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... According to the OHC administrators we talked to, the goal in managing online health communities is to ensure: (1) those who C a r e t a k e r A d v e n t u r e r S c i e n t i s t O p p o r t u n i s t need help get help, (2) to monitor conversations that can be destructive to the community, (3) to understand patients' illness stage and provide appropriate help accordingly, and (4) to provide personalized help to the OHC members. OHC administrators perform these four tasks manually by reading the community threads everyday and monitoring them closely. ...
... The first half of the dendrogram illustrated the characteristics of ''Receivers" in OHCs. Depending on members' values sought and behavioral characteristics, the receivers categorized as (1) opportunists, who aim to learn about specific questions, (2) scientists, who aim to find scientific evidence, and (3) adventurers, who seek alternative and novel approaches for disease treatment. These clusters reinforced our preliminary findings from the interviews. ...
... They rarely stay to browse 1 This label refers to the survey question labels described in Table 1. 2 To describe survey results of a group of people on specific questions, we will use the following notation: (Group name  SURVEY QUESTION/CATEGORY LABEL  RESPONSE CATEGORY 1| RESPONSE CATEGORY 2|. . .: Proportion of the response categories over all responses). ...
... Es könnte sein, dass sich Freundinnen und Freunde ähnlich füh- len, weil sie sich mögen, oder sie mögen sich, weil sie glauben, einander ähnlich zu sein. An dieser Stelle wird ein grundsätzliches Problem der psychologischen Freundschaftsforschung deutlich: Meist beziehen sich Studien auf Querschnittsdaten; Längsschnittstudien wie die zitierten von Back et al. (2008) oder van Zalk und Denissen (2015) stellen eher die Ausnahme dar. ...
... Ähnlichkeitseffekte stärker als Effekte der einzelnen Per- sönlichkeitsmerkmale. Auf den ersten Blick erscheinen diese Ergebnisse wenig spektakulär. Zudem scheinen sie denen der oben zitierten Studie von Back et al. (2008) zu widersprechen, die gezeigt hatte, dass Studienanfän- ger, die zufällig in einer Einführungsveranstaltung ne- beneinandersaßen, dazu tendierten, sich anzufreunden. Tatsächlich ergeben beide Befunde aber ein stimmiges Gesamtbild: Gelegenheiten zum Freundschaftsschluss mögen zumindest teilweise auf Zufall beruhen. ...
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Freundschaften sind freiwillige, informelle, wechselseitige, zumeist positive Beziehungen vorwiegend ohne offene Sexualität. Damit unterscheiden sich Freundschaften von Familien-, Partner- und Arbeitsbeziehungen. Sowohl in ihrer Anzahl als auch ihrer Funktion verändern sich Freundschaften über die gesamte Lebensspanne. Im Durchschnitt nimmt die Zahl der Freunde im Jugendalter deutlich zu, und verringert sich dann wieder. Ebenfalls sinkt die Kontakthäufigkeit vom jungen Erwachsenenalter bis ins hohe Alter. Da häufig besonders enge Freundschaften erhalten bleiben, muss die generelle Verringerung in der Anzahl und dem Kontakt mit Freunden keine nachteiligen Auswirkungen auf die Lebenszufriedenheit und das Wohlbefinden haben. Außerdem unterscheiden sich Menschen stark darin, wie sie Freundschaften unterhalten und diese Unterschiede lassen sich z.T. auf Kontextfaktoren aber auch auf Persönlichkeitseigenschaften zurückführen. Gleichzeitig können sich Menschen in ihren Eigenschaften in einem gewissen Maß auch durch die Erfahrungen ändern, die sie in Freundschaften machen. Auch auf gesellschaftlicher Ebene lassen sich, wie in den vorherigen Jahrhunderten, Veränderungen beobachten, die jedoch nur die Flexibilität dieser Beziehungsform und der Menschen, die sie unterhalten, verdeutlichen.
... This notion is supported by Back, Schmukle, and Egloff (2008), who found that randomly-assigned spatial closeness in only one early introductory university session was enough to increase liking ratings a year later. However, while short interactions might increase liking and thereby facilitate friendship formation, the timing of such interactions might also be vital: They might foster friendships particularly in the early stages of group formation, but might soon grow irrelevant as a group becomes more established (Finkel et al., 2015). ...
... Finally, this current study is not experimental. Even though the results resemble the findings of random assignment (Back et al., 2008) and some possible confounds were controlled for also by using a model of temporal change, we cannot infer causality. However, due to the effects of exposure on inclusion in a network, random assignment to a non-exposed control does not seem ethically acceptable, so that effects of non-exposure are hard to experimentally evaluate. ...
Article
Background While short-term experiments have found that exposure to social contacts affects likeability, this study investigates its long-term effects on friendships in an emerging network. Methods One hundred psychology freshmen indicated whether they attended an introductory event before the start of the academic year to assess early exposure and reported on the friendships they formed with their peers at the beginning, middle, and end of their first semester. Results RSiena network models revealed that students taking part in the introductory event were more likely to form friendships throughout the first semester, but less likely to keep them. Discussion While early exposure to people in an emerging network might provide a head start for forming friendships for at least a semester, these friendships appear less stable than those of students who did not have that exposure.
... Mondada's (2013) work on interactional space has suggested the use of proximity as a proxy of potential interactions in physical spaces. In fact, findings in social psychology have demonstrated that proximity metrics can serve to estimate students' social interaction and the formation of social ties with others (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2008). This means that, in schools, the physical distance or proximity among students and teachers during personal, interpersonal, and group activities can serve as a proxy of the social dynamics that emerge according to learning tasks and the characteristics of the learning space. ...
... Previous works (Back et al., 2008;Chng et al., 2020) have estimated the potential occurrence of social interactions between two people by measuring the duration of collocation based on proximity. To model this, a four-step extraction was performed: ...
Article
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Identifying students facing difficulties and providing them with timely support is one of the educator's key responsibilities. Yet, this task is becoming increasingly challenging as the complexity of physical learning spaces grows, along with the emergence of novel educational technologies and classroom designs. There has been substantial research and development work focused on identifying student social behaviours in digital platforms (eg, the learning management system) as predictors of academic progression. However, little work has investigated such relationships in physical learning spaces. This study explores the potential of using wearable trackers for the early detection of low‐progress students based on their social and spatial (socio‐spatial) behaviours at the school. Positioning data from 98 primary school students and six teachers were automatically captured over a period of eight weeks. Fourteen socio‐spatial behavioural features were extracted and processed using a set of machine learning classifiers to model students’ learning progression. Results illustrate the potential of prospectively identifying low‐progress students from these features and the importance of adapting classroom learning analytics to differences in pedagogical designs. Practitioner notes What is already known about this topic Learning analytics research on predicting students’ academic progression is emerging in both digital and physical learning spaces. Students’ social behaviours in learning activities is a key factor in predicting their academic progression. Emerging sensing technologies can provide opportunities to study students’ real‐time social behaviours in physical learning spaces. What this paper adds Fourteen progression‐related socio‐spatial behavioural features are extracted from students’ physical (x‐y) positioning traces. Predictive learning analytics that achieved 81% accuracy in prospectively identifying low‐progress students from their real‐time socio‐spatial behaviours. Empirical evidence to support the need for classroom learning analytics to have instructional sensitivity (ie, be calibrated according to the learning design). Implications for practice and/or policy Sensing technologies and machine learning algorithms can be used to capture and generate valuable insights about higher‐order learning constructs (eg, performance and collaboration) from students' physical positioning traces in classrooms. Researchers and practitioners should be cautious with generalised classification algorithms and predictive learning analytics that do not account for the pedagogical differences between different subjects or learning designs. Researchers and practitioners should consider the potentially unforeseen ethical issues that can emerge in using sensing technologies and predictive learning analytics in authentic, physical classroom settings. What is already known about this topic Learning analytics research on predicting students’ academic progression is emerging in both digital and physical learning spaces. Students’ social behaviours in learning activities is a key factor in predicting their academic progression. Emerging sensing technologies can provide opportunities to study students’ real‐time social behaviours in physical learning spaces. What this paper adds Fourteen progression‐related socio‐spatial behavioural features are extracted from students’ physical (x‐y) positioning traces. Predictive learning analytics that achieved 81% accuracy in prospectively identifying low‐progress students from their real‐time socio‐spatial behaviours. Empirical evidence to support the need for classroom learning analytics to have instructional sensitivity (ie, be calibrated according to the learning design). Implications for practice and/or policy Sensing technologies and machine learning algorithms can be used to capture and generate valuable insights about higher‐order learning constructs (eg, performance and collaboration) from students' physical positioning traces in classrooms. Researchers and practitioners should be cautious with generalised classification algorithms and predictive learning analytics that do not account for the pedagogical differences between different subjects or learning designs. Researchers and practitioners should consider the potentially unforeseen ethical issues that can emerge in using sensing technologies and predictive learning analytics in authentic, physical classroom settings.
