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Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Cell Phone Use and Behavioral Problems in Children

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Abstract

The World Health Organization has emphasized the need for research into the possible effects of radiofrequency fields in children. We examined the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to cell phones and behavioral problems in young children. Mothers were recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort early in pregnancy. When the children of those pregnancies reached 7 years of age in 2005 and 2006, mothers were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the current health and behavioral status of children, as well as past exposure to cell phone use. Mothers evaluated the child's behavior problems using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. Mothers of 13,159 children completed the follow-up questionnaire reporting their use of cell phones during pregnancy as well as current cell phone use by the child. Greater odds ratios for behavioral problems were observed for children who had possible prenatal or postnatal exposure to cell phone use. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratio for a higher overall behavioral problems score was 1.80 (95% confidence interval = 1.45-2.23) in children with both prenatal and postnatal exposure to cell phones. Exposure to cell phones prenatally-and, to a lesser degree, postnatally-was associated with behavioral difficulties such as emotional and hyperactivity problems around the age of school entry. These associations may be noncausal and may be due to unmeasured confounding. If real, they would be of public health concern given the widespread use of this technology.

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... 32.3% effects on brain tumor was found by Al-Muhayawi et al. (2012) [4] according to the world health organization report, the mobile device and internet radiation has 40% effect on brain tumor and the effect on brain tumor was 84%. In addition it was discovered that the effect of mobile device and internet on Alzheimer's disease (Divan, 2008) [6] . The diseases due to the electromagnetic field are immune system damage, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and heart problems. ...
... 32.3% effects on brain tumor was found by Al-Muhayawi et al. (2012) [4] according to the world health organization report, the mobile device and internet radiation has 40% effect on brain tumor and the effect on brain tumor was 84%. In addition it was discovered that the effect of mobile device and internet on Alzheimer's disease (Divan, 2008) [6] . The diseases due to the electromagnetic field are immune system damage, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and heart problems. ...
... The diseases due to the electromagnetic field are immune system damage, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and heart problems. Divan et al. (2008) [6] found the effect of mobile device and internet radiation on prenatal and postnatal conditions, it was examined that the effect on unborn baby when mother use the mobile device and internet and laptop (when laptop connected with WiFi), these radiations are bad for unborn baby's brain development and also mobile device and internet radiation affects our brain (Uddin &Ferdous, 2010) [30] Given the gross inequality among men and women in Nigeria, various stakeholders have spent countless hours and contributed tremendous effort to determine the best route towards reducing gender disparity. Among the various actors are Information Communication technologies for development (ICT4D), Community which focuses on using ICTs for furthering political and social development in developing countries. ...
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Abstract Mobile devices and internet have become the integral part of our everyday life. These devices are being used for many purposes such as for internet and telecommunication. The purpose of this study is to investigate the perception of tertiary institution students towards the hidden health dangers of mobile devices and internet usage. These devices emit harmful radiations which cause diseases like: male infertility, brain tumor, hearing impairment, fetus, and effect on eyes. This study investigated the perception of students towards the reality of some major diseases, such as, brain tumor, male infertility cancer, visual and hearing impairment and so on through wrong usage of mobile devices and internet. The survey was conducted on students from the Computer Science departments of the state-owned tertiary institutions in Lagos, Nigeria. The instrument used was validated at a reliability co-efficient value of 0.77.The result collected revealed that most students are either ignorant or non-challant about the imminent danger of the wrong usage of mobile internet devices to the human health. Recommendations suggested concerted effort to create an awareness to avert the latent danger posed to the Nigerian population through wrong usage of mobile internet devices in order to maintain healthy society Keywords: Perception, health dangers, mobile devices/internet, usage, gender. Male infertility
... 32.3% effects on brain tumor was found by Al-Muhayawi et al. (2012) [4] according to the world health organization report, the mobile device and internet radiation has 40% effect on brain tumor and the effect on brain tumor was 84%. In addition it was discovered that the effect of mobile device and internet on Alzheimer's disease (Divan, 2008) [6] . The diseases due to the electromagnetic field are immune system damage, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and heart problems. ...
... 32.3% effects on brain tumor was found by Al-Muhayawi et al. (2012) [4] according to the world health organization report, the mobile device and internet radiation has 40% effect on brain tumor and the effect on brain tumor was 84%. In addition it was discovered that the effect of mobile device and internet on Alzheimer's disease (Divan, 2008) [6] . The diseases due to the electromagnetic field are immune system damage, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and heart problems. ...
