Transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase gene has enhanced resistance to Fusarium Head Blight. J Exp Bot

Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, 411 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St Paul, MN 55108, USA.
Journal of Experimental Botany (Impact Factor: 5.53). 02/2008; 59(9):2371-8. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/ern103
Source: PubMed


Fusarium head blight (FHB; scab), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grains with trichothecene mycotoxins
such as deoxynivalenol (DON). The genetic variation in existing wheat germplasm pools for FHB resistance is low and may not
provide sufficient resistance to develop cultivars through traditional breeding approaches. Thus, genetic engineering provides
an additional approach to enhance FHB resistance. The objectives of this study were to develop transgenic wheat expressing
a barley class II chitinase and to test the transgenic lines against F. graminearum infection under greenhouse and field conditions. A barley class II chitinase gene was introduced into the spring wheat cultivar,
Bobwhite, by biolistic bombardment. Seven transgenic lines were identified that expressed the chitinase transgene and exhibited
enhanced Type II resistance in the greenhouse evaluations. These seven transgenic lines were tested under field conditions
for percentage FHB severity, percentage visually scabby kernels (VSK), and DON accumulation. Two lines (C8 and C17) that exhibited
high chitinase protein levels also showed reduced FHB severity and VSK compared to Bobwhite. One of the lines (C8) also exhibited
reduced DON concentration compared with Bobwhite. These results showed that transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II
chitinase exhibited enhanced resistance against F. graminearum in greenhouse and field conditions.