... This social event organized by the students' union aims at establishing early contacts between students and is not set in the classroom but in an informal setting of a pub. In this setting, individuals might become friends by chance ( Back et al., 2008 ). As suggested by our empirical analysis, there is, however, no significant peer influence on subsequent academic outcome. ...
... Given that individuals start very likely without social networks in this new setting, this is the very first opportunity in which they can make new contacts. Back et al. (2008) for example suggest that freshman students form friendships with random fellow students they encounter very early in their student life. In our setting this encounter takes place in a social setting such as a pub and not the formal setting of a classroom. ...
Article
This paper discusses the formation of peers in an anonymous higher education setting using a unique data set of industrial engineering students. For identification, we exploit the random assignment of students into groups and student performance before students met. We compare two different settings for potential peer formation: a voluntary freshman orientation week organized by the students’ union and a mandatory group work course. It is only in the case of the group work course that we report persistent impacts on subsequent academic achievement. In line with our theoretical reasoning, peer effects exist between groups of two students who were already similar before.
... The situation that has the most powerful impact on interpersonal attraction is proximity, a situation of physical closeness; "other things equal, people are most likely to be attracted toward those in closest contact with them" (Newcomb, 1956, p. 575). With few exceptions, people are more likely to form platonic and romantic connections with those who live nearby (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2008;Ebbesen et al., 1976;Festinger, Back, & Schachter, 1950). The finding that physical nearness positively influences attraction is so robust, in fact, that it has even been titled the law of proximity. ...
... Whereas the previous sections have explored the mechanisms that likely govern team formation ties, in this section we consider the relative strength of each mechanism as a force of attraction in drawing people to work together. Although little research has compared and contrasted absolute, relative, relational, and situational attraction mechanisms, one clear finding from research on attraction is the profound effect of proximity on interpersonal relationships (Back et al., 2008;Festinger et al., 1950;Priest & Sawyer, 1967). The proximity effect can even overpower other influential forces of attraction and has been shown to account for friendships that disobey similarity-attraction and balance (e.g., Nahemow & Lawton, 1975;Wimmer & Lewis, 2010). ...
Article
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Contemporary teams are self-assembling with increasing frequency, meaning the component members are choosing to join forces with some degree of agency rather than being assigned to work with one another. However, the majority of the teams literature up until this point has focused on randomly assigned or staffed teams. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to investigate how people do form into teams and how people should form into teams. Specifically, we utilized a sample of digital traces from a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (N = 1,568) to evaluate the bases for and performance implications of team self-assembly. The results indicated that self-assembled teams form via three mechanisms: homophily, familiarity, and proximity. Moreover, results of the trace data analyses indicated that successful and unsuccessful teams were homogeneous in terms of different characteristics, and successful teams formed based on friendship more often than unsuccessful teams did.
... sampled portion of groups from the full sample. In implementing these analyses, we followed the work of Back, Schmukle, and Egloff (2008) and Funder and Sneed (1993). Importantly, the selfother agreement correlations for the coded group (n = 17) followed a similar pattern of results as the self-other agreement from the full sample (narcissism: r = 0.29, p < .05; ...
... Next, we examined which elements of Facebook profiles actually reflect a profile owner's personality. To address this issue of cue validity, we followed others' approach (see Back et al., 2008;Borkenau & Liebler, 1992) in correlating self-ratings for each personality trait with observable Facebook profile cue values. The cue validity correlations also appear in Table 3. Self-ratings of narcissism correlated positively with the number of 'liked' sports (r = 0.28, p < .05) ...
Article
This study investigates observer accuracy for the Dark Triad (DT) traits – narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism – based on Facebook profiles. In a round-robin design, 145 individuals in 34 groups provided DT self-ratings and rated their group members on these traits based on Facebook profiles. Social Relations Model analyses revealed significant observer accuracy for narcissism, but not for psychopathy or Machiavellianism. Variance component estimates suggested that unique perceiver-target relationships account for a majority of variance in ratings of the DT. Finally, Brunswik lens model analyses suggested that, for narcissism and psychopathy, there is a moderate association between the cues observers utilize in making judgments of the DT traits and the cues that correspond to targets’ personality.
... This theory has evident relevance for analysing human behaviours in physical learning spaces (Sorokowska et al., 2017). According to the empirical evidence from decades of social psychology studies, physical proximity is one of the best predictors of interactions (Back et al., 2008). For example, Echeverria et al. (2018) developed a zone-based classification model to automate the mapping from students' physical positioning traces to movements within a team. ...
Article
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Simulation‐based learning provides students with unique opportunities to develop key procedural and teamwork skills in close‐to‐authentic physical learning and training environments. Yet, assessing students' performance in such situations can be challenging and mentally exhausting for teachers. Multimodal learning analytics can support the assessment of simulation‐based learning by making salient aspects of students' activities visible for evaluation. Although descriptive analytics have been used to study students' motor behaviours in simulation‐based learning, their validity and utility for assessing performance remain unclear. This study aims at addressing this knowledge gap by investigating how indoor positioning analytics can be used to generate meaningful insights about students' tasks and collaboration performance in simulation‐based learning. We collected and analysed the positioning data of 304 healthcare students, organised in 76 teams, through correlation, predictive and epistemic network analyses. The primary findings were (1) large correlations between students' spatial‐procedural behaviours and their group performances; (2) predictive learning analytics that achieved an acceptable level (0.74 AUC) in distinguishing between low‐performing and high‐performing teams regarding collaboration performance; and (3) epistemic networks that can be used for assessing the behavioural differences across multiple teams. We also present the teachers' qualitative evaluation of the utility of these analytics and implications for supporting formative assessment in simulation‐based learning. Practitioner notes What is currently known about this topic Assessing students' performance in simulation‐based learning is often challenging and mentally exhausting. The combination of learning analytics and sensing technologies has the potential to uncover meaningful behavioural insights in physical learning spaces. Observational studies have suggested the potential value of analytics extracted from positioning data as indicators of highly‐effective behaviour in simulation‐based learning. What this paper adds Indoor positioning analytics for supporting teachers' formative assessment and timely feedback on students' group/team‐level performance in simulation‐based learning. Empirical evidence supported the potential use of epistemic networks for assessing the behavioural differences between low‐performing and high‐performing teams. Teachers' positively validated the utility of indoor positioning analytics in supporting reflective practices and formative assessment in simulation‐based learning. Implications for practitioners Indoor positioning tracking and spatial analysis can be used to investigate students' teamwork and task performance in simulation‐based learning. Predictive learning analytics should be developed based on features that have direct relevance to teachers' learning design. Epistemic networks analysis and comparison plots can be useful in identifying and assessing behavioural differences across multiple teams. What is currently known about this topic Assessing students' performance in simulation‐based learning is often challenging and mentally exhausting. The combination of learning analytics and sensing technologies has the potential to uncover meaningful behavioural insights in physical learning spaces. Observational studies have suggested the potential value of analytics extracted from positioning data as indicators of highly‐effective behaviour in simulation‐based learning. What this paper adds Indoor positioning analytics for supporting teachers' formative assessment and timely feedback on students' group/team‐level performance in simulation‐based learning. Empirical evidence supported the potential use of epistemic networks for assessing the behavioural differences between low‐performing and high‐performing teams. Teachers' positively validated the utility of indoor positioning analytics in supporting reflective practices and formative assessment in simulation‐based learning. Implications for practitioners Indoor positioning tracking and spatial analysis can be used to investigate students' teamwork and task performance in simulation‐based learning. Predictive learning analytics should be developed based on features that have direct relevance to teachers' learning design. Epistemic networks analysis and comparison plots can be useful in identifying and assessing behavioural differences across multiple teams.
... SRMs have been used in multiple psychological and anthropological studies to understand human behaviors such as status (Anderson & Kilduff, 2009), friendship (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2008), and sharing (Koster & Leckie, 2014;Koster, Leckie, Miller, & Hames, 2015). SRMs are more appropriate than conventional social network analysis techniques for data which are continuous, directed, and potentially incomplete (Van Duijn & Vermunt, 2006). ...
Article
Teaching is cross-culturally widespread but few studies have considered children as teachers as well as learners. This is surprising, since forager children spend much of their time playing and foraging in child-only groups, and thus, have access to many potential child teachers. Using the Social Relations Model, we examined the prevalence of child-to-child teaching using focal follow data from 35 Hadza and 38 BaYaka 3- to 18-year-olds. We investigated the effect of age, sex and kinship on the teaching of subsistence skills. We found that child-to-child teaching was more frequent than adult-child teaching. Additionally, children taught more with age, teaching was more likely to occur within same-sex versus opposite-sex dyads, and close kin were more likely to teach than non-kin. The Hadza and BaYaka also showed distinct learning patterns; teaching was more likely to occur between sibling dyads among the Hadza than among the BaYaka, and a multistage learning model where younger children learn from peers, and older children from adults, was evident for the BaYaka, but not for the Hadza. We attribute these differences to subsistence and settlement patterns. These findings highlight the role of children in the intergenerational transmission of subsistence skills.