... The diseases due to the electromagnetic field are immune system damage, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and heart problems. Divan et al. (2008) [6] found the effect of mobile device and internet radiation on prenatal and postnatal conditions, it was examined that the effect on unborn baby when mother use the mobile device and internet and laptop (when laptop connected with WiFi), these radiations are bad for unborn baby's brain development and also mobile device and internet radiation affects our brain (Uddin &Ferdous, 2010) [30] Given the gross inequality among men and women in Nigeria, various stakeholders have spent countless hours and contributed tremendous effort to determine the best route towards reducing gender disparity. Among the various actors are Information Communication technologies for development (ICT4D), Community which focuses on using ICTs for furthering political and social development in developing countries. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mobile devices and internet have become the integral part of our everyday life. These devices are being used for many purposes such as for internet and telecommunication. The purpose of this study is to investigate the perception of tertiary institution students towards the hidden health dangers of mobile devices and internet usage. These devices emit harmful radiations which cause diseases like: male infertility, brain tumor, hearing impairment, fetus, and effect on eyes. This study investigated the perception of students towards the reality of some major diseases, such as, brain tumor, male infertility cancer, visual and hearing impairment and so on through wrong usage of mobile devices and internet. The survey was conducted on students from the Computer Science departments of the state-owned tertiary institutions in Lagos, Nigeria. The instrument used was validated at a reliability coefficient value of 0.77.The result collected revealed that most students are either ignorant or non-challant about the imminent danger of the wrong usage of mobile internet devices to the human health. Recommendations suggested concerted effort to create an awareness to avert the latent danger posed to the Nigerian population through wrong usage of mobile internet devices in order to maintain healthy society
... 5 Studies have questioned the theory of the thermal effect induced by cell phones because the rate of absorption of cell phone RF by the pregnant uterus is not high enough to raise the body temperature. [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13] There is still ongoing research on the nonthermal effects of RF radiation (RFR). ...
... An odds ratio (OR) of 1.58 (95%CI: 1.34 to 1.86) when children were exposed to both prenatally and used cellphones at age 7 years, OR of 1.41(95%CI: 1.20 to 1.66) for prenatal exposure and an OR of 1.36 (95%CI: 1.14 to 1.63) for the postnatal exposure. 8 Divan et al., 9 in a study with mothers of 13,159 7-year-old children, observed a significant association between behavioral problems in children and prenatal cell phone exposure. The highest OR for behavioral problems was observed in children who had both prenatal and postnatal cell phone exposure (OR ¼ 80; 95%CI: 1.45 to 2.23), followed by prenatal exposure alone (OR ¼ 1.54; 95%CI: 1.32 to 1.81) and postnatal exposure alone (OR ¼ 1.18; 95%CI: 1.01 to 1.38). ...
... A significant difference was only observed between the children of compulsive users and those of non-users. The highest decrease in psychomotor scores (5.6 points [95% confidence interval 10.7 to 0.5]) was reported by Vrijheid et al. 12 Divan et al., 13 in a study with more than 41 thosusand singletons, found no significant association between Child's gender; mother's age at birth; father's age at birth; mother's history of psychiatric problems (self-reported from Age-7 Questionnaire); mother's history of same psychiatric, behavioral, or cognitive problems as child (self-reported from prenatal interviews); father's history of same psychiatric, behavioral, or cognitive problems as child (spousal report from prenatal interviews); sociooccupational status, including High, Mid, Low; socio-occupational status, including High, Mid, Low; prenatal smoking (entire pregnancy, early pregnancy, or not a smoker); prenatal alcohol intake (entire, early, or late pregnancy only, or not at all); and prenatal marijuana use (yes or no); prenatal stress (14-point summary score categorized as low (0-4), medium (5), or high (6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)); prenatal physical activity (entire, early, or late pregnancy, or no activity); other sources of prenatal ionizing and non-ionizing radiation (such as, Xrays, ultrasound); parity; gestational age; birth weight; postpartum stress (15-point summary score categorized as low (0-3), medium (4), or high (5-15)); child breastfed for at least the ...
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Objective To determine the association between maternal mobile phone use and adverse outcomes in infants, children, and mothers. Method In March 202, we conducted a search on the MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus databases. Data extraction and an assessment of the quality of the studies were performed by two authors. The quality of the studies was assessed using the checklist of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results Studies assessing behavioral problems in infants aged 6 to 18 months reported null findings. However, an increased risk of emotional and behavioral disorders was observed in children aged between 7 and 11 years whose mothers had been exposed to cell phones. The findings regarding the association between maternal cell phone exposure and adverse outcomes in children aged 3 to 5 are controversial. A study found a significant association between the call time (p = 0.002) or the history of mobile phone use (in months) and speech disorders in the children (p = 0.003). However, another study found that maternal cell phone use during pregnancy was not significantly associated with child psychomotor and mental developments. Inconclusive results were observed about the adverse outcomes in fetuses, such as fetal growth restriction or t scores for birth weight in cell phone users as opposed to non-users. On the contrary, the children of mothers who were cell phone users had a lower risk of scoring low on motor skills. Similar results were observed regarding the adverse outcomes of cell phone use in infants, such as fetal growth restriction or low birth weight, and the risk of preeclampsia was lower among subjects with medium and high cell phone exposure, as opposed to those with low exposure. Conclusion Studies on behavioral problems have reported different postnatal results, such as null findings among infants and a positive association in children.