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    • "Biotic stresses Decreased effects of stinking smut (Tilletia tritici) Antifungal protein KP4 Clausen et al. (2000) Higher fusarium blight symptoms NPR1 gene (AtNPR1) Makandar et al. (2006) Significant reduction of fusarium head blight symptoms α-1-purothionin, thaumatin-like protein 1 (tlp-1), and β-1,3-glucanase Mackintosh et al. (2007) Reduced fusarium head blight severity and percentage of visually scabby kernels Class II chitinase Shin et al. (2008) Increased leaf rust resistance irrespective of genetic background Lr34 Risk et al. (2012) Increased resistance to aphids (E)-β-farnesene synthase Yu et al. (2012) Higher resistance to Gaeumannomyces graminis TiMYB2R-1 Liu et al. (2013) increasingly limiting for further dissection of stress-adaptive traits. The increasing use of geographic information system tools, soil water balance and plant growth models is expected to better describe the drought scenario faced by the crops in different target environments, compare and cluster phenotyping locations, and finally better understand genotype by environment interactions. "
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    ABSTRACT: Most yield progress obtained through the so called "Green Revolution", particularly in the irrigated areas of Asia, has reached a limit, and major resistance genes are quickly overcome by the appearance of new strains of disease causing organisms. New plant stresses due to a changing environment are difficult to breed for as quickly as the changes occur. There is consequently a continual need for new research programs and breeding strategies aimed at improving yield potential, abiotic stress tolerance and resistance to new, major pests and diseases. Recent advances in plant breeding encompass novel methods of expanding genetic variability and selecting for recombinants, including the development of synthetic hexaploid, hybrid and transgenic wheats. In addition, the use of molecular approaches such as quantitative trait locus (QTL) and association mapping may increase the possibility of directly selecting positive chromosomal regions linked with natural variation for grain yield and stress resistance. The present article reviews the potential contribution of these new approaches and tools to the improvement of wheat yield in farmer's fields, with a special emphasis on the Asian countries, which are major wheat producers, and contain the highest concentration of resource-poor wheat farmers.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Integrative Agriculture
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    • "Purified plant chitinases have been demonstrated to attack and partially digest isolated cell walls of several pathogenic fungi such as ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and deuteromycetes (Zhu and Lamb 1990). Successful transgene-induced pathogen resistance has been reported in plants such as tobacco (Zhu et al. 1994), rose (Marchant et al. 1998), chrysanthemum (Takatsu et al. 1999), strawberry (Vellicce et al. 2006) and wheat (Shin et al. 2008). The fungal pathogen Botrytis causes huge economic losses to a very wide range of host crop species as the disease can infect several tissues, including flowers, leaves, fruits and stems (Staats et al. 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Key Message Transgenic Lilium lines have been generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation that have enhanced resistance to Botrytis cinerea as a consequence of ectopic expression of a rice chitinase gene. Abstract The production of ornamentals is an important global industry, with Lilium being one of the six major bulb crops in the world. The international trade in ornamentals is in the order of £60–75 billion and is expected to increase worldwide by 2–4 % per annum. The continued success of the floriculture industry depends on the introduction of new species/cultivars with major alterations in key agronomic characteristics, such as resistance to pathogens. Fungal diseases are the cause of reduced yields and marketable quality of cultivated plants, including ornamental species. The fungal pathogen Botrytis causes extreme economic losses to a wide range of crop species, including ornamentals such as Lilium. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was used to develop Lilium oriental cv. ‘Star Gazer’ plants that ectopically overexpress the Rice Chitinase 10 gene (RCH10), under control of the CaMV35S promoter. Levels of conferred resistance linked to chitinase expression were evaluated by infection with Botrytis cinerea; sporulation was reduced in an in vitro assay and the relative expression of the RCH10 gene was determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. The extent of resistance to Botrytis, compared to that of the wild type plants, showed a direct correlation with the level of chitinase gene expression. Transgenic plants grown to flowering showed no detrimental phenotypic effects associated with transgene expression. This is the first report of Lilium plants with resistance to Botrytis cinerea generated by a transgenic approach.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Plant Cell Reports
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    • "Resistance against pathogenic fungus Bolar et al. (2001) (Trichoderma harzianum) causing Scab disease (Venturiainequalis) Rice chitinase gene Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) Enhances antifungal potential, showed Nirala KN et al. (2010) delayed onset of the disease and smaller lesions Rice chitinase gene litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn) Transgenic plants showed delayed onset of the Das et al. (2012) disease and smaller lesions following in vitro inoculation of die-back, leaf spots and blight pathogen(Phomopsissp) Barley class II chitinase gene Wheat Enhanced resistance against Fusariumgraminearum Shin et al. (2008) Endochitinase gene Cotton Enhanced fungal resistance in cotton against Emaniet al. (2003) (Trichoderma virens) Rhizoctonia solani and "
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    ABSTRACT: Plants can suffer from infections caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, and other pathogens. Various high-tech approaches have been proposed to protect plants from harmful afflictions. To date, most interest has been focused on virus resistant transgenic plants, but using biotechnology to confer resistance to fungi, bacteria, or nematodes has also been gaining attention.Fungi are responsible for a range of serious plant diseases such as blight, grey mould, bunts, powdery mildew, and downy mildew. Crops of all kinds often suffer heavy losses. Fungal plant diseases are usually managed with applications of chemical fungicides or heavy metals. In some cases, conventional breeding has provided fungus resistantcultivars.Besides combatting yield losses, preventing fungal infection keeps crops free of toxic compounds produced by some pathogenic fungi. These compounds, often referred to as mycotoxins, can affect affect the immune system and disrupt hormone balances. Some mycotoxinsare carcinogenic. Genetic engineering enables new ways of managing fungal infections.Introducing genes from other plants or bacteria encoding enzymes like chitinase or glucanase. These enzymes break down chitin or glucan, respectively, which are essential components of fungal cell walls. Chitinases is one of the most important PR protiens, which is used to improve plant defence against fungal pathogen. Chitinases have been shown to posses an antifungal role in disease resistance. These genes have originated from several sources including bacteria and plants. For the past one decade, fungi have been identified as better producers of chitinase than bacteria and plants.Gene encoding Chitinases have been isolated and cloned from many fungi, such as, Saccharomyces, Rhizopusoligosporous, Candida albicans and Trichodermahazianum.The enzyme inhibits the spore germination and hyphal elongation of various fungal pathogen invitro.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014
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