... Teachers, however, can hardly manipulate the development of friendship relations. As a consequence, even if studies are able to identify the causal effects of friendship (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2008), intervening through policy is more difficult. ...
Article
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Peer effects have been shown to be important for educational development during adolescence. Peer effect from classmates and friends, nevertheless, could be the target of interventions only to a limited extent. We hypothesize that deskmates may affect educational achievement. In contrast to friendship, deskmate relations could realistically be a target of policy intervention by teachers, who can decide on the seating arrangements in class. This study examines whether deskmates have a positive impact on individual test scores that goes beyond the general influence of classmates and friends. The deskmate effect is investigated in ethnically mixed classrooms. Information on friendship and deskmates from a social network panel was merged with test score register data from secondary schools in Northern and Eastern Hungary. The study finds that, after controlling for students’ own baseline eighth-grade reading test scores and classroom-fixed effects, deskmates’ eighth-grade reading test score influences positively students’ tenth-grade reading test scores. No similar effect was found for mathematics test scores. We found no evidence that deskmates’ test scores mediate or moderate the ethnic test-score gap between Hungarian and Roma students.
... However, as each relationship starts with two people being unacquainted, this form of social relation needs to be considered to understand the development of social relationships. This is even more true because zero-acquaintance judgments may have meaningful consequences for future social outcomes and the development of social relationships (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2008, 2010a. To understand the relationship between Petra and Sonja, for instance, and particularly for how they became friends, it seems advisable to analyse what kind of people they were and what happened when they first met. ...
Preprint
The interplay of personality and social relationships is as fascinating as it is complex and it pertains to a wide array of largely separate research domains. Here, we present an integrative and unified framework for analysing the complex dynamics of personality and social relationships (PERSOC). Basic principles and general processes on the individual and dyadic level are outlined to show how personality and social relationships influence each other and develop over time. PERSOC stresses the importance of social behaviours and interpersonal perceptions as mediating processes organized in social interaction units. The framework can be applied to diverse social relationships such as first encounters, short-term acquaintances, friendships, relationships between working group members, educational or therapeutic settings, romantic relationships and family relationships. It has important consequences for how we conceptualize, understand, and investigate personality and social relationships.
... The examples below are based on a subset of data collected in a study on first impressions (Back, Schmukle & Egloff, 2008;2010;. Since this data set is included in the TripleR package, all examples can be reproduced by the reader. ...
Preprint
In this article, we present TripleR, an R package for the calculation of social Relations analyses (Kenny, 1994) based on round robin designs. The scope of existing Software solutions is ported to R and enhanced with previously unimplemented methods of significance testing in single groups (Lashley & Bond, 1997) and handling of missing values. The package requires only minimal knowledge of R, and results can be exported for subsequent analyses to other software packages. We demonstrate the use of TripleR with several didactic examples.
... Evaluations of others determine our social behavior towards them (e.g., Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2008;Dovidio, Kawakami, & Gaertner, 2002;McConnell & Leibold, 2001). In addition to deliberate explicit evaluations, automatic implicit evaluations may also affect this interpersonal behavior. ...
Article
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The current study examined to what extent early adolescents' implicit and explicit evaluations of a classmate predict (a) their own aggressive behavior toward that classmate and (b) their classmate's aggressive behavior toward them. Implicit and explicit peer evaluations were assessed among 148 early adolescents (78 boys and 70 girls; Mage = 11.1 years) with an approach-avoidance task and a likeability rating. Adolescents' aggression was measured by the number of grams of hot sauce administered to the peer in a "taste test." The analyses with the actor-partner interdependence model showed that girls' implicit attitude predicted aggression toward their partner and that boys' implicit attitude predicted their partner's aggression toward them. Explicit attitudes did not predict "hot sauce" aggression. The current study demonstrates that implicit evaluation of a peer can in fact be even more impactful than explicit evaluation in social interactions among peers.
... In line with previous network research (e.g., Back et al., 2008;Borgatti & Cross, 2003;Moreland & Beach, 1992;Reis et al., 2011), our results support the give-and-take. Thus, peers' (alteri) ego perspectives are worth being included in the data collection (see also Dobrow et al., 2012;Steglich, Snijders, & Pearson, 2010). ...
... Our findings showed clearly that this was not the case, thus supporting the claim that mate selection is far from being a rational choice (Gunaydin, Selcuk, & Hazan, 2013;Inbar, Cone, & Gilovich, 2010). Perhaps once our fates are intertwined with a potential "soulmate" through unconscious processes such as transference (Gunaydin, Zayas, Selcuk, & Hazan, 2012) or chance factors such as propinquity (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2008), we tend to stick with this soulmate regardless of what traits they possess. ...
Article
Decades of research indicate that individuals adhere to existing states ("status quo bias") and value them more ("endowment effect"). The present work is the first to investigate status quo preference within the context of trade-offs in mate choice. Across seven studies (total N = 1,567), participants indicated whether they would prefer remaining with a current partner possessing a particular set of traits (e.g., high trustworthiness, low attractiveness) or switching to an alternative partner possessing opposite traits. Preference for a given trait was highest when the individual representing the status quo (one's romantic partner or an interaction partner) possessed that trait. Concerns about hurting the partner, ambiguity avoidance, and biased construal of the partner and the alternative predicted status quo preference and disapproval of the current partner by network members eliminated this effect. These findings indicate that when it comes to matters of the heart, we tend to love what we currently have.
... Generally speaking, people are attracted to social partners who are similar to them (e.g., with respect to age, sex, race, etc.) and to whom they have frequent, convenient exposure (e.g., Nahemow and Lawton 1975). The propinquity effect causes friendships to sometimes form seemingly by chance, for example based on random seating assignments (e.g., Back et al. 2008;Segal 1974). ...
Article
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Despite the importance of friendship, the traits that people seek in a friend are not well understood. Here, we pursue the hypothesis that same-sex friendships evolved as ongoing cooperative relationships, so friend preferences should at least partially focus on those traits that would have made someone a good cooperative partner within the conditions of the human ancestral environment. We tested this hypothesis in a face perception paradigm in which undergraduate participants rated the friend desirability of target faces that were also rated on several traits hypothesized to be relevant to friend choice. This allowed us to test the actual predictors of attraction, rather than relying on self-reported preferences. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that judgments of a target person’s desirability as a friend depended on perceptions of their ability to create material benefits in the ancestral environment (e.g., skill as a hunter or gatherer). These effects were not due to an attractiveness “halo effect” or a preference for intelligence more generally. In addition, we found mixed evidence for sex differences that match the typical hunter-gatherer division of labor. We discuss implications of these findings for the study of friend choice, and for understanding social preferences more broadly.
... Dieses als Propinquity-Effekt bekannte Phänomen wurde bereits in den 1950er-Jahren empirisch nachgewiesen: Festinger et al. (1950) fanden, dass Studierende, deren Zimmer in einem Studierendenwohnkomplex näher aneinander lagen (Nachbarzimmer) häufiger eng befreundet waren als Studierende, deren Zimmer vier Türen voneinander entfernt lagen. Für den universitären Kontext zeigten Back et al. (2008) 3 , dass Studierende, die in einer Einführungsveranstaltung über ein Losverfahren zufäl-lig neben einem Peer saßen, diese Person nicht nur nach der Vorstellungsrunde sympathischer fanden als Peers, die nicht in räumlicher Nähe gesessen hatten, sondern auch nach einem Jahr wahrscheinlicher enger mit ihr befreundet waren. Letzteres galt auch für Personen, die in der gleichen Sitzreihe gesessen hatten. ...
Article
Peerbeziehungen im Klassenzimmer sind seit langem Gegenstand wissenschaftlicher Untersuchungen. Es liegen umfangreiche Nachweise dafür vor, dass sie Lernen sowohl günstig als auch ungünstig beeinflussen können. In diesem Beitrag systematisieren wir diese Einflüsse, indem wir (1) eine Differenzierung zwischen affektiven und kognitiv-instrumentellen Peerbeziehungen vornehmen. Weiterhin stellen wir zentrale Mechanismen dar, (2) über die sich diese Einflüsse entfalten und (3) die die Selbstselektion von Schülerinnen und Schülern in (mal-)adaptive Peerbeziehungen erklären können. Schließlich arbeiten wir (4) die besondere Rolle von Lehrenden als Gestaltende von Peerbeziehungen heraus und leiten (5) Maßnahmen ab, über die affektive und kognitiv-instrumentelle Beziehungsstrukturen im Klassenzimmer positiv beeinflusst werden können. Abschließend stellen wir die Bedeutung dar, die die systematische Untersuchung von Peerbeziehungen für die Entwicklung von auf Peerinteraktionen zielende Interventionen im Kontext aktueller Herausforderungen im Bildungssystem (Schereneffekte, Inklusion, soziale Integration geflüchteter Kinder und Jugendlicher) haben kann.