... Mobile communication is dramatically increasing globally, which has raised public concerns regarding possible adverse effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) radiation, especially on vulnerable populations. In animal studies, the exposure of pregnant mice to whole-body radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from cell phones resulted in hyperactivity, impaired memory, and behavioral changes in the offspring [Divan et al., 2008;Aldad et al., 2012]. Etiological studies suggested an association between exposure to cellphone RFR and neurological dysfunction [Roosli, 2008;Tyler and Allan, 2014]. ...
... Exposure to RFR, such as wireless local area networks, so-called "wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi)," reportedly caused a significant increase in anxiety levels in male rats [Obajuluwa et al., 2017]. In a cohort study, prenatal exposure to cellphone RFR was associated with a significant increase in behavioral problems of emotion and hyperactivity around the age of school entry [Divan et al., 2008]. However, it is still unclear whether RF-EMF exposure during pregnancy is critically harmful to the fetus or not. ...
... We have studied the biological effects of RF exposure with an RFID exposure system [Kim et al., , 2015. In cohort studies, the relationship between prenatal and postnatal exposure to cellphone use with behavioral problems in children was studied in the Danish National Birth Cohort [Divan et al., 2008[Divan et al., , 2012. They reported high odds ratios for behavioral problems, such as emotional problems and hyperactivity, at 7 years of age associated with maternal cellphone use during pregnancy [Divan et al., 2008[Divan et al., , 2012. ...
Article
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The placenta protects the fetus against excessive stress-associated maternal cortisol during pregnancy. We studied whether exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) radiation during pregnancy can cause changes in dams and their placentas. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into cage-control, sham-exposed, and RF-exposed groups. They were exposed to RF-EMF signals at a whole-body specific absorption rate of 4 W/kg for 8 h/day from gestational Day 1 to 19. Levels of cortisol in the blood, adrenal gland, and placenta were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticotropin-releasing hormone were monitored in maternal blood. Expression levels of placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) messenger RNA (mRNA) were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Morphological changes in the placenta were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Fetal parts of the placenta were measured using Zen 2.3 blue edition software. Maternal cortisol in circulating blood (RF: 230 ± 24.6 ng/ml and Sham: 156 ± 8.3 ng/ml) and the adrenal gland (RF: 58.3 ± 4.5 ng/ml and Sham: 30 ± 3.8 ng/ml) was significantly increased in the RF-exposed group (P < 0.05). Placental cortisol was stably maintained, and the level of placental 11β-HSD2 mRNA expression was not changed in the RF-exposed group. RF-EMF exposure during pregnancy caused a significant elevation of cortisol levels in circulating blood; however, no changes in the placental barrier were observed in pregnant rats. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2021 Bioelectromagnetics Society.
... Despite the unknown nature and the underlying mechanism of the fetus's vulnerability to cell phone radiation (9), recent studies have shown that it may be linked to free radicals generation, oxidative stress, and even cell damage (10). Some studies demonstrated a significant association between the risk of abortion, congenital malformations, childhood behavioral disorders, and excessive maternal cell phone use (5,6,(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19). Overall, it should be noted that although the negative effects of cell phone use during pregnancy have remained controversial and currently available evidence are inconsistent, cell phone use poses a potential risk (20)(21)(22). ...
... Zarei et al. (14) found that child speech problems were significantly associated with a history of maternal long cell phone call time during pregnancy. In Divan et al. study (15) from Danish, 60% of pregnant women were non-users. They also reported that prenatal and early postnatal exposure to cell phone radiation were associated with behavioral disorders such as hyperactivity (15). ...
... In Divan et al. study (15) from Danish, 60% of pregnant women were non-users. They also reported that prenatal and early postnatal exposure to cell phone radiation were associated with behavioral disorders such as hyperactivity (15). Huss et al. planned a meta-analysis and found that the use of cell phones during pregnancy was significantly associated with preterm labor and a shorter duration of pregnancy (23). ...
