. This 13-item Likert scale enables participants to indicate agreement from 1 (Strongly disagree) to 5 (Strongly agree), with high values indicating high self-control. ...
Article
To use self‐control and self‐determination theories in a grit model with self‐control as a mediator of autonomous learning and well‐being. A cross‐sectional online survey using a convenience sampling approach was employed to recruit 511 university students (70.6% female) with an average age of 25. Grit was positively related to self‐control, autonomous learning, and grade point average (GPA). Additionally, self‐control had a mediated effect on the relationship between grit and autonomous learning, and between grit and well‐being. Findings offer insights on the role of self‐control in enhancing autonomous learning and GPA among gritty students. Implications are also offered for research and practice in higher education settings. Students with higher levels of grit reported higher autonomous learning and self‐control. Self‐control mediated the relationship between students' grit and autonomous learning. Self‐control served as a mediator between students' grit and well‐being. Students with higher levels of grit reported higher autonomous learning and self‐control. Self‐control mediated the relationship between students' grit and autonomous learning. Self‐control served as a mediator between students' grit and well‐being.
... This theory postulates that self-control reflects a hedonic orientation to maximize pleasure and avoid pain. Popular theories of self-control suggest that there are four primary domains that control thoughts, emotions, impulses, and performance [13,14]. High self-control can be perceived of as the ability to adapt and fit the self with the environment, and to refrain from behaving in socially undesirable ways [15]. ...
... Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS) [14]. This is a brief 13-item self-report unidimensional measure of self-control. ...
Article
Dark Triad traits and self-control are considered viable causal precursors to antisocial and criminal outcomes in youth. The purpose of the present study is to concurrently compare how Dark Triad traits and self-control differ in terms of predicting self-reported juvenile delinquency, CD symptoms, proactive overt aggression, and crime seriousness. The sample consisted of 567 (M = 15.91 years, SD = 0.99 years, age range = 14–18 years) Southern European youth from Portugal. Structural-equation-modelling procedures revealed that the psychopathy factor of Dark Triad traits presented the strongest significant hypothetical causal associations with the antisocial/criminal outcomes, followed by self-control. Machiavellianism and narcissism presented the lowest causal associations. Our findings indicate that psychopathy, as operationalized in the Dark Triad, concurrently surpasses self-control and the remaining factors of the Dark Triad in terms of predicting antisocial/criminal outcomes in youth. This suggests that behavioral disinhibition, or a core incapacity to regulate one’s conduct, is central for understanding delinquency and externalizing psychopathology. Comparatively, the interpersonal component of dark personality features, such as Machiavellianism and narcissism, are secondary for understanding crime.
... Self-control is widely considered the key mediating factor for outcomes related to one's ability to override, change, or interrupt undesired emotional and behavioral responses (Tangney et al., 2004). Investigations into self-control have demonstrated a robust association between low self-control and deviance (Vazsonyi et al., 2017) and maladaptive behaviors (i.e., substance misuse, recidivism, and failure to positively adapt) and high self-control and adaptive behaviors such as pro-social behaviors (Malouf et al., 2014). ...
... The Brief Self-Control Scale (Tangney et al., 2004) consists of 13 questions, about the degree to which participants are willing to control thoughts, emotions, and impulses to conform to the normal demands of life (e.g. 'I am good at resisting temptation'). ...
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Knowledge about one's innate health is central to a variety of positive mental health markers. However, men living in prison rarely receive education about how to access these internal resources. As such, this study seeks to replicate and extend emerging data on an innate health intervention. Volunteers from HMP Nottingham, England (n=126) participated in normal prison programming and the intervention group (n=65) received an additional 3-day intensive. The primary question: Does innate health function as a mediator in the same way self-control does within an incarcerated population? We conducted a mediation analysis, tested social desirability bias, and examined the impact of the intervention on crucial variables. This study found higher levels of innate health, self-control, wellbeing, and prosocial behavior and lower levels of aggression in the intervention group as compared to the control group. Importantly, innate health did play a mediating role equivalent to and/or partnering with self-control.
... "When I am very happy I tend to do things that may cause problems later in life." Resisting temptation, domain-specific control Self-Control Scale* (Tangney et al., 2004), Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (Stunkard & Messick, 1985) Assess the ability to exert self-discipline and control impulses, including the ability to control specific behaviors, such as impulsive eating or spending "I wish I had more self-discipline." "I am good at resisting temptation." ...
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The ability to control one’s thoughts and actions is broadly associated with health and success, so it is unsurprising that measuring self-control abilities is a common goal across many areas of psychology. Puzzlingly, however, different measures of control––questionnaire ratings and cognitive tasks––show only weak relationships to each other. We review evidence that this discrepancy is not just a result of poor reliability or validity of ratings or tasks. Rather, ratings and tasks seem to assess different aspects of control, distinguishable along six main dimensions. To improve the psychological science surrounding self-control, it will be important for future work to investigate the relative importance of these dimensions to the dissociations between self-control measures, and for researchers to explain which aspects of control they are studying and why they have focused on those aspects of control when one or both types of measures are deployed.
... Self-control levels of the cadets were measured using the Selfcontrol Scale (Tangney et al., 2004). This scale is revised and translated by Tao et al. (2021). ...
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The current study investigated the relationship between army morale and suicidal ideation in Chinese military cadets, including the mediating role of self-control and the moderating role of self-construal. A total of 1124 male navy cadets participated in the study, completing a series of questionnaires. The results revealed the following: (1) army morale could negatively predict suicidal ideation; (2) the negative predictive effect of army morale on suicidal ideation could be partially mediated by self-control; and (3) self-construal moderated the predictive effect of army morale on suicidal ideation among navy cadets. Finally, the current study suggested that building some relevant assessment, diagnostic, and training programs may help build army morale and further prevent suicidal ideation in the military context.
... But by grouping items sharing the highest amount of variance between scales, the constructs measured are more likely to measure a single trait that does not overlap with other constructs. From our dataset, we inserted items from the following variables into our exploratory factor analysis: Attachment Anxiety, Attachment Avoidance [59], Repetitive Thinking Mode [55], the Big Five factors Openness, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Neuroticism [49], Speciesism [50], Selfesteem [53], Self-control [54], Self-Reported Stress [58], Prejudice Toward North Africans [51], the UCLA Loneliness scale [60], Right Wing Authoritarianism [61], Social Dominance Orientation [52], DASS Depression, Anxiety, and Stress [56], and Well-being [57]. ...
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Among animals, natural selection has resulted in a broad array of behavioural strategies to maintain core body temperature in a relatively narrow range. One important temperature regulation strategy is social thermoregulation , which is often done by warming the body together with conspecifics. The literature suggests that the same selection pressures that apply to other animals also apply to humans, producing individual differences in the tendency to socially thermoregulate. We wanted to investigate whether differences in social thermoregulation desires extend to other personality factors in a sample of French students. We conducted an exploratory, hypothesis-generating cross-sectional project to examine associations between thermoregulation and personality. We used conditional random forests in a training segment of our dataset to identify clusters of variables most likely to be shaped by individual differences to thermoregulate. We used the resulting clusters to fit hypothesis-generating mediation models. After we replicated the relationships in two datasets, personality was not related to social thermoregulation desires, with the exception of attachment avoidance. Attachment avoidance in turn predicted loneliness. This mediation proved robust across all three datasets. As our cross-sectional studies allow limited causal inferences, we suggest investing into prospective studies to understand whether and how social thermoregulation shapes attachment avoidance early in life and loneliness later in life. We also recommend replication of the current relationships in other climates, countries and age groups.
... Ego depletion theory suggests that humans have limited resources for self-control [10,69]. Self-control is an individual's capacity to refrain, override, or inhibit behavior based on impulses and desires [98]. The negative effect of ego depletion on self-control is well established [29,34]. ...