... More details on Study 5's methodology can be found in Back, Schmukle, and Egloff (2008, 2010. ...
Article
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Objective: To compare two different approaches that are commonly used to measure accuracy of personality judgment: the trait accuracy approach wherein participants discriminate among targets on a given trait, thus making intertarget comparisons, and the profile accuracy approach wherein participants discriminate between traits for a given target, thus making intratarget comparisons. We examined correlations between these methods as well as correlations among accuracies for judging specific traits. Method: The present meta-analysis documents relations among these approaches based on five studies of zero-acquaintance impressions of the Big Five traits. Results: Trait accuracies correlated only weakly with overall and normative profile accuracy. Substantial convergence between the trait and profile accuracy methods was only found when an aggregate of all five trait accuracies was correlated with distinctive profile accuracy. Importantly, however, correlations between the trait and profile accuracy approaches were reduced to negligibility when statistical overlap was corrected by removing the respective trait from the profile correlations. Moreover, correlations of the separate trait accuracies with each other were very weak. Conclusions: Different ways of measuring individual differences in personality judgment accuracy are not conceptually and empirically the same, but rather represent distinct abilities that rely on different judgment processes.
... Decades of research on close relationships suggest that heterosexual unions generally stem from mutual attraction and perceived similarity in demographics, personality, goals, and values (e.g., Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2008;Eastwick, Eagly, Finkel, & Johnson, 2011;Fiore & Donath, 2005;Montoya, Horton, & Kirchner, 2008;Skopek, Schulz, & Blossfeld, 2010). Nonetheless, cultural forces persist in stereotyping the genders as ''opposite'' in their goals and desires. ...
Article
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Proponents of sexual economics theory argue that women exchange sex for men’s resources. This idea is likely to promote a competitive view of gender relationships that undermines gender equality by characterizing women as manipulative and financially dependent on men. Heterosexual college students (N = 474) who were randomly exposed to a popular YouTube video describing sexual economics theory increased their (1) behavioral support for sexual exchange concepts, (2) endorsement of the theory, and (3) adversarial views of heterosexual relationships, compared with a control group of students. Sexual exchange theory endorsement and adversarial heterosexual beliefs positively covaried, and both attitudes were related to participants’ sexism. Reading a critique of sexual exchange theory, that emphasized mutual respect and affection as precursors to heterosexual intimacy, counteracted the consequences of exposure to the theory. The findings provide evidence that disseminating sexual exchange theory via video on the Internet negatively affects young adults’ views of gender relationships. Educators, and others who wish to explore sexual economics theory through the use of this video, should also include a discussion of the countervailing evidence available.
... For example, it may be that U.S. tax professionals develop stronger advocacy attitudes through experience because they have more opportunities for direct client interaction than Indian tax professionals have. Social psychology literature suggests that, in general, frequent interactions with another person can engender benevolent attitudes, loyalty, and positive affect toward them, leading to beneficial action on behalf of the other person (Festinger et al. 1950;Back et al. 2008;Fiske 2010). Consistent with this research, the frequency of personal interactions has also been shown to influence decision makers to behave in a manner that benefits another person in professional settings (Alvesson 2000;McAllister 1995). ...
Article
This study compares the client advocacy attitudes of U.S. tax professionals who do U.S. tax work in the U.S. and Indian tax professionals who do U.S. tax work offshore. We find that experienced U.S. tax professionals have stronger client advocacy attitudes than experienced Indian tax professionals, while the client advocacy attitudes of inexperienced U.S. and inexperienced Indian tax professionals are not significantly different. Further, client advocacy attitudes of experienced U.S. tax professionals are stronger than advocacy attitudes of inexperienced U.S. tax professionals while the client advocacy attitudes of experienced Indian tax professionals are not different from advocacy attitudes of inexperienced Indian tax professionals. We also provide evidence that the client advocacy attitudes of experienced U.S. tax professionals are positively associated with their recommendations of the client-preferred position, while the client advocacy attitudes of experienced Indian tax professionals are not related to their client recommendations. Given the increasing number of Indian tax professionals performing U.S. tax work, our findings should be of interest to researchers, taxing authorities, firms, and taxpayers. JEL Classifications: M40; M41; M55; H20; C90.
... Räumliche Nähe bzw. Propinquität bedingt allerdings auch andere Beziehungsqualitäten wie etwa freundschaftliche Gefühle zwischen Nichtverwandten (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2008;Nahemow & Lawton, 1975) und ist somit kein Spezifikum von Verwandtschaft. ...
... Gradually marketers started projecting their brands as third places for relaxation, socialization, and enjoyment. Starbucks positions itself as a coffee shop as a haven for relaxation that also gives opportunity for socialization [6]. Starbucks has successfully managed to position itself as an extension of living room [7]. ...
Article
Experiential marketing is the new driving force to create a sustainable relationship with customers. Among the assortment of constituents, building up customer experience one component is 'Third Place'. Third place refers to spaces excluding home (first place) and work (second place) where people come together for an informal tête-à-tête. Inclusion of third place within a retail setting may have a positive impinge on the propinquity of customers towards the store. This paper endeavors to investigate customer's perspective on the experiential consequences of propinquity ensuing from Third Places within the servicescape of a store. The scope of this research is confined to apparel retailers. This research explores primary benefits distinguished by customers and clubs them using thematic analysis. The paper makes a worthy contribution in terms of compiling literature worldwide on Third Place-concept, functions, usage, and domain. This paper is also the first contribution in the literature pool of third places in Indian context, which makes it valuable piece of work.
... Control involves influencing the L2 speaker to achieve a specific end (e.g., receive assistance or request a service) and can be achieved through improving the sophistication of one's vocabulary or sentence construction (Bradac & Wisegarver, 1984) or through powerful targeted rhetoric, such as giving a speech (Ng, 1990;O'Barr, 1982, as cited in MacIntyre, 1998 (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2008;Bahns, Crandall, Gillath, & Preacher, 2017;Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006;MacIntyre, 1998). Designing a curriculum plan that could form interlocutor pairings that achieve all or even some of those variables in the Chinese context is improbable. ...
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In various geographic contexts, research on second- and foreign-language (L2) learners’ motivation has been primarily focused on the motivation to learn a second or foreign language instead of on the motivation to transfer learning. These two concepts differ from each other in language learning because a learner may simply wish to understand a language to perform well on tests, as opposed to actually applying language learning to oral communication outside the classroom. The motivation to use L2 knowledge and skills learned in the classroom in communication outside of the classroom is referred to as L2 motivation to transfer (or L2 transfer motivation). Gardner (1985) proposed a socio-educational model, positing that L2 learners’ motivation (L2 motivation) is a combination of effort and the desire to achieve the goal of learning a language plus favorable attitudes towards learning the language. Building on Gardner’s seminal framework, this qualitative multi-case study employed a reflexive voice and an inductive approach to investigate junior high school students’ self-described effort, desire, and favorable attitudes towards the extracurricular use of English-language learning (ELL). The research setting was a junior high school in Fengtai District, Beijing, China. This study is significant because it constitutes an attempt to address the paucity of qualitative research in L2 motivation literature and the underrepresentation of junior high school students in L2 motivation investigations. Additionally, this study’s focus on applied learning is relevant to China’s Quality Education (QE) policy orientation which emphasizes the value of practical skills and abilities over strictly test-based learning. After a pilot study, eight participants were selected and observed in their classrooms twice a week over an eight-week period. Data analysis suggested that the relevance of the learning content, the perceived utility of ELL for present and future use, perceived transfer opportunities, and the learners’ posture towards global citizenship (PTGC) influenced L2 motivation to transfer learning among participants. These findings establish a suggested framework for future L2 transfer motivation research in the Chinese context, as PTGC appears to be a potential replacement for Gardner’s construct of integrativeness and Yashima’s (2002) concept of international posture (IP). Future research is required to determine how L2 transfer motivation may change over time and its sensitivity to the implementation of the new Chinese Standards of English (CSE). Keywords: English Learning, L2 motivation, L2 transfer motivation, international posture, motivation to transfer
... Likewise, students who sit next to each other are more likely to become friends. This is true even when the seating is assigned (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2008). The relationship between proximity and liking also is present in Africa (Brewer & Campbell, 1976) and France (Maisonneuve, Palmade, & Fourment, 1952). ...
Article
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At many U.S. universities, the tendency to self-segregate has become a familiar and accepted occurrence, evident in a wide array of college settings including housing and social gatherings, classes and training events, protests, and grievance sessions, and even separate commencement events. In many ways, this trend represents a return to the "separate but equal" doctrine ruled by the U.S. Supreme Court in Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka (1954) as unconstitutional, which gave birth to the Civil Rights Movement and integration. This further resulted in numerous benefits related to cross-racial interaction and increased ethnic heterogeneity. Today, however, some college leaders endorse student petitions for "safe spaces" and separate, distinct programming based on various demographic characteristics and assert that such efforts enhance the college experience and create a greater sense of belonging for underrepresented student groups. Segregation appears to be re-emerging at many U.S. universities as an example of déjà vu all over again. In this paper, the authors argue that segregation of racial and ethnic groups on university and college campuses generally appear to exacerbate racial tensions and reinforce in-group and out-group interactions and biases. However, multicultural integration builds trust, reduces out-group biases, increases friendships across racial and ethnic lines, and advances racial reconciliation.