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Background: Despite the lack of conclusive and proven supporting epidemiologic data about the association between cell phone radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) and the developing fetus complications, there are frequent discussions about this matter. Methods: A medical student interviewed eligible pregnant women admitted to Al Zahra Hospital, an academic referral hospital in the North of Iran, to fill questionnaires intended to assess maternal demographic data and their attitude towards cell phone use during pregnancy in 2020. Results: A total of 322 pregnant women with the mean age of 30.12 ± 6.81 years enrolled in the survey, in which 3.1% of them were non-cell phone users, and 6.052% of all did not use a cell phone during the first trimester. Also, 38.81% of them mentioned healthcare providers as the main source of obtaining information, while 40.6% did receive any information. The mean years of cell phone use and the daily hours were 8.26 ± 4.1 and 2.66 ± 2.02, respectively. Also, 64.3% believed that cell phone use poses risks to the fetus, while 26.7% had no idea. A positive association was also found concerning maternal awareness from cell phones harmfulness to the fetus and maternal education, residency, and employment (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: In this study, the majority of pregnant women believed that cell phone use during pregnancy could be harmful to the fetus; however, most of them were cell phone users with no special consideration even during the first trimester. It seems that the importance of the issue must be revealed to them by more healthcare providers’ interventions.
... These effects, in particular, are associated with impairing of nervous and mental activity [26][27][28][29][30], decreasing of reproductive function in both men and women [31,32], and an appreciable increase in DNA damage [32], impairing of heart rhythm and peripheral arterial pressure [33,34], suppression of the immune system [35,36], when exposed to radio frequency EM fields with levels significantly lower than those recommended in [24]; finally, by a WHO decision [37], radio-frequency EM fields are classified as a potentially carcinogenic hazard. ...
... Quite numerous publications, such as [25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37], make us take a fresh look at the causes of a rather uneven harm to population by the COVID-19 in different countries. In conditions of complete "multilayer" area coverage (i. ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic, spanning the globe, caused the death of hundreds of thousands of people and crisis in global economy. I found confirmation of the hypothesis that the level of environmental electromagnetic pollution affects the lethality rate of a population from COVID-19. I found a correlation between the degree of severity of hygienic regulation of levels of radio frequency electromagnetic fields for population, the main sources of which are mobile (cellular) communication systems, and the lethality rate from COVID-19 in various countries. The existence of such a correlation is extremely dangerous, because the implementation of well-known road maps for very fast development of technologies, systems and services of the fourth (4G), fifth (5G) and sixth (6G) generations of mobile communications associated with the increase in the number of radiating devices, data rates in radio frequency channels and area traffic capacity of mobile communications by many orders of magnitude, according to my estimates, can cause a high (1–2 orders or more) increase in the intensity of electromagnetic background created by mobile communications. For a quantitative analysis of these processes, I developed a presented herein a practical technique for worst-case estimation of the level of electromagnetic background created by these systems; it is verified using the published results of measurements of electromagnetic background in various countries. This technique is based on the use of the integrated system characteristics of wireless information services and makes it possible to justify the necessary system, technical and managerial solutions aimed at ensuring the necessary level of electromagnetic ecology of populous areas and electromagnetic safety of people in conditions of rapid advancement of 4G/5G/6G systems without affecting the quality of informational support of the population and information technologies in economy, education, healthcare and other sectors.
... In spite of these advantages, the negative financial, social, and health impacts of mobile phone use also deserve our attention, especially for teenagers, pregnant women, and elderly people [11]. For instance, exposure to radio frequency fields is increasingly common, and fetuses and children may be more vulnerable than adults [12]. ...
... rough a follow-up statistical analysis, Divan et al. [12] also showed that the overuse of mobile phones was associated with children's behavioral difficulties, such as emotional and hyperactivity problems. In fact, in our interview, a proportion of participants think that there exist potential harms but some others are highly uncertain. ...
Article
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Excessive use of mobile phones might bring negative physical and psychological consequences to pregnant women. This study aims to explore the potential determinants of pregnant women's mobile phone use behavior to assist healthcare providers in the development of guideline programs. In order to explain the behavior, we developed a theoretical model based on the widely applied theory of planned behavior (TPB) by incorporating two additional constructs of personal habit and perceived risk. Structural equation modeling technique is employed to estimate the model based on questionnaire survey. Research results clearly show that behavior attitude and perceived behavior control play dominant roles in determining the intention and behavior. It is interesting to find that perceived risk and personal habit are less important in determining pregnant women's behavior of mobile phone use. Finally, suggestions are put forward to reduce the risk of mobile phone use during pregnancy.
... Few human data are available, but Divan et al. [2008Divan et al. [ , 2011Divan et al. [ , 2012 have reported that behavior in young children may be affected by their mothers' mobile phone use during pregnancy, and emotional, communication, and motor skills have also been reported to have been affected [Sudan et al., 2016;Papadopoulou et al., 2017]. Other studies have shown that there is no association with mobile phone use and behavioral problems [Vrijheid et al., 2010;Guxens et al., 2013]. ...
