De Pauw B, Walsh TJ, Donnelly JP, et al. Revised definitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group

Department of Blood Transfusion Service and Transplant Immunology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 8.89). 07/2008; 46(12):1813-21. DOI: 10.1086/588660
Source: PubMed


Invasive fungal diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Clarity and uniformity in defining these infections are important factors in improving the quality of clinical studies. A standard set of definitions strengthens the consistency and reproducibility of such studies.
After the introduction of the original European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group definitions, advances in diagnostic technology and the recognition of areas in need of improvement led to a revision of this document. The revision process started with a meeting of participants in 2003, to decide on the process and to draft the proposal. This was followed by several rounds of consultation until a final draft was approved in 2005. This was made available for 6 months to allow public comment, and then the manuscript was prepared and approved.
The revised definitions retain the original classifications of "proven," "probable," and "possible" invasive fungal disease, but the definition of "probable" has been expanded, whereas the scope of the category "possible" has been diminished. The category of proven invasive fungal disease can apply to any patient, regardless of whether the patient is immunocompromised, whereas the probable and possible categories are proposed for immunocompromised patients only.
These revised definitions of invasive fungal disease are intended to advance clinical and epidemiological research and may serve as a useful model for defining other infections in high-risk patients.

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    • "Current EORTC/MSG (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, US Mycoses Study Group) guidelines differentiate three levels of probability for the presence of an invasive fungal infection: proven, probable or possible [8]. While a proven diagnosis requires histological and/or cultural evidence from tissue specimen or positive cultures from body fluids, these criteria are often not met and not applicable at an early stage of infection. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Chest radiographs (CXR) are an important diagnostic tool for the detection of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in critically ill patients, but their diagnostic value is limited by a poor sensitivity. By using advanced image processing, the aim of this study was to increase the value of chest radiographs in the diagnostic work up of neutropenic patients who are suspected of IPA. Methods The frontal CXRs of 105 suspected cases of IPA were collected from four institutions. Radiographs could contain single or multiple sites of infection. CT was used as reference standard. Five radiologists and two residents participated in an observer study for the detection of IPA on CXRs with and without bone suppressed images (ClearRead BSI 3.2; Riverain Technologies). The evaluation was performed separately for the right and left lung, resulting in 78 diseased cases (or lungs) and 132 normal cases (or lungs). For each image, observers scored the likelihood of focal infectious lesions being present on a continuous scale (0–100). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) served as the performance measure. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by considering only the lungs with a suspiciousness score of greater than 50 to be positive. Results The average AUC for only CXRs was 0.815. Performance significantly increased, to 0.853, when evaluation was aided with BSI (p = 0.01). Sensitivity increased from 49% to 66% with BSI, while specificity decreased from 95% to 90%. Conclusion The detection of IPA in CXRs can be improved when their evaluation is aided by bone suppressed images. BSI improved the sensitivity of the CXR examination, outweighing a small loss in specificity.
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    • "CMV reactivation was defined as the presence of one or more positive cells in a CMV pp65 antigenemia assay, and CMV disease as the combination of symptoms or signs secondary to tissue lesion along with virus detection [22]. Diagnosis of IFD was based on criteria previously established [23]. Chimerism was monitored with PCR-based analysis of variable number of tandem repeats, and more recently with PCR-based analysis of short tandem repeats. "
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    ABSTRACT: One of the major drawbacks for unrelated donor (UD) bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Despite results from randomized trials, antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is not routinely included for GVHD prophylaxis in UD BMT by many centers. One of ways to demonstrate the usefulness of rabbit ATG in UD BMT is to evaluate how its results approximate to those observed in matched related (MRD) BMT. Therefore, we compared the outcomes between UD BMT with rabbit ATG (Thymoglobulin) for GVHD prophylaxis (n = 25) and MRD BMT (n = 91) for leukemia and myelodysplasia. All but one patient received a myeloablative conditioning regimen. Grades II-IV acute GVHD were similar (39.5% vs. 36%, p = 0.83); however, MRD BMT recipients developed more moderate-severe chronic GVHD (36.5% vs. 8.6%, p = 0.01) and GVHD-related deaths (32.5% vs. 5.6%, p = 0.04). UD BMT independently protected against chronic GVHD (hazard ratio 0.23, p = 0.04). The 6-month transplant-related mortality, 1-year relapse incidence, and 5-year survival rates were similar between patients with non-advanced disease in the MRD and UD BMT groups, 13.8% vs. 16.6% (p = 0.50), 20.8% vs. 16.6% (p = 0.37), and 57% vs. 50% (p = 0.67), respectively. Stable full donor chimerism was equally achieved (71.3% vs. 71.4%, p = 1). Incorporation of rabbit ATG in UD BMT promotes less GVHD, without jeopardizing chimerism evolution, and may attain similar survival outcomes as MRD BMT for leukemia and myelodysplasia especially in patients without advanced disease.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Candidaemia: presence of Candida spp. in blood culture according to published guidelines [9]; de novo candidaemia: Candida bloodstream infection in patients not receiving systemic antifungal therapy; breakthrough candidaemia (BTC): Candida bloodstream infection occurring in patients receiving one or more systemic antifungal agents for ≥3 days before the first positive blood culture [3] [9]; removal of CVC: removed during the first 3 days following the first positive blood culture; neutropenia: absolute neutrophil count (ANC) < 500 neutrophils/mL; profound neutropenia: ANC < 100 neutrophils/mL; prolonged neutropenia: neutropenia persisting for >14 days; use of corticosteroids: equivalent of >20 mg/day prednisone for >30 days; and hypogammaglobulinaemia: less than the lower bound of normal value for each institution. "
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    ABSTRACT: In a study of 27 864 patients with haematological malignancies, 40 patients with candidaemia were identified, among whom 21 developed candidaemia while receiving systemic antifungal therapy [breakthrough candidaemia (BTC)]. Demographic, clinical, microbiological and molecular features of these episodes were analysed. Compared with 19 patients with de novo candidaemia, patients with BTC were more likely to have neutropenia (81% vs. 63%), longer median duration of neutropenia (27 days vs. 15 days), hypogammaglobulinaemia (62% vs. 37%) and central venous catheters (CVCs) (86% vs. 68%). The median duration of prior antifungal exposure was 46 days (range 3–108 days). Among the 18 available Candida spp. isolates, 15 (83%) were phenotypically susceptible to the antifungal agent that the patient was receiving. Emergence of resistance was the mechanism leading to BTC in three cases of patients receiving echinocandins. Other possible mechanisms of BTC were (i) elevated (≥2) minimum lethal concentration/minimum inhibitory concentration (MLC/MIC) ratio (reduced ability for a fungicidal agent to kill a fungal pathogen) in all patients receiving amphotericin B and (ii) elevated MLC/MIC ratios in all Candida parapsilosis isolates with MICs ≤ 1 μg/mL to echinocandins. DNA sequencing of the hotspot 1 region of the fks1 and fks2 genes in seven different isolates of C. parapsilosis group demonstrated P660A in Fks1 but no polymorphisms in fks2. In conclusion, mechanisms for BTC in the setting of prolonged neutropenia may be host-based (hypogammaglobulinaemia and CVC) and pathogen-based. CLSI interpretive breakpoints do not reliably predict BTC in patients with haematological malignancies and warrant further investigation.
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