... Likewise, students who sit next to each other are more likely to become friends. This is true even when the seating is assigned (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2008). The relationship between proximity and liking also is present in Africa (Brewer & Campbell, 1976) and France (Maisonneuve, Palmade, & Fourment, 1952). ...
Article
Full-text available
At many U.S. universities, the tendency to self-segregate has become a familiar and accepted occurrence, evident in a wide array of college settings including housing and social gatherings, classes and training events, protests, and grievance sessions, and even separate commencement events. In many ways, this trend represents a return to the “separate but equal” doctrine ruled by the U.S. Supreme Court in Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka (1954) as unconstitutional, which gave birth to the Civil Rights Movement and integration. This further resulted in numerous benefits related to cross-racial interaction and increased ethnic heterogeneity. Today, however, some college leaders endorse student petitions for “safe spaces” and separate, distinct programming based on various demographic characteristics and assert that such efforts enhance the college experience and create a greater sense of belonging for underrepresented student groups. Segregation appears to be re-emerging at many U.S. universities as an example of déjà vu all over again. In this paper, the authors argue that segregation of racial and ethnic groups on university and college campuses generally appear to exacerbate racial tensions and reinforce in-group and out-group interactions and biases. However, multicultural integration builds trust, reduces out-group biases, increases friendships across racial and ethnic lines, and advances racial reconciliation.
... Normally, freshmen will quickly find new friends among their new peers who attend the same lectures, share meals in the same cafeteria and go to the same social events. Consequently, the first years at university can be seen as a phase when friendships develop by chance due to physical proximity (Back et al., 2008). However, the development of such social bonds requires social interactions before, between and after formal learning activities. ...
Article
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Aims: Higher education systems around the world have enforced campus closures to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. Such measures may threaten students' basic psychological needs for relatedness, competence and autonomy, and the development of intrinsic learning motivation. Little is known about whether the implementation of campus closures yielded negative developmental patterns for these motivational variables. We aim to close this research gap. Sample: We investigated developmental patterns in longitudinal data spanning the first four semesters of undergraduate students in two cohorts at one German university starting in 2013 and 2019 (cohort 1: normal study conditions; cohort 2: affected by campus closure). We used propensity score modelling to ensure comparability between both cohorts resulting in a sample of 435 students each (total n = 870 students). Method: We estimated conditional latent growth curve models (LGCM) to investigate developmental trends in need satisfaction and intrinsic learning motivation across the students' first four semesters and how these trends differed between the two cohorts. Results: The results indicated a more maladaptive development of motivational variables for students of cohort 2 compared to students of cohort 1. More specifically, we found negative developmental trends following the implementation of campus closures for competence, relatedness and intrinsic learning motivation. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the importance of considering side effects for students' psychological functioning when discussing the implementation or renewal of campus closures. It seems important to find ways to carefully reopen higher education institutions while also minimizing further risks for students and faculty.
... Interpersonal contact theory holds that proximity also creates opportunities for rewarding interchanges that foster positive attitudes toward others (Allport, 1954). Experimental (Kahn and McGaughey, 1977) and quasi-experimental (Back et al., 2008) studies of college students indicate that attraction ratings are tied to seat proximity. Claims that classroom seat proximity fosters friendship formation, however, far outstrip research. ...
Article
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The present study tests the hypothesis that friendships form on the basis of classroom seating proximity. Participants included 235 students (129 boys, 106 girls) in grades 3–5 (ages 8–11) who nominated friends at two time points (13–14 weeks apart). Teachers described seating arrangements. Concurrent analyses indicated that students sitting next to or nearby one another were more likely to receive friend nominations and be involved in reciprocated friendships than students seated elsewhere in the classroom. Longitudinal analyses indicated that classroom seating proximity was associated with the formation of new friendships. Most results for randomly selected outgoing friend nominations and randomly selected reciprocated friend dyads were replicated in analyses that included all friend nominations and all friend dyads.
... personal (0.45-1.22m), social (1.2-3.7m), and public (more than 3.7m) distances. Empirical evidence from social psychology studies has demonstrated that physical proximity is one of the best predictors of whether interactions have occurred between multiple individuals [6,44]. Based on the notion of proxemics, Lim et al. [26] proposed the term spatial pedagogy to describe how teachers' positioning and proximity to students and classroom resources can alter the meaning of certain areas of learning spaces. ...
... personal (0.45-1.22m), social (1.2-3.7m), and public (more than 3.7m) distances. Empirical evidence from social psychology studies has demonstrated that physical proximity is one of the best predictors of whether interactions have occurred between multiple individuals [6,44]. Based on the notion of proxemics, Lim et al. [26] proposed the term spatial pedagogy to describe how teachers' positioning and proximity to students and classroom resources can alter the meaning of certain areas of learning spaces. ...
Preprint
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Teacher’s in-class positioning and interaction patterns (termed spatial pedagogy) are an essential part of their classroom management and orchestration strategies that can substantially impact students’ learning. Yet, effective management of teachers’ spatial pedagogy can become increasingly challenging as novel architectural designs, such as open learning spaces, aim to disrupt teaching conventions by promoting flexible pedagogical approaches and maximising student connectedness. Multimodal learning analytics and indoor positioning technologies may hold promises to support teachers in complex learning spaces by making salient aspects of their spatial pedagogy visible for provoking reflection. This paper explores how granular x-y positioning data can be modelled into socio-spatial metrics that can contain insights about teachers’ spatial pedagogy across various learning designs. A total of approximately 172.63 million position data points were collected during 101 classes over eight weeks. The results illustrate how indoor positioning analytics can help generate a deeper understanding of how teachers use their learning spaces, such as their 1) teaching responsibilities; 2) proactive or passive interactions with students; and 3) supervisory, interactional, collaborative, and authoritative teaching approaches. Implications of the current findings to future learning analytics research and educational practices were also discussed.
... A large body of literature has demonstrated positive links between physical proximity and several interpersonal variables (Back et al. 2008;Preciado et al. 2011;Priest and Sawyer 1967), such as compliance rates and perceptions of warmth, friendliness, and social affiliation (Ernest and Cooper 1974;Fay and Maner 2012;IJzerman and Semin 2009;Patterson and Sechrest 1970). Lay beliefs and books on personal selling techniques further suggest that employees in sales and service settings may benefit from being in customers' immediate vicinity, given the positive financial outcomes proximity is assumed to produce, beyond customers' perceptions of employee warmth, attentiveness, and friendliness (Otterbring et al. 2021d;Smith and Seymour 2014). ...
Article
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This paper presents a critical review of published findings pertaining to the physical proximity between employees and customers in various sales and service settings. Following an overview of this stream of research, reflections are then offered on how the concepts of personal space and physical proximity may have changed in terms of their financial and well-being-related effects as a function of the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the risk of infection in interpersonal interactions, and despite the affiliative aspects associated with physical proximity, recent recipes for success-as advocated by academics-may have a negative impact on multiple crucial metrics in a post-pandemic world, such that employees' physical proximity to customers may eventually come with a wide array of costly consequences. The article concludes with a set of future research directions.
... We define anticipated inclusion as the support seeker's implicit theory about whether friendships will allow for the seeker to be expressive about their needs and fully accepted by the support provider. Although some friendships are formed through propinquity (Back et al., 2008), some individuals are more deliberate in selecting friendship ties based on needs (Borgatti & Foster, 2003;James, 2000). Anticipated inclusion, therefore, captures the extent to which individuals expect they can be open and expressive prior to establishing a relationship. ...
... Based on the source-attractiveness theory [32,33], Back et al. [41] find that the longer an individual is exposed to another person, the more the individual rates that person positively and wants to interact with him/her every day. Following this logic, the longer viewers subscribe and follow a creator, the more the viewers become familiar with the creator, creating closer relationships between the viewers and the creator. ...
Article
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On YouTube, skippable in-stream advertisements (ads) are critical income for both YouTube and content creators. However, ads inevitably irritate viewers, and as a result, they tend to avoid ads. Thus, this study attempts to identify potential mitigators—source attractiveness and reciprocal altruism—of ad irritation and avoidance in the context of YouTube skippable in-stream ads. Using an online survey (n = 512) in Taiwan, the proposed model is examined by a partial least squares structural equation modeling analysis. The findings show that while ad irritation has a positive effect on ad avoidance, reciprocal altruism can significantly reduce both ad irritation and avoidance. However, source attractiveness fails to mitigate ad irritation and avoidance. Theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed, and several solutions for reducing ad irritation and avoidance are provided.