Article
We aim to understand why employees take information technology (IT)-mediated shortcuts, that is, skipping one or several steps for completing tasks quicker by bending the rules. This is a specific and often detrimental form of noncompliant behavior. Adopting an ego-depletion perspective, we posit that IT complexity drives IT-mediated shortcuts by increasing employees’ ego-depletion. Extending this view, we use a modified Delphi study and build on self-regulatory and goal setting theories to point to key boundary conditions for these effects. First, in a preliminary study we found that taking IT-mediated shortcuts in our context is, on average, detrimental to employee performance. This highlighted the need to focus on IT-mediated shortcuts. Next, we tested our assertions with three experiments focusing on the use of dashboards with 584 data analysts. The results show that (1) dashboard complexity increases ego depletion, (2) ego depletion fully mediates the impact of dashboard complexity on taking IT-mediated shortcuts, (3) moral integrity moderates the influence of ego depletion on taking IT-mediated shortcuts, and (4) outcome compared to learning goals enhance the impact of ego depletion on IT-mediated shortcuts. In all studies, objectively measured IT-mediated shortcut-taking was negatively associated with objectively measured task performance. Ultimately, the integrated perspective explains whether, how, and under what conditions IT complexity drives IT-mediated shortcuts.
... Some approaches to trait self-regulation have long grappled with these questions. Statistically powerful investigations have established the predictive validity of scale measures of selfregulation (e.g., trait conscientiousness, grit, and trait self-control) across multiple domains, including health behavior, academic attainment, morbidity, and mortality [4][5][6][7][8][9][10] . While theoretical differences exist among these traits, they also show considerable conceptual overlap and correlate strongly with each other (rs > 0.7; refs. ...
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Self-regulation has been studied across levels of analysis; however, little attention has been paid to the extent to which self-report, neural, and behavioral indices predict goal pursuit in real-life. We use a mixed-method approach (N = 201) to triangulate evidence among established measures of different aspects of self-regulation to predict both the process of goal pursuit using experience sampling, as well as longer-term goal progress at 1, 3, and 6-month follow-ups. While self-reported trait self-control predicts goal attainment months later, we observe a null relationship between longitudinal goal attainment and ERPs associated with performance-monitoring and reactivity to positive/rewarding stimuli. Despite evidence that these ERPs are reliable and trait-like, and despite theorizing that suggests otherwise, our findings suggest that these ERPs are not meaningfully associated with everyday goal attainment. These findings challenge the ecological validity of brain measures thought to assess aspects of self-regulation. Self-regulation helps people to achieve their goals, and has been studied across modalities. Here, the authors present longitudinal evidence suggesting that common neural and behavioral measures of self-regulation derived from laboratory tasks do not predict everyday goal pursuit.
... The BSCS [24,25] consists of 13 Items. Responses are recorded on a five-point scale ranging from 1 = not at all like me to 5 = very much like me. ...
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Purpose Plate clearing—eating a meal in its entirety—is common and may be a factor contributing to obesity. For the assessment of individual differences in plate clearing tendencies, Robinson et al. (Obesity 23:301–304, 2015) developed the Plate Clearing Tendency Scale (PCTS). However, little is known about the psychometric properties of this scale and its correlates. Methods In the current study, participants (N = 207, 76% female) completed a German translation of the PCTS and other questionnaires online. Results A one-factor structure had good model fit and the PCTS had acceptable internal reliability and good test–retest reliability across an average of four and a half weeks. Higher plate clearing tendencies related to more frequent parental encouragement to clear one’s plate in childhood and to stronger food waste concerns but were unrelated to sex, body weight, self-control, and eating behaviors. However, higher plate clearing tendencies related to higher body weight in unsuccessful dieters. Conclusion The current study shows that the PCTS has sound psychometric properties and that plate clearing tendencies appear to be largely driven by food waste concerns and not by automatic eating habits or low eating-related self-control. In dieters, however, high plate clearing tendencies may contribute to low dieting success and hinder weight loss. Level of evidence No level of evidence, basic science.
... This can affect the quality of the results of the correlations of TFS with these dimensions.Two other scales were used to test external validity, BSCS and K-10. It was hypothesized that future focus would be related with the scores of BSCS because it assesses the global capacity of self-control which is conceptualized as the regulation of impulses to achieve long-term goals(Tangney et al., 2004). However, we found that current focus was the one related to BSCS. ...
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Temporal focus is the attention individuals devote to thinking about the past, present, and future. The goal of this study was to validate the Temporal Focus Scale for Argentina and analyze its psychometric properties. Two studies were carried out. Firstly, the factor structure, internal consistency, reliability, and external validity were tested (n=190). To assess external validity, the ZTPI, the self-control scale and the psychological distress scale K-10 were used. Among the main results, the parallel analysis suggested the structure of three factors that explained 72% of the total variance (KMO=.80; χ 2 (66)=1261.7; p<.001) and the semi-confirmatory factor analysis yielded measures proper setting (CFI=.97, RMSEA=.05). Reliability was tested using McDonald's omega and Cronbach's alpha coefficients (values from .81 to .89). The correlations showed that past focus is related to ZTPI negative past and K-10 (r=.58 and .46; p<.01); present focus with ZTPI fatalistic present, K-10 and self-control (r =-. 20,-.23 and .22; p<.01); and future focus with K-10 and ZTPI future (r = .21 and .22; p<.01). In the second study (n=660) a confirmatory factor analysis was performed with the three-factor structure, although there were problems with item 10. After removing item 10, the model with eleven items showed an acceptable fit (χ 2 /gl =4.27, CFI=.95, GFI=.95, NNFI=.94, RMSEA=.07). The internal consistency coefficients were higher than 0.76. In conclusion, this study provides an acceptable Argentinian version of the Temporal Focus Scale.
... Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS; Tangney et al., 2004) was used to measure self-control. The BSCS consists of 13 items (e.g., I am able to work effectively toward long-term goals). ...
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Internet addiction is a pervasive problem among adolescents today. Previous research identifies socialization processes, including parenting, as important for these behaviors. The current study tested the links between perceived maternal monitoring, support, communication, and conflict and Internet addiction among youth, and whether these relationships were mediated by adolescent self-control. It also tested whether these links were moderated by sex. Data were collected from 569 high school students in Turkey (54.1% female, Mage = 15.92, SD = 1.15). Path analyses were used to test study hypotheses. Findings showed that perceived monitoring, support, communication, and conflict were directly associated with self-control and also indirectly with Internet addiction, mediated by self-control. No direct effects were found for monitoring, support, or communication on Internet addiction. Moderation tests by sex found only one significant difference for monitoring. Findings provided evidence that perceived maternal parenting processes as well as adolescent self-control are important in understanding variability in adolescent Internet addiction among youth, albeit indirectly so for maternal parenting processes with the exception of conflict. Thus, improving both parenting, and particularly self-control, appear to be fruitful avenues for prevention and intervention work in addressing Internet addiction among youth.
... Participants completed the (German) short version of the Trait Self-Control Scale [56,57] ranging from 1 (not at all) to 5 (very much). The scale consists of 13 items, e.g., "I am good at resisting temptations." ...
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Drastic reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are necessary to successfully mitigate climate change. Individual environmental behavior is central to this change. Given that environmental behavior necessitates 1) effortful individual self-control and 2) cooperation by others, public policy may constitute an attractive instrument for regulating one’s own as well as others’ environmental behavior. Framing climate change mitigation as a cooperative self-control problem, we explore the incremental predictive power of self-control and beliefs surrounding others’ cooperation beyond established predictors of policy support in study 1 using machine-learning ( N = 610). In study 2, we systematically test and confirm the effects of self-control and beliefs surrounding others’ cooperation ( N = 270). Both studies showed that personal importance of climate change mitigation and perceived insufficiency of others’ environmental behavior predict policy support, while there was no strong evidence for a negative association between own-self control success and policy support. These results emerge beyond the effects of established predictors, such as environmental attitudes and beliefs, risk perception (study 1), and social norms (study 2). Results are discussed in terms of leveraging policy as a behavioral enactment constraint to control others’ but not own environmental behavior.