... Maternal mobile phone use during pregnancy was assessed, as well as use by the child. Disruptive behavior including temper tantrums, disobedience, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were studied and an elevated risk of behavioral problems was associated with both maternal and child phone use [Divan et al., 2008[Divan et al., , 2012. In addition, a study has reported that maternal cell phone use during pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk for hyperactivity in children, although caution in interpretation is needed due to confounding factors [Birks et al., 2017]. ...
Article
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Despite much research, gaps remain in knowledge about the potential health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields. This study investigated the effects of early‐life exposure to pulsed long term evolution (LTE) 1,846 MHz downlink signals on innate mouse behavior. Animals were exposed for 30 min/day, 5 days/week at a whole‐body average specific energy absorption rate (SAR) of 0.5 or 1 W/kg from late pregnancy (gestation day 13.5) to weaning (postnatal day 21). A behavioral tracking system measured locomotor, drinking, and feeding behavior in the home cage from 12 to 28 weeks of age. The exposure caused significant effects on both appetitive behaviors and activity of offspring that depended on the SAR. Compared with sham‐exposed controls, exposure at 0.5 W/kg significantly decreased drinking frequency (P ≤ 0.000) and significantly decreased distance moved (P ≤ 0.001). In contrast, exposure at 1 W/kg significantly increased drinking frequency (P ≤ 0.001) and significantly increased moving duration (P ≤ 0.005). In the absence of other plausible explanations, it is concluded that repeated exposure to low‐level RF fields in early life may have a persistent and long‐term effect on adult behavior. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2019 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... 51) In children exposed to cell phones during the pre and postnatal periods, the odds ratio for behavioral problems was 1.8 after the adjustment of potential confounders. 52) Recently, the European Unionfunded international study evaluating the association between RF exposure by mobile phones and brain tumor risk in children and adolescents (MOBI KIDS) was conducted. 53) This large study included nearly 900 eligible patients from 14 countries, including Korea, and the final results are still pending. ...
Article
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In today's world, most children are exposed to various manmade electromagnetic fields (EMFs). EMFs are electromagnetic waves less than 300 GHz. A developing child's brain is vulnerable to electromagnetic radiation; thus, their caregivers' concerns about the health effects of EMFs are increasing. EMF exposure is divided into two categories: extremely low frequencies (ELFs; 3-3,000 Hz), involving high-voltage transmission lines and in-house wiring; and radio frequencies (RFs; 30 kHz to 300 GHz), involving mobile phones, smart devices, base stations, WiFi, and 5G technologies. The biological effects of EMFs on humans include stimulation, thermal, and nonthermal, the latter of which is the least known. Among the various health issues related to EMFs, the most important issue is human carcinogenicity. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer's (IARC's) evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, ELFs and RFs were evaluated as possible human carcinogens (Group 2B). However, the World Health Organization's (WHO's) view of EMFs remains undetermined. This article reviews the current knowledge of EMF exposure on humans, specifically children. EMF exposure sources, biological effects, current WHO and IARC opinions on carcinogenicity, and effects of EMF exposures on children will be discussed. As well-controlled EMF experiments in children are nearly impossible, scientific knowledge should be interpreted objectively. Precautionary approaches are recommended for children until the potential health effects of EMF are confirmed.
... Среди описанных в литературе механизмов биологического действия НИ РЧ ЭМИ можно выделить следующее: влияние на энергетический этап клеточного дыхания [25,26]; изменение активности ферментов печени и головного мозга [27]; конформационная перестройка белков [28], нарушение этапов транскрипции и трансляции в биосинтезе белков [29]; нарушение рецепторной функции мембран и ионов активного транспорта [30]; нейрогуморальные нарушения [31,32], снижение подвижности сперматозоидов [33,34], повышение уровня свободных радикалов и связанный с этим оксидативный стресс в клетках мозга, печени, почек и крови [35][36][37][38], а также перекисное окисление липидов клеточных мембран [17,39]. В большинстве процитированных работ сообщается о восстановлении функциональной активности клеток и организма после выхода из ЭМП. ...