... Multiple studies exploited natural experiments, such as alphabetical seating [9,10]. Others directly randomized the assignment of college roommates [11], or the seating chart during an introductory meeting of psychology freshmen [12]. Most of these studies find that proximity promotes friendship formation. ...
Article
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Can outside interventions foster socio-culturally diverse friendships? We executed a large field experiment that randomized the seating charts of 182 3rd through 8th grade classrooms (N = 2,966 students) for the duration of one semester. We found that being seated next to each other increased the probability of a mutual friendship from 15% to 22% on average. Furthermore, induced proximity increased the latent propensity toward friendship equally for all students, regardless of students' dyadic similarity with respect to educational achievement, gender, and ethnicity. However, the probability of a manifest friendship increased more among similar than among dissimilar students-a pattern mainly driven by gender. Our findings demonstrate that a scalable light-touch intervention can affect face-to-face networks and foster diverse friendships in groups that already know each other, but they also highlight that transgressing boundaries, especially those defined by gender, remains an uphill battle.
... The naming strategies used by digital media users reflect deviance from established social norms since the netizens choose socially unsanctioned names (Hu et al., 2017;Shafie et al., 2012). This is because anonymity on the cyberspace provides a unique environment for users to behave more freely and openly with less restraint (Back et al., 2008;Koole, 2010). It also leads to the construction of unstable identities by some users online (Siedman, 2014). ...
Article
In Zimbabwean online spaces, especially Twitter, use of phantom names is widespread. It is arguable that this is partially a result of the country’s repressive political environment. It is the names that the nameless Twitter characters select and the motivations for using specific names that are the focus of this present study. The study is grounded in anthroponomastic concepts of pseudonymity and self-naming, and self-presentation and identity theory as well as semiotics of names while methodologically it is qualitative. Specifically, the study deploys archival research and netnography to gather data. The study found out that the ghosts’ adopted names are reflective of what they tweeted. The messages they tweeted were reflective of the online identity that they assumed; however, over and beyond that, their tweets exposed their political, and to an extent, religious inclinations. The tweets also exposed their origins and the spaces they once occupied or currently occupy. Finally, the article concludes that hiding behind a ghost name may hide the name of the person but it certainly does not hide the identity/identities of the person behind the phantom name. His or her being is self-evident in his or her tweets—they imprint themselves into their tweets. The anonymity in online spaces may, after all, be just superficial.
... Past research has documented the positive impact of physical proximity on various interpersonal outcomes (e.g., Back et al., 2008;Preciado et al., 2011). For example, Patterson and Sechrest (1970) found that strangers are perceived to be friendlier when they are seated closer to the target, while others found that proximity can generate favorable social impressions (Fay & Maner, 2012;IJzerman & Semin, 2009;Wang & Yao, 2016). ...
Article
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Across a series of lab and field studies, with a total sample of over 1,200 participants, we investigate how the physical proximity between salespeople and customers can impact store loyalty, purchase intentions, and actual spending. An initial survey among a representative sample of retail salespeople reveals that they associate close physical proximity between employees and customers with positive consumer outcomes, an intuition that dovetails with prior research documenting the positive influence of such proximity on purchase intentions, particularly in non-expressive consumption contexts. Contrary to this work, we demonstrate, across four studies in which proximity was both measured and manipulated, that store loyalty, purchase intentions, and actual spending behavior are negatively impacted when consumers encounter a salesperson who is standing close by (vs. farther away), particularly in expressive consumption contexts. Psychological discomfort mediates this effect, such that consumers experience greater discomfort when a salesperson is standing close by, which in turn decreases spending. Importantly, this phenomenon is moderated by identity relevance, such that the negative influence of salesperson-customer proximity specifically emerges when consumers think about products in terms of their ability to express their identities. These findings carry important implications for retailers operating in expressive consumption contexts.
... When forming a relationship people benefit from regular interpersonal contact and proximity is a key mechanism for achieving this contact. This proximity is typically spatial; people who tend to live close to each other have more likelihood of becoming friends (Back et al., 2008;Festinger et al., 1950;Johnson, 1989) and romantic partners (Ellison et al., 2012;Hamilton, 2016). A range of VAs have been developed to operate in close physical proximity to humans. ...
Article
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For most of human history we have ascribed human‐like capacities to other entities (anthropomorphism). Recently, the digital age has created new entities: virtual agents (VAs). Increasingly, these virtual entities are complex and human‐like, specifically designed to elicit anthropomorphism from their owners and users. We employ social psychological research and theory to review how, why, and when people come to anthropomorphize VAs. Moving beyond static representations, we examine the dynamics of human‐VA relationships and how they are encroaching on the closest of human relationships, virtual love. We use the social psychology of close relationships to examine the ways in which people may form, maintain, and terminate relationships with VAs. We conclude by examining the potential costs and benefits of these new relationships.
... This term has evident relevance for the analysis of human behaviours in physical learning spaces [44]. For example, decades of studies in social psychology have shown that physical proximity is one of the best predictors of social relationships such as in friendship and acquaintances [4]. ...
... Taking spatial distance as example, in the 1930s, Bossard discovered that, among five thousand couples, one-third lived within a range of five or less blocks of each other, and the percentage of marriages decreased as the distance between the parties increased (Bossard, 1932). Back et al. (2008) found that students who were randomly assigned to a seat closer to each other formed stronger friendships after a year. Nahemow and Lawton (1975) reported similar results: if people resided within a close distance to each other, friendships developed between people with different races and ages. ...
Article
In the current era, interacting with Artificial Intelligence (AI) has become an everyday activity. Understanding the interaction between humans and AI is of potential value because, in future, such interactions are expected to become more pervasive. Two studies—one survey and one experiment—were conducted to demonstrate positive effects of anthropomorphism on interactions with smart-speaker-based AI assistants and to examine the mediating role of psychological distance in this relationship. The results of Study 1, an online survey, showed that participants with a higher tendency to anthropomorphize their AI assistant/s evaluated it/them more positively, and this effect was mediated by psychological distance. In Study 2, the hypotheses were tested in a more sophisticated experiment. Again, the results indicated that, in the high-anthropomorphism (vs. low-anthropomorphism) condition, participants had more positive attitudes toward the AI assistant, and the effect was mediated by psychological distance. Though several studies have demonstrated the effect of anthropomorphism, few have probed the underlying mechanism of anthropomorphism thoroughly. The current research not only contributes to the anthropomorphism literature, but also provides direction to research on facilitating human–AI interaction.
... Latané (1981,1995) argued and found that memorable social interactions between people decreased, DIGITAL CONTACT, POWER, AND RESPONSIBILITY 7 the further apart their places of residence were located from one another (and, thus, the lower the likelihood to have face-to-face contact). Similarly, Festinger and colleagues showed that the closer neighbours were situated to each other, the more likely it seemed that they developed a personally close relationship (Festinger, Schachter, & Back, 1950; see also Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2008 for friendship development among undergraduates sitting close to each other in class). This work illustrates that the extent to which other people are 'present' (here, implying being spatially close) can make it easier to connect with and potentially even feel responsible for these others. ...
Article
Nowadays, power-holders and subordinates in organizations often collaborate via computer-mediated (rather than face-to-face) communication. Such means of contact provide many benefits, but could also influence how collaboration partners understand their roles: Will a power-holder feel responsible for taking care of his or her subordinates—though s/he anticipates meeting these subordinates only virtually, but not in person? Due to their independence, power-holders often seem to concentrate on and follow their own personal interests while neglecting their responsibility for others—which could be especially likely when expecting digital (rather than face-to-face) contact, because the former makes others seem less socially close. The present work tested this idea, bringing together approaches on digital collaboration, social power, and distance in social relationships. Results from two experiments showed that power-holders (compared to the powerless) perceived more responsibility for others when anticipating face-to-face (but not digital) contact. As such, the findings suggest that type of contact asserts a meaningful influence on social perception and highlight a potential challenge of anticipating digital contact in organizational hierarchies.
... In Study 1b, we asked why children use propinquity to determine friendship. Mere proximity can cause friendship (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2008;Festinger, Schachter, & Back, 1950), but choosing to spend time together should be more meaningful. Indeed, by middle childhood, children understand that they selectively participate in shared activities (e.g., ''Talking at each other's houses," '' [playing] board games") with friends but that other activities can indicate physical proximity without indicating social closeness (e.g., ''work[ing] together on schoolwork"; Mathur & Berndt, 2006). ...
Article
Friendship fundamentally shapes interactions, and predicting other people's affiliations is crucial for effectively navigating the social world. We investigated how 3- to 11-year-old children use three cues to reason about friendship: propinquity, similarity, and loyalty. In past work, researchers asked children to report on their own friendships and found a shift from an early focus on propinquity to a much later understanding of the importance of loyalty. Indeed, attention to loyalty was not standard until adolescence. Across four studies (total N = 900), we used a simpler method in which we asked children to make a forced-choice decision about which of two people a main character was better friends with. Although we replicated the finding that understanding the importance of loyalty increases with age, we also found evidence that even the youngest children tested (3- to 5-year-olds) can use loyalty to predict friendship. Thus, a sophisticated understanding of how social interactions unfold differently between friends and nonfriends may be evident by the preschool years. We also discuss interesting developmental differences in how children weigh the importance of each of these friendship cues.