... Research has found that individuals who lack self-control are unable to repress or prevent impulsive behaviours therefore self-control is linked to deviant behaviour often leading to taking risky decisions [31]; [33]. Mead, Baumeister, Gino, Schweitzer, and Ariely [34] found that respondents who did a task requiring energy which lead to depletion of self-control were more inclined to cheat if given the opportunity. ...
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This research paper examines the effect of sleep deprivation on workplace deviance through self-regulatory mechanism. The self-regulatory mechanism includes state hostility and self-control. Sleep deprivation decreases individual's self-control while increasing state hostility leads to increased workplace deviance. The sample has been taken from medical residents from 6 hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Findings suggest that self-control does not mediate the relation between sleep deprivation and workplace deviance but state hostility fully mediates the relationship between sleep deprivation and workplace deviance.
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This article aims to extend our understanding of the link between socioeconomic conditions and psychological variables. It focuses on the effects of five distinct socioeconomic indicators on a range of psychological variables in samples of 162 individuals living below the poverty line and 188 of their more well‐off counterparts in Russia. Participants completed a questionnaire containing measures of socioeconomic indicators (i.e., income, education, perceived deprivation, subjective socioeconomic status, and childhood socioeconomic status) and psychological variables representing self‐regulation, motivation, and well‐being. Our main findings include: (a) significant effects of socioeconomic status on all psychological variables, which are in line with other studies seeking to answer similar questions, (b) varying importance of different socioeconomic indicators for different psychological variables, and (c) centrality of all socioeconomic indicators except childhood socioeconomic status, and of values of openness to change and self‐transcendence, satisfaction with life and self‐esteem in the network of relationships between socioeconomic indicators and psychological variables.
Article
Problematic smartphone use (PSU) has become an increasingly serious social issue that gradually impairs adolescents' daily social functioning. This study aimed to examine the potential contribution of harsh parenting (HP) to PSU by testing a two-mediator model in which meaning in life (MIL) and self-control (SC) were hypothesized to be two mediators. The moderating role of gender was also examined. Eight hundred and twenty-eight middle school students from rural areas in China (mean age = 13.04) reported on harsh parenting, MIL, self-control, and PSU. Both parents also reported on each other's harsh parenting and their child's self-control. Multi-group structural equation modeling analyses revealed gender differences in the association patterns among the model variables. Harsh parenting was only indirectly associated with PSU for both boys and girls. MIL and self-control completely mediated the relation between harsh parenting and PSU in sequential manners for boys and girls. And for boys, beyond the common path from harsh parenting to PSU, another indirect path existed from harsh parenting to self-control to PSU. But jointly, MIL and self-control precipitate more indirect effects for girls than for boys in the association between harsh parenting and PSU. Findings suggested that harsh parenting was detrimental to adolescents' MIL and self-control, which enhances their risk for PSU, especially for girls. These findings provide more insights for efforts to prevent adolescents from PSU.
Article
The study examined the mediating role of adolescents’ self-control on the relationship between parenting styles and problem behaviors. A parenting style questionnaire, adolescents’ self-control questionnaire, and the Youth Self-Report were administered to 611 adolescents (335 boys, and 276 girls, M age = 13.17, SD = 0.46) to assess their parenting styles, self-control, and problem behaviors. The results indicated that paternal rejection was positively associated with externalizing problems and maternal rejection was positively associated with internalizing problems. Moreover, adolescents’ self-control played a mediating role in the relationship between paternal rejection and externalizing problems and between paternal rejection and internalizing problems. The findings showed that paternal and maternal rearing styles have different influences on adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems, respectively, and adolescents’ self-control played a mediating role in these different relationships. This study has great significance for revealing the mechanism of parenting styles on adolescents’ problem behaviors.
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Purpose Considering the crucial role which academic adjustment plays in student success at university, gaining insight into how several factors affect this key metric is important. This empirical study investigated the impact of value conflict upon the academic adjustment of first-year students at Kuwait University. Design/methodology/approach The data for this study were collected using the survey method from a random sample of 627 first-year university students. The data were analyzed using descriptive and regression statistical methods. Findings The findings showed that (1) student perceptions regarding the level of value conflict were moderate, with the highest level found in the political domain; (2) student perceptions about the level of academic adjustment were also moderate, with the highest level found in the goal domain; (3) value conflicts are a significant predictor of student academic adjustment, with political value conflicts influencing academic adjustment the most, and (4) value conflict explained 46.5% of the student academic adjustment variation. Practical implications These findings imply that college administrations should integrate activities designed to improve student adjustment into co-curricular activities meant for youth development. Relevant recommendations are included. Originality/value While significant attention has been given to student academic adjustment in higher education over the last few decades, little attention has been paid to how different factors predict adjustment especially in non-Western cultures such as higher education in Kuwait.
Article
Grace “an act of showing kindness, generosity, or mercy to someone who is undeserving and potentially incapable of returning the kindness shown,” (Bufford et al., 2017, p. 2) is an underexplored construct in the psychology of religion/spirituality (R/S). A new measure of grace, the Perceptions and Experiences of Grace Scale (PEGS), was developed across three studies (N = 1,244) that explored its psychometric properties in a series of online assessments. Exploratory factor analysis identified a six-factor solution that comprised unique factors of grace: God’s Grace, Grace to Self, Grace Received from Works, Unconditional Grace to Others, Conditional Grace to Others, and Conditional Grace from Parents. This model was subsequently supported by confirmatory factor analysis. Based on an emerging pattern of unconditional and conditional perceptions of grace, a second-order CFA was estimated to measure Unconditional Grace and Conditional Grace. This model fit the data well. The PEGS was assessed for test–retest reliability over a period of three to 5 months and construct validation methods produced significant paths between factors of the PEGS and specifically targeted constructs of religion, spirituality, worldview, positive psychology, health and well-being, and social desirability. The PEGS represents a psychometrically acceptable, multifactorial assessment of grace. Results of test–retest reliability raise the possibility that Grace Received from Works and Conditional Grace to Others represent state-based constructs. The PEGS is a new, multidimensional measure of grace that was developed and tested among people of diverse R/S beliefs and is applicable for R/S, relational, health, and well-being research.
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There are massive literatures on initial attraction and established relationships. But few studies capture early relationship development: the interstitial period in which people experience rising and falling romantic interest for partners who could—but often do not—become sexual or dating partners. In this study, 208 single participants reported on 1,065 potential romantic partners across 7,179 data points over 7 months. In stage 1, we used random forests (a type of machine learning) to estimate how well different classes of variables (e.g., individual differences vs. target-specific constructs) predicted participants’ romantic interest in these potential partners. We also tested (and found only modest support for) the perceiver × target moderation account of compatibility: the meta-theoretical perspective that some types of perceivers experience greater romantic interest for some types of targets. In stage 2, we used multilevel modeling to depict predictors retained by the random-forests models; robust (positive) main effects emerged for many variables, including sociosexuality, sex drive, perceptions of the partner’s positive attributes (e.g., attractive and exciting), attachment features (e.g., proximity seeking), and perceived interest. Finally, we found no support for ideal partner preference-matching effects on romantic interest. The discussion highlights the need for new models to explain the origin of romantic compatibility.