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Introduction. Based on the urgency of the problem of workers and general public risk of malignant neoplasms due to power frequency (PF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) impact, which led to research on its role in leukemia development expansion in all countries, the data of 4 similar studies of the Institute of occupational health are summarized. The aim of the study is to assess the risk of hemoblastosis in workers and general public under EMF occupational and non-occupational exposure. Materials and methods. 4 analytical epidemiological studies were performed: 2 cohort studies and 2 case - control studies. Results. Cohort study of 500 kV electric grid facilities personnel mortality, taking into account the electric (EF) and magnetic field (MF) exposure values, showed that the standardized relative risk (SRR) of death from all causes was 0.61; from cardiovascular diseases - 0.54, malignancies - 0.89, accidents, injuries and poisoning - 0.95. At the same time, from leukemia, SRR was increased by 2 times compared to the control (2.03), but statistically insignificant (95% CI 0.23-7.31). Retrospective case - control cancer-epidemiological study aimed at assessing the relationship between hemoblastosis various forms development and PF EMF occupational revealed to statistically unreliable increase of leukemia developing relative risk (OR) (1.64). MF mainly exposed personnel were found to have an increased risk of lymphomas developing (2.92), which was statistically significant (χ2 >3,84). Cancer-epidemiological case-control study to identify a causal relationship between parents occupational EMF exposure and childhood hemoblastosis development revealed the tendency to increase the risk, more pronounced in case of fathers MF exposure as well as high-voltage equipment EMF exposure (OR=4.6 95% CI 0.6-35.0 and OR=2.7 CI 0.9-7.8). In the study of mortality of living in the vicinity of 500 and 750 kV substations and overhead transmission lines population, due to low mortality from all causes of death, there was standardized risk of death from leukemia statistically nonsignificant increased (SR-1,3 95% CI 0,2-7,0). Conclusion. The results of studies showed a tendency to increase the risk of dying from hemoblastosis against the background of low mortality rates from other classes of diseases, which coincides with the main conclusions of most foreign publications on the problem.
... Hippocampus is the primary region of the brain which regulates learning, memory, and behavior (Rubin et al., 2014). Studies reported the evidence in human model of neurodevelopmental or behavioral disorder in children (Divan et al., 2008), altered brain metabolism (Volkow et al., 2011), brain electrical activity (Schmid et al., 2012), DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes (Zothansiama et al., 2017), risk of brain tumor (Carlberg and Hardell, 2017), fatigue, depression, and headaches (Yakymenko et al., 2011). However, microwave exposure affects neurodevelopment and behavior in mice (Aldad et al., 2012), oxidative stress, apoptosis of glial cells (Alkis et al., 2019b;Dasdag et al. 2004Dasdag et al. , 2009, amyloid protein, protein carbonyl (Dasdag et al., 2012), male fertility (Kesari et al., 2018), neuro inflammations (Megha et al., 2015a) cognitive functions, (Deshmukh et al., 2015;Kleinlogel et al., 2008), and micro RNA expression (Dasdag et al. 2015a(Dasdag et al. , 2015b in rats, but neither study has reported for epigenetic modulations with microwave exposure. ...
Article
Exponential increase in mobile phone uses, given rise to public concern regarding the alleged deleterious health hazards as a consequence of prolonged exposure. In 2018, the U.S. National toxicology program reported, two year toxicological studies for potential health hazards from exposure to cell phone radiations. Epigenetic modulations play a critical regulatory role in many cellular functions and pathological conditions. In this study, we assessed the dose-dependent and frequency-dependent epigenetic modulation (DNA and Histone methylation) in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. A Total of 96 male Wistar rats were segregated into 12 groups exposed to 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and 2450 MHz RF-MW at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 5.84 × 10⁻⁴ W/kg, 5.94 × 10⁻⁴ W/kg and 6.4 × 10⁻⁴ W/kg respectively for 2 h per day for 1-month, 3-month and 6-month periods. At the end of the exposure duration, animals were sacrificed to collect the hippocampus. Global hippocampal DNA methylation and histone methylation were estimated by ELISA. However, DNA methylating enzymes, DNA methyltransferase1 (DNMT1) and histone methylating enzymes euchromatic histone methylthransferase1 (EHMT1) expression was evaluated by real-time PCR, as well as further validated with Western blot. Alteration in epigenetic modulation was observed in the hippocampus. Global DNA methylation was decreased and histone methylation was increased in the hippocampus. We observed that microwave exposure led to significant epigenetic modulations in the hippocampus with increasing frequency and duration of exposure. Microwave exposure with increasing frequency and exposure duration brings significant (p < 0.05) epigenetic modulations which alters gene expression in the hippocampus.
... Moreover, an association between maternal exposure to a cell phone during pregnancy and behavioral difficulties in children between the age of 7 and 11 years has also been reported (Divan et al., 2008). Studies were done in rodents also found a link between prenatal cell phone exposure and cognitive impairment in offspring (Aldad et al., 2012). ...
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Mobile phone use has rapidly increased worldwide, and pregnant women are passively or actively exposed to the associated electromagnetic radiation. Maternal cell phone exposure is related to behavioral difficulties in young offspring. However, whether prenatal mobile phone exposure can predispose the elderly offspring to cognitive impairment is unclear. The enriched environment (EE) has shown positive effects on cognition in an immature brain, but its impact on aging offspring after prenatal cell phone exposure is unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether prenatal exposure to mobile phone exerts long-term effects on cognition in elderly rat offspring and whether EE during adulthood can rescue cognitive impairment by altering the synaptic plasticity. Pregnant rats were subjected to prenatal short-term or long-term cell phone exposure and offspring rats were randomly assigned to standard or EE. Spatial learning and memory were investigated using Morris water maze (MWM) in elderly rat offspring. Hippocampal cellular morphology was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and synaptic ultrastructure was evaluated with transmission electron microscopy. Expression of synaptophysin (SYN), postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were detected by western blot. The results demonstrated that prenatal long-term but not short-term exposure to mobile phone lead to cognitive impairment, morphological changes in the hippocampal cells, reduced synaptic number, decreased SYN, PSD-95, and BDNF expression in elderly offspring, which were alleviated by postnatal EE housing. These findings suggest that prenatal long-term mobile phone exposure may pose life-long adverse effects on elderly offspring and impair cognition by disrupting the synaptic plasticity, which may be reversed by postnatal EE housing.