Article
The current research examines the link between subjective preferences and humanity. Six studies (n = 2920) find that people dehumanize others who are perceived to lack subjective preference. Establishing the basic effect, a person without preferences is perceived as less human than someone with preferences, which is driven by the perception that the person lacks a distinct identity (Studies 1–4). The effect occurs regardless of whether the preference is positive or negative (Study 3) and is observed through measured (Studies 1–3) and manipulated distinctiveness (Study 4). Examining downstream consequences, a service representative lacking preference was evaluated more negatively, which was stronger for tasks requiring human mindfulness (i.e., creativity and emotion; Study 5). The dehumanization effect extends beyond person perception to negatively affect perceptions of the work a person produces (Study 6). Overall, the present article identifies a novel determinant of dehumanization and discusses implications for social interactions and impression management.
Conference Paper
Much research has attempted to investigate the peer relations of pupils with special educational needs (PSEN) and has found that PSEN are typically accepted less and rejected more than their non-SEN (NSEN) peers (e.g. Frederickson, 2010). However, these studies have tended to neglect the types and characteristics of peer relations that take place and have instead focussed on whether or not these relationships exist (Webster & Carter, 2009). This study builds on previous research by looking beyond classroom contexts to examine the nature of peer interactions within classroom and playground settings. This study explores the relationship between the provisions in place to support PSEN and their subsequent peer relations. The study also aims to gain the voice of the child to provide an in-depth account of the peer relations and breaktime experiences of PSEN compared to their non-SEN peers. This mixed method study was conducted with Year four and five pupils in two mainstream primary schools. Ten PSEN and ten comparison pupils without SEN, as well as their class teachers and 134 of their classmates took part in the study. This study draws upon information gathered through: systematic observations in the classroom and playground, sociometric rating scales, questionnaires and pupil interviews. The study found that PSEN engaged in fewer peer interactions in the classroom and in the playground than their NSEN peers and scored less favourably on a range of peer relationship measures. The study indicated that higher levels of peer interactions and fewer interactions with teaching assistants (TAs) in the classroom were powerfully associated with more positive peer relations for the pupils in the study. The study also identified that PSEN engaged in more ‘parallel’ and ‘solitary’ and less ‘social’ interactions at break than NSEN pupils. Whilst PSEN described a range of benefits that breaktimes provide for them, a number of challenges relating to peer relations were identified.
Article
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Every social relationship begins somewhere. Yet, little is known about which initial encounters bring people closer. This article investigates whether feelings of closeness are shaped by the type of experience shared between two individuals. Using different procedures and stimuli, we find that one determining factor is whether unacquainted individuals initially share a relatively more ordinary or extraordinary experience: more extraordinary (vs. ordinary) experiences facilitate greater closeness between unacquainted individuals (Studies 1a-1c). We also find that this closeness-fostering effect does not occur for interactions between well-acquainted individuals (Study 2), when there is presumably little discomfort associated with the interaction. Furthermore, this effect appears to be driven by more extraordinary experiences’ capacity to absorb individuals’ attention (Study 3). Thus, we suggest that extraordinary experiences foster feelings of closeness because they direct unacquainted individuals’ attention toward the extraordinariness of the experience and away from the discomfort of initial interactions.
Presentation
In mostly all studies revealing a significant enhancing effect of the color red on attractiveness judgements, an evolutionary perspective was used as a possible explanation. The color phenomenon, termed chromostereopsis, has not yet been considered as potential mediating factor. More specifically, red is the color with the largest wavelength which could be shown to lead to a lower distance perception in comparison to other colored objects in the majority of people. In our first study, we investigated if the association between color and distance perception also occurs for target persons wearing red versus blue shirts. In our second study, we hypothesized these differences to mediate the effect of red on attractiveness judgements. In both studies, targets wearing a red shirt were perceived significantly closer compared to targets with a blue shirt. The second study, however, revealed no difference in attractiveness ratings between targets wearing red or blue shirts. The moderate attractiveness of the targets used in this study is discussed as an influential factor affecting the results.
Article
Background: Neighborhood disadvantage (ND) and population density (PD) are two community characteristics contextualizing friends' influence on adolescent alcohol use. However, these community characteristics are rarely examined for potential joint contributions, although it is possible that the way friends are selected or influence alcohol use are shaped by both ND and PD. In addition, prior studies examining ND or PD contexts on friend influence rarely discern between socialization and selection. Objectives: The current study examined how selection and socialization influences on adolescent alcohol use are shaped by unique and joint contexts of ND and PD. Methods: Adolescents from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent and Adult Health (Add Health) were included in three models assessing friends' socialization of alcohol us initiation and binge drinking, and selection of drinking friends. ND and PD were tested for mediation and moderation individually and jointly. Results: Results indicated that socialization of drinking initiation was stronger in high ND contexts, and that continued binge drinking was stronger in low ND contexts. PD indirectly influenced socialization of initiation and binge drinking maintenance via a negative association with number of drinking friends. PD and ND jointly influenced the association between initial binge drinking and next-year selection of drinking friends, such that selection was stronger within areas related to lower levels of drinking friends. Conclusions/Importance: Current results indicate that PD and ND shape friends' influence on alcohol use in unique ways. These must be accounted for to better understand bidirectional effects of friend influence.
Article
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Research into individual differences in interpersonal accuracy (IPA; the ability to accurately judge others’ emotions, intentions, traits, truthfulness, and other social characteristics) has a long tradition and represents a growing area of interest in psychology. Measuring IPA has proved fruitful for uncovering correlates of this skill. However, despite this tradition and a considerable volume of research, very few efforts have been made to look collectively at the nature of the tests involved in assessing IPA, leaving questions of the broader structure of IPA unresolved. Is IPA a single skill or a clustering of many discrete skills or some combination of partially overlapping skills? In a multi-level meta-analysis of 103 published and unpublished participant samples (13,683 participants), we analyzed 622 correlations between pairs of IPA tests (135 different IPA tests altogether). The overall correlation between IPA tests was r = .19, corrected for the nesting of correlations within the studies that administered more than two IPA tests and reported several correlations for the same participant sample. Test domain and characteristics were evaluated to explain differences in effect sizes; in general, tests in similar domains and using similar methodologies were more highly correlated with each other, suggesting that there are domains within which individual differences cluster. Implication for future research and IPA measurement were discussed.
Chapter
Wann haben Sie sich zuletzt verliebt? Wie häufig hatten Sie schon Liebeskummer? Hand aufs Herz: Über wen haben Sie sich in den vergangenen Wochen am meisten aufgeregt, über Ihren Freund/Ihre Freundin, einen Mitbewohner oder Ihre Eltern? Oder auch einen Dozenten, einen Sporttrainer oder einen Kommilitonen? Ob Liebes-, Arbeits-, Wohnbeziehung – soziale Beziehungen bestimmen unseren Alltag. Denn wir verbringen ihn mit Menschen, mit denen uns, ob gewollt oder nicht gewollt, Beziehungen verbinden: Wir haben Freunde, Verwandte, Vorgesetzte, Partner, manchmal auch Geliebte und zuweilen auch ein paar Feinde. In diesem Kapitel erfahren Sie, was Beziehungen unterschiedlicher Art aus sozialpsychologischer Sicht charakterisiert und welche Bedeutung Beziehungen für unser Wohlbefinden und unsere Gesundheit haben (Abschn. 1.1). Anschließend lesen Sie, welche Faktoren die Aufnahme einer Beziehung wahrscheinlicher machen (Abschn. 1.2). Sie lernen darüber hinaus die sozialpsychologische Sicht auf die Thematik „Liebe“ kennen sowie typische Verläufe von Paarbeziehungen, Forschung zum Umgang mit Krisen in der Partnerschaft und zu Auswirkungen von Trennungen (Abschn. 1.3).
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Previous research indicates that personality is associated with interpersonal attraction. The present research aims to extend the current literature on personality and interpersonal attraction by using objective behavioral measures recorded in real social interactions. In the current study, 468 participants (Mage = 31.2, SDage = 14.0) interacted in same-sex dyads at zero acquaintance. At the end of the session, participants were asked to take a seat on a sofa. Analyses revealed that physical distance (defined for each person as how far they sat from their end of the sofa) was significantly associated with perceptions of interpersonal attraction to the interaction partner. Using Actor-Partner-Interdependence Models, we then analyzed the effects of self- and other-reported Big Five traits on physical proximity. Results showed that self-reports of agreeableness and other-judged agreeableness, extraversion, and openness were significantly associated with physical proximity. The present findings highlight the influence of personality on behavioral outcomes of interpersonal attraction.