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Background: Psychopathy and low self-control are useful constructs for understanding antisociality/criminality. The triarchic model of psychopathy in particular is a recent and promising conceptualisation, composed of boldness, disinhibition, and meanness - three personality traits that have never been studied in tandem with low self-control. Aims: To test relationships between the triarchic personality traits of boldness, disinhibition and meanness and low self-control with delinquent or antisocial acts. Methods: In a cross-sectional, self-report study a schools' cohort of 14- to 18-year-olds (Mean 15.91 years, SD = 0.99 years) was recruited from regions in South Portugal and Lisbon, representative of the general population of this age in sex distribution and education. After parental consent, teenage volunteers in small groups completed psychopathy and self-control self-rating scales and then a questionnaire about their criminal or delinquent activities, all on one single occasion and in confidence from school staff or parents. Path analysis was used to test relationships. Results: 567 young people, 256 (45%) of them girls, completed all ratings, 89% of those invited to do so. Low self-control had the strongest relationship with antisocial/criminal acts, followed by the disinhibition or meanness traits of the triarchic psychopathy construct. The boldness trait of the triarchic psychopathy construct had the weakest relationship. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the most effective targets for intervention to prevent or limit antisocial behaviours by young people are likely to be self-control and disinhibition. Behavioural interventions that improve social skills and verbal problem-solving that encourage listening and waiting in response to environmental stimuli are likely to effect reduction of impulsive and aggressive reactions to others and so reduce conduct problems. Since disinhibition and self-control are such overlapping constructs, improvements in one area will generally facilitate improvements in the other area.
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Metamotivation research suggests that people understand the benefits of engaging in high-level versus low-level construal (i.e., orienting toward the abstract, essential versus concrete, idiosyncratic features of events) in goal-directed behavior. The current research examines the psychometric properties of one assessment of this knowledge and tests whether it predicts consequential outcomes (academic performance). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a two-factor structure, whereby knowledge of the benefits of high-level construal (i.e., high-level knowledge) and low-level construal (i.e., low-level knowledge) were distinct constructs. Participants on average evidenced beliefs about the normative benefits of high-level and low-level knowledge that accord with published research. Critically, individual differences in high-level and low-level knowledge independently predicted grades, controlling for traditional correlates of grades. These findings suggest metamotivational knowledge may be a key antecedent to goal success and lead to novel diagnostic assessments and interventions.
Article
The way people perceive contact with nature may impact their environmental attitudes and psychological well-being (WB). Nature relatedness (NR) refers to the affective, cognitive, and experiential aspects of individuals’ connection to nature. The aim of the presented research concentrates on the assessment of the relationship between well-being, self-control and connectedness with the natural environment. The data was collected via online questionnaire between March and April 2022. In the study, we combined descriptive statistics with analysis of variance. We also quantitatively assessed correlations between major components of NR scale and psychological WB across men’ and women’ inquires. The results showed that there is a statistically significant relationship between the general index of NR and overall psychological WB. Furthermore, correlation between specific aspects of NR and WB subscales were also observed. These interactions are considerable among both men and women. We have also identified a major correlation between NR and self-control, which indicates the link between the way a person approaches oneself and natural environment. Finally, the analysis provides evidence that women are on average more related to nature, although the men may benefit more from this kind of relationship. Further gender differences could be observed in terms of nature-relatedness perspective component, general self-control, score and overall NR score These relationships are highly vital among men while irrelevant among women.
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Self-regulation is a process that may affect the degree of peer rejection but may also be determined by the degree of peer rejection, whereby the degree of acceptance/rejection can influence the processes that lead to the strengthening or weakening of self-regulation. In this study, we concentrate on self-regulatory mechanisms (self-regulated behavior and strategies for emotional regulation) in peer-rejected students compared to non-rejected students. With the aid of structural equation modeling, we identified models of self-regulation mechanisms in three groups of students according to their acceptance/rejection. These groups differ in the degree of peer rejection, the structure of the regulation of emotional relations, and the degree of self-regulation behavior. The results suggest that peer-rejected students do not form a monolithic group from the perspective of self-regulation mechanisms, as it is possible to identify diverse structures of relations between the self-regulation mechanisms that probably depend, inter alia, on the degree of peer rejection.
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A pandemia da Covid-19 veio alterar o mundo de um modo imprevisto e inédito em tempos recentes. Para além das óbvias consequências na saúde pública, a pandemia é responsável por um choque sem precedentes na economia global, causando a maior recessão da história da União Europeia (Verwey & Monks, 2021). A rápida propagação do vírus e a sua elevada letalidade obrigaram os governos a adotar fortes medidas restritivas, muitas das quais limitam os princípios democráticos fundamentais (Guasti, 2020). Em consequência, os decisores políticos foram confrontados com o dilema de ponderar os objetivos de saúde pública e as normas democráticas, direitos e liberdades, sendo este trade-off jogado sobretudo a dois níveis: primeiro, a necessidade de reação rápida criou fortes incentivos para concentrar o poder nos executivos nacionais e assim enfraquecer outras instituições políticas, reduzindo os mecanismos de responsabilização horizontais (executive aggrandizement) (Petrov, 2020). Segundo, as medidas para controlar e mitigar a propagação do surto pandémico, ao implicarem o distanciamento físico e social, obrigaram também restringir direitos e liberdades fundamentais, tais como a liberdade de movimento ou de reunião, sendo questionável por muitos a legitimidade de tais medidas (Edgell et al., 2021). O presente relatório analisa a importância que a pandemia desencadeada em 2020 terá tido em várias dimensões do sistema político português, em especial na atuação dos partidos políticos e nas atitudes e opiniões políticas dos portugueses. Foram considerados sete tópicos de estudo, que correspondem a linhas de pesquisa em relação às quais a pandemia poderá ter promovido mudanças de relevo, a saber: o apoio ao regime democrático, o processo de tomada de decisão política, o eurocepticismo, a retórica populista, a polarização política e ideológica, assim como a desigualdade política.
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The past two decades have seen major developments in the study of behavioral (dis)honesty and its measurement as well as a surge of interest in the location of trait honesty within models of basic personality structure and the role of personality traits in behavioral dishonesty more generally. The present review provides an overview of the corresponding literature with a particular emphasis on recent developments and identifies the research questions for which we now have relatively reliable knowledge as well as those that will require future research.
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Abstract Purpose-The intent of this study is to aggregate, in a measurable form, the results of previous studies on the association between personal financial management behavior (PFMB) and six psychological factors, which are financial attitude, financial self-efficacy, self-control, materialism, internal locus of control, and external locus of control. Design/methodology/approach-A stack of 32 research documents that investigated 52 relationships between various psychological variables and PFMB was analysed using the meta-analysis technique. Along with the overall meta-analysis, a comprehensive subgroup analysis was also undertaken counselled to determine whether the results contrast on account of the age group of the sample and the economy of the country to which the sample belongs. Findings-The overall meta-analysis findings do not support the association between PFMB and the various explanatory variables except for the significant positive association with self-control. In contrast, a subgroup study revealed that self-control (positively) and materialism (negatively) were found to be significantly associated with PFMB among adults. The association between internal Locus of Control (LOC) and PFMB is significant and positive among the young. Interestingly, self-control appeared to be significantly and positively associated with PFMB in developed countries. In developing countries, financial attitude, financial self-efficacy, and internal LOC are significantly and positively associated with PFMB. Originality/value-Distinct from other review papers, this meta-analysis quantitatively cumulates and reconciles the conflicting findings on the linkage between psychological predictors and PFMB. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis on the topic.
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Effects associated with observed incivility are often neglected, especially in hospitality industries. The current research, drawing upon social identity theory, proposes that observed leader incivility and the relative relationship between observers and the supervisor (LMXSC) may jointly influence observers’ social categorization process. When observers hold higher rather than lower levels of LMXSC, they tend to define the victim of leader incivility as an organizational outsider, which would be a mediator in the interactive effect on deviant behavior toward the victim. In addition, observers’ trait self-control would be an important moderator in weakening the relationship between perceived outsider status of the target and deviant behavior. By using an experimental study with a two-factor between-subject design and a two-wave field investigation, results supported all our hypotheses. In addition, a three-way interactive effects were reported. Our findings propose a new perspective to explain how, why, and when hospitality observers react to leader incivility.