... La maggior parte degli studi rassicuranti in termini di rischio per la salute, fra cui quelli del Progetto Interphone, su cui si basano le posizioni dell'OMS, hanno ricevuto finanziamenti da soggetti privati 15 , fra cui gli stessi gestori della telefonia mobile 16 . Concordiamo con vari ricercatori che nell'interpretare i risultati degli studi in questo ambito sono da prendere in considerazione le fonti dei finanziamenti (Levis et al., 2012;Levis et al., 2014;Myung et al., 2009 Gli effetti biologici indipendenti dagli effetti termici comprendono danni alla barriera emato-encefalica (con un aumento del rischio di malattie neurodegenerative), infertilità (Gye & Park, 2012), disturbi neurocomportamentali (Schoeni et al., 2015;Huber et al., 2005;Barthelemy et al., 2016), danni diretti alle cellule neuronali (Kim et al., 2017;Zhang et al., 2013Zhang et al., , 2016, danni al feto e alterazioni del neurosviluppo (Divan et al., 2008;Aldad et al., 2012;Del Vecchio et al., 2009), aumento dello stress ossidativo (Kivrak et al., 2017) e del rischio di malattie neurodegenerative (Zhang et al., 2016), danni al DNA (Phillips et al., 2009), disturbi metabolici e del sistema endocrino (Sangun et al., 2015;Meo et al., 2015;Shahbazi-Gahrouei et al., 2016;Lin et al., 2016), alterazione del ritmo cardiaco (Bortkiewicz et al., 2009) (si veda anche fig.2, 3, 4 e tab. 10, 12,13). ...
Book
Full-text available
Il problema dell’invasività e dei rischi dei campi elettromagnetici ad alta frequenza è già stato trattato dalle nostre Associazioni. Nel corso degli anni si sono accumulate numerose evidenze sull’effetto nefasto di questa forma di inquinamento sulla salute umana e sull’ambiente. Nell’ultimo decennio sono state diffuse risoluzioni scientifiche e governative, consensi scientifici e documenti di posizione, rapporti di gruppi di scienziati indipendenti e appelli ai governi per invitare a limitare la diffusione dell’uso di tecnologie di comunicazione promuovendo standard di sicurezza per i campi elettromagnetici basati su evidenze biologiche. Alle raccomandazioni provenienti dal mondo scientifico, purtroppo, come nel caso dei pesticidi, delle emissioni in atmosfera e degli inquinanti organici persistenti (POP), è generalmente seguita una notevole inerzia normativa sia a livello europeo che nazionale. Ancora di più è trascurato, a livello politico e amministrativo, l’effetto sinergico di queste fonti di inquinamento, così come il Principio di Precauzione che dovrebbe guidare qualsiasi scelta in ambito gestionale. Nel frattempo i campi elettromagnetici artificiali e l’inquinamento diffuso hanno continuato ad aumentare significativamente per motivazioni più legate a interessi economici privati che a effettive necessità o al concreto interesse per la salute pubblica e la tutela ambientale. Negli ultimi tempi una notevole inquietudine si è diffusa anche presso i non addetti ai lavori per la nuova tecnologia 5G che minaccia, in un quadro già pericoloso almeno a livello locale, un ulteriore incremento dei campi elettromagnetici artificiali e l’utilizzo di frequenze mai utilizzate su così ampia scala in assenza di regole adeguate e di efficaci sistemi di monitoraggio dell’esposizione pubblica. Per questi motivi e per porre, ancora una volta, all’attenzione pubblica e ai mass media i rischi correlati a queste tecnologie abbiamo trattato in maniera per quanto possibile sintetica le informazioni provenienti dalla ricerca scientifica, offrendo al lettore una notevole bibliografia con la quale aumentare la propria conoscenza e farsi una propria idea della situazione presente, a nostro parere già inquietante. Le conclusioni a cui siamo giunti è che, se è vero che non si possono bloccare le innovazioni tecnologiche, esse devono essere tuttavia impiegate su larga scala solo dopo averne compiutamente considerato i possibili impatti ambientali e sanitari e solo dopo un efficace adeguamento delle normative in relazione alle conoscenze scientifiche, privilegiando la salute e l’ambiente prima di qualsiasi interesse economico. Per tutelare la salute pubblica si rende indispensabile recepire gli studi scientifici più recenti ed attuare quanto indicato dalla Raccomandazione 1815 dell’Assemblea Plenaria del Consiglio d’Europa del 2011, volta ad abbassare i limiti di esposizione alle radiofrequenza in relazione all’uso privato di telefoni mobili, telefoni DECT (cordless), WiFi, WLAN e WIMAX per computer, Baby Phones a 0,2 V/m sul “lungo termine”, mentre secondo il rapporto Bionitiative 2012 sulla base delle evidenze sperimentali e del principio di precauzione deve essere portato a 0,6 V/m