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Researchers are beginning to explore the variety of casual sexual relationships that individuals engage in. These relationships, and the subtle nuances that differentiate them, have not been studied collectively. The purpose of the present study was to qualitatively examine casual sexual relationships (CSRs), ranging from a single encounter to an ongoing sexual relationship with a friend. Male and female focus group participants identified a number of implicit and explicit rules that guide the initiation, maintenance, and termination of four types of casual sexual relationships: One Nights Stands, Booty Calls, Fuck Buddies, and Friends with Benefits. Participants identified these rules regardless of gender or whether they had previous personal experience with any of these CSRs. The results suggest that each of these relationship types can be placed on a continuum of casual sex according to various dimensions, including frequency of contact, type of contact (sexual and/or social), personal disclosure, discussion of the relationship, and friendship. Participants' shared understanding of CSRs suggests that young adults may have common cultural knowledge of these relationships and a fluid conceptualization of what constitutes a relationship.
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Studies of college students and citizens of south Florida, United States, students in Shanghai, China, and an international sample of social psychologists show that social influence, measured by the frequency of memorable interactions, is heavily determined by distance. In all three cases, although there was a great deal of interaction with distant persons, the relationship between distance and interaction frequency was well described by an inverse power function with a slope of approximately -1, consistent with the expectation that social impact is proportional to the inverse square of the distance separating two persons. This result confirms one principle from Latane's 1981 theory of social impact and helps explain the ability of opinion minorities to cluster and survive in the face of majority influence.
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People gravitate toward people, places, and things that resemble the self. We refer to this tendency as implicit egotism, and we suggest that it reflects an unconscious process that is grounded in people's favorable self-associations. We review recent archival and experimental research that supports this position, highlighting evidence that rules out alternate explanations and distinguishes implicit egotism from closely related ideas such as mere exposure. Taken together, the evidence suggests that implicit egotism is an implicit judgmental consequence of people's positive self-associations. We conclude by identifying promising areas for future research.
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Kenny has proposed a variance-components model for dyadic social interaction. His Social Relations model estimates variances and covariances from a round-robin of two-person interactions. The current paper presents a matrix formulation of the Social Relations model. It uses the formulation to derive exact and estimated standard errors for round-robin estimates of Social Relations parameters.
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Contrary to conventional wisdom, it is not always advantageous to engage in thorough conscious deliberation before choosing. On the basis of recent insights into the characteristics of conscious and unconscious thought, we tested the hypothesis that simple choices (such as between different towels or different sets of oven mitts) indeed produce better results after conscious thought, but that choices in complex matters (such as between different houses or different cars) should be left to unconscious thought. Named the "deliberation-without-attention" hypothesis, it was confirmed in four studies on consumer choice, both in the laboratory as well as among actual shoppers, that purchases of complex products were viewed more favorably when decisions had been made in the absence of attentive deliberation.
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What was noted by E. J. Langer (1978) remains true today; that much of contemporary psychological research is based on the assumption that people are consciously and systematically processing incoming information in order to construe and interpret their world and to plan and engage in courses of action. As did E. J. Langer, the authors question this assumption. First, they review evidence that the ability to exercise such conscious, intentional control is actually quite limited, so that most of moment-to-moment psychological life must occur through nonconscious means if it is to occur at all. The authors then describe the different possible mechanisms that produce automatic, environmental control over these various phenomena and review evidence establishing both the existence of these mechanisms as well as their consequences for judgments, emotions, and behavior. Three major forms of automatic self-regulation are identified: an automatic effect of perception on action, automatic goal pursuit, and a continual automatic evaluation of one's experience. From the accumulating evidence, the authors conclude that these various nonconscious mental systems perform the lion's share of the self-regulatory burden, beneficently keeping the individual grounded in his or her current environment.
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Seven basic research questions in interpersonal perception are posed concerning issues of consensus, assimilation, reciprocity, accuracy, congruence, assumed similarity and self—other agreement. All questions can be addressed at the individual level, and three at the dyadic level. It is shown how the Social Relations Model can be used to answer the questions.
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Conducted a sociometric study which examined the friendship network among 270 residents of a city housing project with a high concentration of elderly tenants. The issues of propinquity of residence and similarity of age, race, and sex between chooser and chosen were examined in the context of a theory of social space. An inverse relationship was found between similarity of friends and proximity of residence. Friendships between people of different ages and races were found almost exclusively among those who lived very close to one another. (31 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Studied the relationship between propinquity and interpersonal attraction in 44 state police trainees. Place in alphabetical order was used as an unobtrusive (and conservative) measure of propinquity. The effect of proximity on friendship choice among Ss was found to be stronger than the effects of a wide variety of other characteristics that have been identified in the literature as determinants of interpersonal attraction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
What was noted by E. J. Langer (1978) remains true today: that much of contemporary psychological research is based on the assumption that people are consciously and systematically processing incoming information in order to construe and interpret their world and to plan and engage in courses of action. As did Langer, the authors question this assumption. First, they review evidence that the ability to exercise such conscious, intentional control is actually quite limited, so that most of moment-to-moment psychological life must occur through nonconscious means if it is to occur at all. The authors then describe the different possible mechanisms that produce automatic, environmental control over these various phenomena and review evidence establishing both the existence of these mechanisms as well as their consequences for judgments, emotions, and behavior. Three major forms of automatic self-regulation are identified: an automatic effect of perception on action, automatic goal pursuit, and a continual automatic evaluation of one's experience. From the accumulating evidence, the authors conclude that these various nonconscious mental systems perform the lion's share of the self-regulatory burden, beneficently keeping the individual grounded in his or her current environment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
• Ideas, like individuals and nations, have histories, and so do the research enterprises that sometimes stem from ideas. The history of the research that is reported in the following pages is mainly one of indebtedness. The 34 men who, week after week, faithfully provided the bricks of information out of which this monograph is constructed were, of course, my principal benefactors. Not one of them ever lapsed, for even a single week, and my debt to them is most inadequately repaid by sending each of them a standard model of this monograph. The writing of a research report, too, has its own history, and in the writing of this one I came to the conclusion that it would be a bare-boned research report, together with only such theoretical connective tissue as in fact inspired the initial planning of the research. The reader will find that I have sometimes oscillated between the reporting of tests of theoretically derived prediction and the presenting of exploratory findings. Insofar as the latter are interesting or significant, I have no apology to make for them--especially as one who has often criticized students who, in their eagerness to find support for cherished hypotheses, ignore serendipidous findings. The phenomena of getting acquainted, like most others which one studies intimately for a period of years, are full of interesting surprises, and none of us is capable of anticipating all of them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) • Ideas, like individuals and nations, have histories, and so do the research enterprises that sometimes stem from ideas. The history of the research that is reported in the following pages is mainly one of indebtedness. The 34 men who, week after week, faithfully provided the bricks of information out of which this monograph is constructed were, of course, my principal benefactors. Not one of them ever lapsed, for even a single week, and my debt to them is most inadequately repaid by sending each of them a standard model of this monograph. The writing of a research report, too, has its own history, and in the writing of this one I came to the conclusion that it would be a bare-boned research report, together with only such theoretical connective tissue as in fact inspired the initial planning of the research. The reader will find that I have sometimes oscillated between the reporting of tests of theoretically derived prediction and the presenting of exploratory findings. Insofar as the latter are interesting or significant, I have no apology to make for them--especially as one who has often criticized students who, in their eagerness to find support for cherished hypotheses, ignore serendipidous findings. The phenomena of getting acquainted, like most others which one studies intimately for a period of years, are full of interesting surprises, and none of us is capable of anticipating all of them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Similarity and attraction The unbearable automaticity of being
  • K Ahyun
AhYun, K. (2002). Similarity and attraction. In M. Allen, R.W. Preiss, B.M. Gayle, & N.A. Burrell (Eds.), Interpersonal communication research (pp. 145–167). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Bargh, J.A., & Chartrand, T.L. (1999). The unbearable automaticity of being. American Psychologist, 54, 462–479.
The acquaintance process Implicit egotism
  • T M Newcomb
  • Holt
  • Winston Rinehart
  • B W Pelham
  • M Carvallo
  • J T Jones
Newcomb, T.M. (1961). The acquaintance process. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Pelham, B.W., Carvallo, M., & Jones, J.T. (2005). Implicit egotism. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 106–110.
Similarity and attraction
  • K Ahyun
AhYun, K. (2002). Similarity and attraction. In M. Allen, R.W. Preiss, B.M. Gayle, & N.A. Burrell (Eds.), Interpersonal communication research (pp. 145–167). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Mean friendship intensity as a function of randomly assigned seating at the first encounter a year earlier. Friendship intensity was rated on a scale from 0 to 5. Error bars represent standard errors of the means. Asterisks indicate significant differences between conditions
  • Fig
Fig. 1. Mean friendship intensity as a function of randomly assigned seating at the first encounter a year earlier. Friendship intensity was rated on a scale from 0 to 5. Error bars represent standard errors of the means. Asterisks indicate significant differences between conditions, p <.05.