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Medical diagnoses offer a structure by which psychological uncertainty can be attenuated, allowing patients to diminish imposing psychological threats and focus on health prognosis. Yet when no diagnosis can be made, patients may experience diagnostic uncertainty - their perceptions that the medical field is unable to provide an accurate explanation of the cause of their health problems. The present paper examines the psychological threat that diagnostic uncertainty imposes on the individual's need for control and understanding, and the resulting consequences experienced by patients, parents of pediatric patients, and physicians when the lack of diagnosis makes their worlds seem random. Using compensatory control theory (CCT) (Kay et al., 2008) as a framework, we propose a taxonomy of behaviors that people may adopt in order to regain control in the face of diagnostic uncertainty and to reaffirm that the world is not random and chaotic. To manage diagnostic uncertainty, these individuals may bolster their personal agency, affiliate with external systems that they see as acting in their interest, affirm clear connections between behaviors and outcomes, and affirm nonspecific epistemic structure. Diagnostic uncertainty is approached from the perspectives of patients, parents of pediatric patients, and physicians, demonstrating how each group responds in order to maintain a sense that the world has structure and is not random. Discussion centers on moderators, limitations, and implications for clinical practice.
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Although numerous researches have shown that self-control is a significant promoter of prosocial behavior, the mechanism behind this relationship is still unclear. According to the organism–environment interaction model and self-control model, this study researched whether life satisfaction played a mediating role between self-control and adolescents’ prosocial behavior and if friendship quality played a moderating role between self-control and prosocial behavior. This study used a longitudinal tracking research (T1&T2; and the interval between T1&T2 is 6 months). A total of 1182 Chinese middle school students participated the survey. They were between 12 and 15 years old (average age: 14.16 years old, SD = 1.29). Results indicated that life satisfaction played a mediating role between self-control and adolescents’ prosocial behavior. Furthermore, this direct relationship in the link between self-control and prosocial behavior was significant when adolescents had a good-quality friendship. These results highlight that life satisfaction plays an important role in the relationship between self-control and prosocial behavior. The present study further determined that a high-quality friendship was an important factor that amplified this direct effect.
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To capture the attention of a romantic partner requires thoughtful selection of effective pursuit strategies. Sometimes, these strategies err on the side of caution; in other instances, pursuers can take a bolder approach to their courtship endeavors. In the present research, we developed a measure capturing the degree to which a romantic pursuer intends to take a presumptuous course of action. Across five studies (Ntotal = 2,137), we validated a 13-item self-report measure: the presumptuous romantic intentions (PRI) scale. First, we used a training set to refine item content and explore factor structures. Then, using a validation set, we confirmed a bifactor solution with one general and three auxiliary factors. We then observed test-retest reliability over periods of 3 and 4 weeks, found strict measurement invariance across both relationship status (single and partnered individuals) and across gender (women and men). We also found that PRI predicted actual presumptuous romantic behavior over the subsequent month. Finally, we established a pattern of convergent and discriminant associations with relationship measures, socioemotional outcomes, executive function, dark personality traits and more. This new measure may be of interest to researchers studying intimate relationships, partner violence, and the gray area in between. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
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Bu araştırmada bilişötesi farkındalık ile derin ve yüzeysel öğrenme arasındaki ilişkide öz kontrol-öz yönetimin aracı rolü incelenmiştir. Araştırmaya 266 eğitim fakültesi öğrencisi katılmıştır. Veriler Bilişötesi Farkındalık Ölçeği, Özkontrol-Özyönetim Ölçeği ve Öğrenme Yaklaşımları Ölçeği ile toplanmıştır. Bilişötesi farkındalık ile öğrenme yaklaşımları arasındaki ilişkide öz kontrol-öz yönetimin aracı rolü yapısal eşitlik modellemesiyle incelenmiş, bilişötesi farkındalığın derin öğrenme yaklaşımını olumlu, yüzeysel öğrenme yaklaşımını ise olumsuz yönde yordadığı, öz kontrol-öz yönetimin bu ilişkide aracı rolü oynadığı tespit edilmiştir. Araştırma, bilişötesi farkındalık ile öğrenme yaklaşımları arasındaki ilişkinin anlaşılmasına katkı sunmuş ve bu süreçte öz kontrol-öz yönetim becerisinin geliştirilmesinin önemini ortaya koymuştur.
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Rationale Mobile technology has been widely utilized as an effective healthcare tool during the COVID-19 pandemic. Notably, over 50 countries have released contact-tracing apps to trace and contain infection chains. While earlier studies have examined obstacles to app uptake and usage, whether and how this uptake affects users’ behavioral patterns is not well understood. This is crucial because uptake can theoretically increase or decrease behavior that carries infection risks. Objective The goal of this study is to evaluate the impact of app uptake on the time spent out of home in Japan. It tests four potential underlying mechanisms that drive the uptake effect: compliance with stay-at-home requirements, learning about infection risk, reminders, and commitment device. Method We use unique nationwide survey data collected from 4,379 individuals aged between 20 and 69 in December 2020 and February 2021 in Japan. Japan has features suitable for this exercise. The Japanese government released a contact tracing app in June 2020, which sends a warning message to users who have been in close contact with an infected person. We conduct a difference-in-differences estimation strategy combined with the entropy balancing method. Results App uptake reduces the time spent out of home. Sensitivity analysis shows that it cannot be explained by unobserved confounders. Importantly, the impact is large even among users who have not received a warning message from the app, and even larger for those with poor self-control ability. Furthermore, individuals’ self-control ability is negatively associated with the uptake decision, supporting our hypothesis that the apps serve as a commitment device. Conclusions It may be beneficial to encourage citizens to uptake contact tracing apps and other forms of commitment devices. This study also contributes to the literature on mobile health (mHealth) by demonstrating its efficacy as a commitment device.
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The need to feel in control is central to anorexia nervosa (AN). The sense of control in AN has only been studied through self-report. This study investigated whether implicit sense of control (sense of agency; SoA) differs across AN patients, recovered AN (RAN) patients and healthy controls (HC). Furthermore, we assessed whether state anxiety is influenced by negative emotional states. SoA was measured with the intentional binding task (IB) and state-anxiety levels through a questionnaire. We did not find any evidence of differences in SoA between groups. Furthermore, state anxiety was not a significant predictor of SoA. Further research into SoA in AN should focus on other features of the SoA that are not targeted by the IB task.
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Drawing on the limited-strength model of self-regulation, we investigate how exploitative leadership can affect employees' service sabotage behavior. The findings from a sample of 264 supervisor–subordinate dyads indicate that exploitative leadership is indirectly related to employees' service sabotage through the experience of resource depletion. We also find that employees' neuroticism intensifies the direct effect of exploitative leadership on employees' depletion and the indirect effect of exploitative leadership on service sabotage through resource depletion. We also provide implications for theory and practice.
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This study investigates the complex mechanism of work-family conflict affecting counterproductive behavior of employees based on resource conservation theory and 417 valid samples by using polynomial regression and response surface analysis. Counterproductive work behavior refers to any intentional behavior of an individual that has potential harm to the legitimate interests of the organization or its stakeholders. Results show that first, work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC) had four matching types. Compared with "high WFC-low FWC," "low WFC-high FWC" and "low WFC-low FWC" matching conditions, the employee self-control resource depletion and counterproductive work behavior (CWB) are at their highest under "high WFC-high FWC" congruence matching condition. Second, the joint effect of WFC and FWC has a U-shaped relationship with counterproductive behavior. Compared with the "high WFC-low FWC" match state, the level of CWB in the "low WFC-high FWC" match state is higher. Third, the depletion of self-control resources played a mediating role in the effect of WFC on counterproductive behavior. Fourth, emotional intelligence moderated the relationship between the congruence of WFC and FWC and self-control resource depletion. Emotional intelligence was higher, and the positive relationship between the congruence of WFC and FWC and self-control resource depletion was weaker.
