Identification of the Streptococcus gordonii glmM gene encoding phosphoglucosamine mutase and its role in bacterial cell morphology, biofilm formation, and sensitivity to antibiotics

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.08). 08/2008; 53(2):166-77. DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2008.00410.x
Source: PubMed


Phosphoglucosamine mutase (EC catalyzes the interconversion of glucosamine-6-phosphate into glucosamine-1-phosphate, an essential step in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the formation of peptidoglycan precursor uridine 5'-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine. The gene (glmM) of Escherichia coli encoding the enzyme has been identified previously. We have now identified a glmM homolog in Streptococcus gordonii, an early colonizer on the human tooth and an important cause of infective endocarditis, and have confirmed that the gene encodes phosphoglucosamine mutase by assaying the enzymatic activity of the recombinant GlmM protein. Insertional glmM mutant of S. gordonii did not produce GlmM, and had a growth rate that was approximately half that of the wild type. Morphological analyses clearly indicated that the glmM mutation causes marked elongation of the streptococcal chains, enlargement of bacterial cells, and increased roughness of the bacterial cell surface. Furthermore, the glmM mutation reduces biofilm formation and increases sensitivity to penicillins relative to wild type. All of these phenotypic changes were also observed in a glmM deletion mutant, and were restored by the complementation with plasmid-borne glmM. These results suggest that, in S. gordonii, mutations in glmM appear to influence bacterial cell growth and morphology, biofilm formation, and sensitivity to penicillins.

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Available from: Kisaki Shimazu, Jan 10, 2014
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    • "Biofilm in bacteria can significantly enhance their resistance to antibiotics. Previous studies had proved that glmM mutation would reduce biofilm formation in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus gordonii [20], [21]. Here, the biofilm formation in M. smegmatis AS strain was investigated. "
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    ABSTRACT: UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) is a direct glycosyl donor of linker unit (L-Rhamnose-D-GlcNAc) and an essential precursor of peptidoglycan in mycobacteria. Phosphoglucosamine mutase (GlmM) is involved in the formation of glucosamine-1-phosphate from glucosamine-6-phosphate, the second step in UDP-GlcNAc biosynthetic pathway. We have demonstrated that GlmM protein is essential for the growth of M. smegmatis. To facilitate the analysis of the GlmM protein function in mycobacteria, a tetracycline inducible M. smegmatis glmM gene knockdown strain was constructed by using an antisense RNA technology. After induction with 20 ng/ml tetracycline, the expression of GlmM protein in glmM gene knockdown strain was significantly decreased, resulting in a decline of cell growth. The morphological changes of glmM gene knockdown strain induced with 20 ng/ml tetracycline have been observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Furthermore, insufficient GlmM protein reduced the biofilm formation and increased the sensitivity to isoniazid and ethambutol in M. smegmatis, indicating that GlmM protein had effect on the biofilm formation and the senstivity to some anti-tuberculosis drugs targeting the cell wall. These results provide a new insight on GlmM functions in mycobacteria, suggesting that GlmM could be a potential target for development of new anti-tuberculosis drug.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "This was most probably due to the progressive depletion of precursors for PG and lipopolysaccharide synthesis. However, the mutation of glmM gene only reduced the growth rate and increase cell autolysis in Gram-postive bacteria [30], [32]. Furthermore, the glmM mutation also reduced the formation of bacterial biofilm and increased sensitivity to penicillins [30], [32]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The normal growth of mycobacteria attributes to the integrity of cell wall core which consists of peptidoglycan (PG), arabinogalactan (AG) and mycolic acids. N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) is an essential component in both PG and AG of mycobacterial cell wall. The biosynthetic pathway for UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), as a sugar donor of GlcNAc, is different in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The conversion of glucosamine-6-phosphate to glucosamine-1-phosphate, which is catalyzed by phosphoglucosamine mutase (GlmM), is unique to prokaryotes. Bioinformatic analysis showed that Msm MSMEG_1556 and Mtb Rv3441c are homologous to Ec GlmM. In this study, soluble Msm MSMEG_1556 protein and Mtb Rv3441c protein were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) and their phosphoglucosamine mutase activity were detected. In order to further investigate the essentiality of MSMEG_1556 for the growth of M. smegmatis, we generated a conditional MSMEG_1556 knockout mutant, which harbored thermo-sensitive rescue plasmid carrying Mtb Rv3441c. As the rescue plasmid was unable to complement MSMEG_1556 deficiency at 42 °C, MSMEG_1556 knockout mutant did not grow. The dramatic morphological changes of MSMEG_1556 knockout mutant after temperature shift from 30 °C to 42 °C have been observed by scanning electron microscope. These results demonstrated that MSMEG_1556 is essential for growth of M. smegmatis. This study provided evidence that GlmM enzyme could be as a potential target for developing anti-tuberculosis drugs.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Engineering strategies aimed to overproduce UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose sugars have been performed in Lactococcus lactis (Boels et al., 2003; Boels et al., 2001) and Streptococcus thermophilus (Levander et al., 2002) and they have been mainly focused to evaluate their impact in exopolysaccharide production. In Streptococcus gordonii, the GlmM enzyme has been shown to play a role in the synthesis of UDP-GlcNAc, bacterial cell morphology, biofilm formation, and sensitivity to antibiotics (Shimazu et al., 2008). Lactobacillus casei is a facultative heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium widely used in the food industry as a dairy starter culture, and some strains are also utilized as probiotics. "
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    ABSTRACT: UDP-sugars are used as glycosyl donors in many enzymatic glycosylation processes. In bacteria UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) is synthesized from fructose-6-phosphate by four successive reactions catalyzed by three enzymes: Glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlmS), phosphoglucosamine mutase (GlmM), and the bi-functional enzyme glucosamine-1-phosphate acetyltransferase/N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GlmU). In this work several metabolic engineering strategies, aimed to increment UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis, were applied in the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei strain BL23. This strain does not produce exopolysaccharides, therefore it could be a suitable host for the production of oligosaccharides. The genes glmS, glmM, and glmU coding for GlmS, GlmM, and GlmU activities in L. casei BL23, respectively, were identified, cloned and shown to be functional by homologous over-expression. The recombinant L. casei strain over-expressing simultaneously the genes glmM and glmS showed a 3.47 times increase in GlmS activity and 6.43 times increase in GlmM activity with respect to the control strain. Remarkably, these incremented activities resulted in about fourfold increase of the UDP-GlcNAc pool. In L. casei BL23 wild type strain transcriptional analyses showed that glmM and glmU are constitutively transcribed. By contrast, glmS transcription is down-regulated with a 21-fold decrease of glmS mRNA in cells cultured with N-acetylglucosamine as the sole carbon source compared to cells cultured with glucose. Our results revealed for the first time that GlmS, GlmM, and GlmU are responsible for UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis in lactobacilli.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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