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Knowledge hiding has detrimental consequences for organizations. Hence, understanding the antecedents and boundary conditions of knowledge hiding is critical. With our diary study on daily incivility as a situational predictor and the individual difference variables of entitlement and trait self-control as person-related moderators, we attempt to contribute to this understanding. We tested our hypotheses using multilevel path modelling based on data of 75 employees who answered daily surveys on a total of 501 workdays. As hypothesized, incivility was positively related to the deceptive knowledge hiding behaviours of playing dumb and evasive hiding on the between-person level. Incivility was also positively related to supposedly non-deceptive rationalized hiding on the between-person level. On the day level, incivility was not related to knowledge hiding behaviours per se. Rather, day-specific incivility was positively related to playing dumb for employees high on trait entitlement and low on trait self-control. Entitlement and self-control did not moderate the day-level relationship of incivility with evasive hiding nor rationalized hiding. Altogether, our study yields important implications in providing input to theoretical models on knowledge hiding and being valuable for organizations wanting to prevent its occurrence.
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This study experimentally examines the impact of time constraints on the disposition effect, which refers to the empirical fact that investors have a higher propensity to sell stocks with capital gains compared to stocks with capital losses. We recruit 270 student participants and implement three treatments: no time constraint (NTC), 20-s time constraint (20TC), and 10-s time constraint (10TC). We find that the 10TC treatment, where student participants perceive higher levels of time pressure than the NTC treatment, significantly reduces the disposition effect, whereas the 20TC treatment, in which feelings of time pressure do not differ from the NTC treatment, does not affect the disposition effect. Self-control is a potential explanation for the treatment effect. The replication experiment with 166 financial professionals not only indicates our results’ external validity but also shows the robustness of our results to the high time pressure (i.e., 5-s time constraint).
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The development and validation of a new measure, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) is described. The EDI is a 64 item, self-report, multiscale measure designed for the assessment of psychological and behavioral traits common in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia. The EDI consists of eight sub-scales measuring: 1) Drive for Thinness, 2) Bulimia, 3) Body Dissatisfaction, 4) Ineffectiveness, 5) Perfectionism, 6) Interpersonal Distrust, 7) Interoceptive Awareness and 8) Maturity Fears. Reliability (internal consistency) is established for all subscales and several indices of validity are presented. First, AN patients (N = 113) are differentiated from female comparison (FC) subjects (N = 577) using a cross-validation procedure. Secondly, patient self-report subscale scores agree with clinician ratings of subscale traits. Thirdly, clinically recovered AN patients score similarly to FCs on all subscales. Finally, convergent and discriminate validity are established for subscales. The EDI was also administered to groups of normal weight bulimic women, obese, and normal weight but formerly obese women, as well as a male comparison group. Group differences are reported and the potential utility of the EDI is discussed.
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Data from a longitudinal study of a large sample of boys followed from kindergarten to high school were used to test two alternative hypotheses concerning the association between delinquency and accidents. The first hypothesis proposes that delinquency and accidents are correlated because they are both the product of a failure to learn self-control during childhood. The alternative hypothesis proposes that self-control during childhood will explain part of the association between delinquency and accidents during adolescence, but delinquency will still increase the risk for accidents. Linear structural equation modelling was used to test the alternative hypotheses with data collected from teachers, mothers and self-reports, at 6, 10, 14 and 15 years of age. Results supported the hypothesis that childhood self-control levels only explain part of the association between driving accidents and delinquency during early adolescence, and delinquency increases the risk of accidents. Results also indicated that the association between delinquency and accidents increased with age, suggesting that the risk of accidents during adolescence increases as involvement in delinquency increases. Details of a case of delinquent behaviour which led to a fatal car accident are given. It was also suggested that longitudinal studies of the association between self-control and antisocial behaviour should focus on their early development during the preschool years.
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This article assesses empirically whether Gottfredson and Hirschi's “general theory” can account for the “gender gap” in crime and, when rival theories are included in the analysis, can explain criminal behavior for both males and females. Based on a sample of 555 adults, the results indicate that the relationship of gender to crime becomes nonsignificant when self-control is introduced into the analysis. Further, when males and females are analyzed separately, self-control is related, albeit differently, to males' and females' criminal involvement. These results suggest that Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory should be incorporated into future empirical assessments of gender and crime.
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Procrastination is variously described as harmful, innocuous, or even beneficial. Two longitudinal studies examined procrastination among students. Procrastinators reported lower stress and less illness than nonprocrastinators early in the semester, but they reported higher stress and more illness late in the term, and overall they were sicker. Procrastinators also received lower grades on all assignments. Procrastination thus appears to be a self-defeating behavior pattern marked by short-term benefits and long-term costs.
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This study uses academic dishonesty as a unique type of fraudulent behavior upon which to test Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory of crime. The study utilizes self‐report data from a survey of undergraduate students enrolled in sociology courses at a large southwestern university. With these data, the authors examine a number of the core theoretical propositions of Gottfredson and Hirschi's theory. That is, we test issues concerning the dimensionality of low self‐control, the influence of parenting on the development of self‐control, the association between levels of self‐control and involvement in academic dishonesty, and the interactive effects of low self‐control and opportunity on the frequency of academic dishonesty. The results of our analyses, although rather mixed, do provide qualified support for the theory.
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review the theoretical literature, showing that many psychologists have failed to distinguish between shame and guilt when discussing the role of these emotions in psychological disorders / focus on depression . . . to argue that proneness to shame—not guilt—is a potent and potentially maladaptive affective style with negative implications for psychological adjustment / review the relevant empirical literature to demonstrate that when shame and guilt are measured in a theoretically appropriate manner, shame-proneness is associated with depression and other psychological symptoms, whereas a tendency to experience "shamefree" guilt is essentially unrelated to maladjustment / highlight results from a recent study considering 2 different methods for assessing a dispositional tendency toward shame and guilt / speculate about the nature of "pathological" guilt . . . suggesting that guilt experiences become maladaptive largely when they become fused with shame (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Using student interviews, teacher ratings, and achievement test outcomes, we validated a strategy model of student self-regulated learning as a theoretical construct. Forty-four male and 36 female high school students were asked to describe their use of 14 self-regulated learning strategies in six contexts, and their teachers rated these students for their self-regulated learning during class. Factor analyses of the teachers' ratings along with students' scores on a standardized test of mathematics and English revealed a single self-regulated learning factor that accounted for nearly 80% of the explained variance and two smaller factors that were labeled Student Verbal Expressiveness and Achievement. Students' reports of using self-regulated learning strategies during a structured interview correlated .70 with the obtained teachers' rating factor and were negatively related to the Student Verbal Expressiveness and Achievement factors. Our results indicate both convergent and discriminative validity for a self-regulated learning construct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The development and validation of a new measure, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) is described. The EDI is a 64 item, self-report, multiscale measure designed for the assessment of psychological and behavioral traits common in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia. The EDI consists of eight subscales measuring: Drive for Thinness, Bilimia, Body Dissatisfaction, Ineffectiveness, Perfectionism, Interpersonal Distrust, Interoceptive Awareness and Maturity Fears. Reliability (internal consistency) is established for all subscales and several indices of validity are presented. First, AN patients (N=113) are differentiated from femal comparison (FC) subjects (N=577) using a cross-validation procedure. Secondly, patient self-report subscale scores agree with clinician ratings of subscale traits. Thirdly, clinically recovered AN patients score similarly to FCs on all subscales. Finally, convergent and discriminant validity are established for subscales. The EDI was also administered to groups of normal weight bulimic women, obese, and normal weight but formerly obese women, as well as a male comparison group. Group differences are reported and the potential utility of the EDI is discussed.
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This article explores the possibility that romantic love is an attachment process--a biosocial process by which affectional bonds are formed between adult lovers, just as affectional bonds are formed earlier in life between human infants and their parents. Key components of attachment theory, developed by Bowlby, Ainsworth, and others to explain the development of affectional bonds in infancy, were translated into terms appropriate to adult romantic love. The translation centered on the three major styles of attachment in infancy--secure, avoidant, and anxious/ambivalent--and on the notion that continuity of relationship style is due in part to mental models (Bowlby's "inner working models") of self and social life. These models, and hence a person's attachment style, are seen as determined in part by childhood relationships with parents. Two questionnaire studies indicated that relative prevalence of the three attachment styles is roughly the same in adulthood as in infancy, the three kinds of adults differ predictably in the way they experience romantic love, and attachment style is related in theoretically meaningful ways to mental models of self and social relationships and to relationship experiences with parents. Implications for theories of romantic love are discussed, as are measurement problems and other issues related to future tests of the attachment perspective.
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Both guilt and empathic perspective taking have been linked to prosocial, relationship-enhancing effects. Study 1 found that shame was linked to personal distress, whereas guilt was linked to perspective taking. In Studies 2 and 3, subjects were asked to describe a recent experience of interpersonal conflict, once from their own perspective, and once from the perspective of the other person. Guilt-prone people and guilt-dominated stories were linked to better perspective taking (measured by changes between the two versions of the story) than others. Shame had no effect. Guilt improved relationship outcomes but shame harmed them. Path analysis suggested that trait guilt-proneness leads to perspective taking, which leads to actual guilt feelings, which produces beneficial relationship outcomes. Guilt feelings may mediate the relationship-enhancing effects of empathy.
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This article proposes that binge eating is motivated by a desire to escape from self-awareness. Binge eaters suffer from high standards and expectations, especially an acute sensitivity to the difficult (perceived) demands of others. When they fall short of these standards, they develop an aversive pattern of high self-awareness, characterized by unflattering views of self and concern over how they are perceived by others. These aversive self-perceptions are accompanied by emotional distress, which often includes anxiety and depression. To escape from this unpleasant state, binge eaters attempt the cognitive response of narrowing attention to the immediate stimulus environment and avoiding broadly meaningful thought. This narrowing of attention disengages normal inhibitions against eating and fosters an uncritical acceptance of irrational beliefs and thoughts. The escape model is capable of integrating much of the available evidence about binge eating.
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Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale is a widely used measure of global self-esteem; however, the unidimensional nature of the scale has been questioned. A unidimensional confirmatory factor analytic model was tested and found consistent to the data.
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In this study, we sought preliminary information about the relationships among measures of self-efficacy, self-regulation, collaborative learning behavior, and grades. The collaborative verbal behavior of 20 students in a computer course was observed. Also, students responded to a questionnaire to assess their academic self-efficacy. A teacher rated each student's self-regulated learning behaviors. The measures were taken at various points throughout the school year, and the data were analyzed using path analysis. Although students scoring higher on self-regulation tended to score higher also on the measures of collaborative verbal behavior than did those who scored lower on self-regulation, scores on self-regulation rather than on verbal engagement were correlated with grades. The findings were discussed in the light of social cognitive theory and recommendations were made for further study.
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Claims that attributions and their related behaviors may reflect a type of perceived control that is generally overlooked. People attempt to gain control by bringing the environment into line with their wishes (primary control) and by bringing themselves into line with environmental forces (secondary control). Four manifestations of secondary control are considered: (a) Attributions to severely limited ability can serve to enhance predictive control and protect against disappointment; (b) attributions to chance can reflect illusory control, since people often construe chance as a personal characteristic akin to an ability ("luck"); (c) attributions to powerful others permit vicarious control when the individual identifies with these others; and (d) the preceding attributions may foster interpretive control, in which the individual seeks to understand and derive meaning from otherwise uncontrollable events in order to accept them. (5½ p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Research on the link between the self and emotional distress has produced many measures that have unknown conceptual and empirical interrelations. The authors identified two classes of self-related variables shown previously to be important predictors of emotional distress. The first class, termed self-regulatory vari- ables, included ego-resiliency, ego-control, ego-strength, and har- diness. The second class, termed self-structure variables, included self-complexity, self-discrepancy, self-consistency, self- attitude ambivalence, and role conflict. Using a two-step struc- tural equation modeling (SEM) strategy, the authors examined first the factor structure of this set of measures. Second, they determined that Elasticity and Permeability (two self-regulatory factors) accounted for unique variance in the prediction of per- ceived emotional distress (Agitation and Dejection), whereas Self-Discrepancy and Self-Complexity (two self-structure factors) did not.
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The general theory of crime (Gottfredson and Hirschi 1990) proposes that self-control is the primary individual-level cause of crime and that its effect is contingent on criminal opportunity. This study conducted a prospective test of self-control and opportunity as predictors of property crime and personal crime among drug-using offenders. Each predictor had a main effect; property crimes and personal crimes were more frequent among offenders lower on self-control and those with higher opportunity. A significant interaction between these predictors was also detected. About four percent of the variance in each type of crime was explained by these predictors. Results support the proposition that self-control is a causal factor in criminal behavior and suggest that its effect is partially contingent on opportunity, but self-control and opportunity, as measured here, had very modest explanatory power.
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• In the last half-generation or so there has been increased emphasis on an understanding of personality functioning. It is asked what, if anything, is known or agreed to in this field. Is there a typical mother of schizophrenics, for example? In all the talk about the "creative personality" or the "authoritarian personality" just what is meant by these terms? What really is "hysteria"? Doctor Jack Block's monograph introduces the California Q-set—a method for describing comprehensively in contemporary psychodynamic terms an individual's personality. This method for encoding personality evaluation will prove highly useful in research applications by psychiatrists, psychologists, and sociologists, for it permits quantitative comparisons and calibrations of their evaluations of patients. He compares the Q-sort procedure with conventional rating methods and adjective check lists. He considers in detail the various forms of application of Q-sort procedure and appropriate statistical procedures to employ for these applications. Included in the Appendices are conversion tables for calculation of Q-sort correlations, California Q-set descriptions of various clinical concepts to be employed for calibration purposes, and an adjective Q-set for use by non-professional sorters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved) • In the last half-generation or so there has been increased emphasis on an understanding of personality functioning. It is asked what, if anything, is known or agreed to in this field. Is there a typical mother of schizophrenics, for example? In all the talk about the "creative personality" or the "authoritarian personality" just what is meant by these terms? What really is "hysteria"? Doctor Jack Block's monograph introduces the California Q-set—a method for describing comprehensively in contemporary psychodynamic terms an individual's personality. This method for encoding personality evaluation will prove highly useful in research applications by psychiatrists, psychologists, and sociologists, for it permits quantitative comparisons and calibrations of their evaluations of patients. He compares the Q-sort procedure with conventional rating methods and adjective check lists. He considers in detail the various forms of application of Q-sort procedure and appropriate statistical procedures to employ for these applications. Included in the Appendices are conversion tables for calculation of Q-sort correlations, California Q-set descriptions of various clinical concepts to be employed for calibration purposes, and an adjective Q-set for use by non-professional sorters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Previous research has indicated the potential value of Anger Control Training as an intervention in work with individuals who have acted aggressively towards others. However, the general suitability of this method for work with convicted violent offenders has not been explored in any systematic way. This paper reports results from a small scale survey of offenders (n = 39) with convictions for violence and placed on probation. The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which lack or loss of control had contributed to the occurrence of violent acts. Data were gathered from supervising Probation Officers by means of a structured questionnaire and interview schedule, in which offence incidents were to be described and analysed using a prescribed set of guidelines. Results suggest that loss of self-control is seen as having played an important part in acts of personal violence, and that a significant proportion of offender/clients may be able to benefit from direct training in self-control and be motivated to change. The study involved only an indirect form of data collection, and future research is recommended to examine these issues in more depth using direct interview and psychometric assessments.
Article
Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) is a self-report inventory designed to assess Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Reward Dependence, the three primary dimensions of his Biosocial Learning Model of normal and abnormal personality. We examined the structural validity of the TPQ and the relations among the TPQ lower- and higher-order scales to those of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; Tellegen, 1982) in a sample of 1,236 adults. The factor structure of the TPQ was congruent with Cloninger's predicted three-factor genotypic structure with one notable exception: the component scales of the Reward Dependence dimension share essentially no variance, and thus load on different factors. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that the TPQ and the MPQ share considerable variance, but that each inventory contains variance unpredicted by the other. In addition, the TPQ Harm Avoidance dimension appears to tap primarily a Negative Emotionality or neuroticism factor, rather than a disposition toward behavioral inhibition. These results support a number of Cloninger's predictions concerning the structural and external validity of the TPQ, but also suggest that the TPQ may fail to adequately operationalize several components of his model.
Article
In this study, the authors tested two hypotheses drawn from the general theory of crime. The first hypothesis is that low self-control is a major individual-level cause of crime. The second, that the effect of self-control is contingent on criminal opportunity. The measure of self-control used was a 23-item self-report index. To measure criminal opportunity, two proxy variables were used: gender and crime-involved friends. Crime measures included number of criminal acts of force and number of criminal acts of fraud reported in a 6-month recall period by a sample of 522 criminal offenders. Self-control was lower among offenders reporting more crimes of force and fraud, but the variance explained by self-control was low in each case. The relationship between self-control and fraud crimes was contingent on criminal opportunity, but the relationship between self-control and force crimes was not. Implications of these findings for the general theory of crime are reviewed.
Article
The possibility that love and work in adulthood are functionally similar to attachment and exploration in infancy and early childhood was investigated. Key components of attachment theory—developed by Bowlby, Ainsworth, and others to explain the role of attachment in exploratory behavior—were translated into terms appropriate to adult love and work. The translation centered on the 3 major types of infant attachment and exploration identified by Ainsworth: secure, anxious/ambivalent, and avoidant. Two questionnaire studies indicated that relations between adult attachment type and work orientation are similar to attachment/exploration dynamics in infancy and early childhood, suggesting that the dynamics may be similar across the life span. Implications for research on the link between love and work are discussed, as are measurement problems and other issues related to future tests of an attachment-theoretical approach to the study of adults.
Article
The present study investigated problem drinking and symptoms of disordered eating in relation to (a) restrained drinking and eating, and (b) cognitive self-control. One hundred and ninety-eight high school students (97 males and 101 females; mean age = 16.45 years) completed questionnaires that assessed problem drinking, symptoms of disordered eating, restrained eating and drinking, and cognitive self-control. Using principal components analysis, three factors with eigenvalues greater than 1 were found to summarize the interrelationships among the examined measures. For both sexes, the first two factors primarily reflected problem drinking and restrained drinking, and problem eating and restrained eating, respectively. The third factor reflected a more general problem with control underlying aspects of both problem drinking and problem eating.
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The present study examines the link between alcohol consumption and personality, using the California Psychological Inventory in a large well-adjusted sample and tests four hypotheses, including one that states that persons who drink no alcohol at all are less well adjusted than persons who drink moderate amounts. The results confirm the hypotheses. Alcohol consumed correlates positively with sociability and extraversion, but negatively with conscientiousness and willingness to conform. The results also show, in a large sample and using a comprehensive personality inventory, that persons who drink no alcohol at all are a little more withdrawn, a little less ambitious, a little less generally well-organised and competent, than people who drink in moderation.
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A self-report instrument that included a parental management scale, a self-control scale, and measures of deviance was administered to 289 university students. Models based on Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory were tested by using path analysis. The analysis generally supported Gottfredson and Hirschi's theory, and suggested the usefulness of a measure of self-control that includes cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects.
Article
Ethological attachment theory is a landmark of 20th century social and behavioral sciences theory and research. This new paradigm for understanding primary relationships across the lifespan evolved from John Bowlby's critique of psychoanalytic drive theory and his own clinical observations, supplemented by his knowledge of fields as diverse as primate ethology, control systems theory, and cognitive psychology. By the time he had written the first volume of his classic Attachment and Loss trilogy, Mary D. Salter Ainsworth's naturalistic observations in Uganda and Baltimore, and her theoretical and descriptive insights about maternal care and the secure base phenomenon had become integral to attachment theory. Patterns of Attachment reports the methods and key results of Ainsworth's landmark Baltimore Longitudinal Study. Following upon her naturalistic home observations in Uganda, the Baltimore project yielded a wealth of enduring, benchmark results on the nature of the child's tie to its primary caregiver and the importance of early experience. It also addressed a wide range of conceptual and methodological issues common to many developmental and longitudinal projects, especially issues of age appropriate assessment, quantifying behavior, and comprehending individual differences. In addition, Ainsworth and her students broke new ground, clarifying and defining new concepts, demonstrating the value of the ethological methods and insights about behavior. Today, as we enter the fourth generation of attachment study, we have a rich and growing catalogue of behavioral and narrative approaches to measuring attachment from infancy to adulthood. Each of them has roots in the Strange Situation and the secure base concept presented in Patterns of Attachment. It inclusion in the Psychology Press Classic Editions series reflects Patterns of Attachment's continuing significance and insures its availability to new generations of students, researchers, and clinicians.
Article
The relation of 4- to 6-year-olds' sociometric status to teacher- or peer-reported negative emotionality and regulation was examined across two semesters (Tl and T2), Social status at T2 was positively related to teacher-reported regulation and negatively related to emotional intensity, as well as peer-reported anger and crying. Regulation and emotionality (in combination) accounted for additional variance in T2 social status after controlling for initial social preference. Initial (Tl) social status infrequently predicted subsequent regulation and emotionality after controlling for scores on initial emotionality/regulation. Thus, emotionality/regulation predicted future social status whereas social status did not appear to account for changes in emotionality and regulation over time. Social behavior (aggression) did not mediate the relation of emotionality/regulation to later social status.
Article
Total SAT score, average grade earned in high school, and 32 personality variables are examined via forward multiple regression analyses to identify the best combination for predicting GPA in a sample of 201 psychology students. Average grade earned in high school enters first, accounting for 19% of the variance in GPA. Self-control enters second, and SAT third; these account for 9% and 5% of the variance, respectively. No other predictors accounted for substantial portions of variance. This pattern of results converges with findings reported by other investigators using other measures of personality. It was recommended that the global trait of self-control or conscientiousness be systematically assessed and used in college admissions decisions.
Article
The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, a widely used self-report instrument for evaluating individual self-esteem, was investigated using item response theory. Factor analysis identified a single common factor, contrary to some previous studies that extracted separate Self-Confidence and Self-Depreciation factors. A unidimensional model for graded item responses was fit to the data. A model that constrained the 10 items to equal discrimination was contrasted with a model allowing the discriminations to be estimated freely. The test of significance indicated that the unconstrained model better fit the data-that is, the 10 items of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale are not equally discriminating and are differentially related to self-esteem. The pattern of functioning of the items was examined with respect to their content, and observations are offered with implications for validating and developing future personality instruments.
Article
Disadvantaged preschool children attending a program of compensatory education were studied to determine if change in self-concept, delay of gratification, and exercise of self-control were related to growth in achievement. Girls displayed self-concept growth and a decline in delay of gratification, while boys showed growth in self-control. (Author/DST)
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Variations of the self-imposed delay-of-gratification situation in preschool were compared to determine when individual differences in this situation may predict aspects of cognitive and self-regulatory competence and coping in adolescence. Preschool children from a university community participated in experiments that varied features of the self-imposed delay situation. Experimental analyses of the cognitive–attentional processes that affect waiting in this situation helped identify conditions in which delay behavior would be most likely to reflect relevant cognitive and attentional competencies. As hypothesized, in those conditions, coherent patterns of statistically significant correlations were found between seconds of delay time in such conditions in preschool and cognitive and academic competence and ability to cope with frustration and stress in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined body shape preferences, body dissatisfaction, and self-focus between dieters and nondieters. Ss were 70 women. 35 were classified as chronic dieters, and 35 were classified as nondieters. Dieters were found to be more dissatisfied with their bodies than were nondieters. Although dieters did not have more stringent standards for body shape than nondieters, there was a larger discrepancy between ideal and current shape for dieters owing to their greater body weights. Dieters were also found to be highly and negatively self-focused on the Exner Sentence Completion Task. Dieting status was correlated with public rather than private self-consciousness, suggesting that dieters were concerned with their public image. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)