nell’immediato. In relazione al 5G, fermi restando i presupposti di cui sopra, è necessaria una moratoria per valutare adeguatamente gli effetti sulla salute e sull’ambiente delle frequenze utilizzate, anche in relazione alla loro prevista onni-pervadenza. Vanno inoltre valutati i possibili effetti sulla sempre più folta comunità degli Elettrosensibili e sui soggetti potenzialmente più vulnerabili, come i bambini. Riteniamo inoltre doveroso, sulla base delle evidenze disponibili, il divieto di installazione di reti Wi-Fi negli asili e nelle scuole frequentate da bambini e ragazzi al di sotto dei 16 anni e il divieto di posizionamento di ripetitori di radiotelefonia in prossimità degli stessi luoghi.. Vi deve essere obbligo, per le Agenzie di Salute Pubblica, di valutare i rischi per la salute connessi alle radiofrequenze, selezionando studi scientifici indipendenti ed escludendo quelli finanziati dall’industria delle telecomunicazioni o da fondazioni ed enti finanziati dalla stessa. Riteniamo che debba essere sottoposto a Valutazione Ambientale Strategica l’intera Strategia per le Telecomunicazioni. Ricordiamo che il processo di VAS impone criteri ampi di partecipazione, tutela degli interessi legittimi e trasparenza del processo decisionale, attraverso il coinvolgimento e la consultazione dei soggetti competenti in materia ambientale e del pubblico che in interessato dall’iter decisionale. Auspichiamo la promozione di investimenti pubblici e detassazione per la connettività in fibra ottica e via cavo, che è la tecnologia più efficiente e sicura per la salute e per l’ambiente. Su questi presupposti siamo lieti di offrire al pubblico il nostro rapporto, svolto in modo del tutto indipendente. Gradiamo costruttivi feedback per migliorare ulteriormente la conoscenza di base e la divulgazione delle problematiche correlate all’incremento dei campi elettromagnetici artificiali e alla necessità di un adeguata normativa e di processi per quanto possibile trasparenti e partecipati di valutazione degli impatti delle nuove tecnologie.
... According to [24], children whose mothers used cell phones during pregnancy had 25% more emotional problems, 35% more hyperactivity, 49% more conduct problems and 34% more peer problems. ...
Article
The electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted out of wireless communication modules in various IoT devices (especially used for healthcare applications due to their close proximity to the body) devices have been identified by researchers as biologically hazardous to humans as well as other living beings. Different countries have different regulations to limit the radiation density levels caused by these devices. The radiation absorbed by an individual depends on various factors such as the device they use, the proximity of use, the type of antenna, the relative orientation of the antenna on the device, and many more. Several standards exist which have tried to quantify the radiation levels and come up with safe limits of EMR absorption to prevent human harm. In this work, we determine the radiation concern levels in several scenarios using a handheld radiation meter by correlating the findings with several international standards, which are determined based on thorough scientific evidence. This study also analyzes the EMR from common devices used in day to day life such as smartphones, laptops, Wi-Fi routers, hotspots, wireless earphones, smartwatches, Bluetooth speakers and other wireless accessories using a handheld radio frequency radiation measurement device. The procedure followed in this paper is so presented that it can also be utilized by the general public as a tutorial to evaluate their own safety with respect to EMR exposure. We present a summary of the most prominent health hazards which have been known to occur due to EMR exposure. We also discuss some individual and collective human-centric protective and preventive measures that can be undertaken to reduce the risk of EMR absorption. This paper analyses radiation safety in pre-5G networks and uses the insight gained to raise valuable concerns regarding EMR safety in the upcoming 5G networks.
... [19] Perinatal and postnatal contact with mobile phones was linked to behavioural complications such as mood and hyperactivity problems within the age of school entrance. [20] Mobile phones discharge a pulsated high-frequency EMF which might infiltrate the scalp and the skull progressively, there is much curiosity in the communication between this pulsed microwave radiation with the human CNS. [21] Mobile phone exposure might distress neuronal action, mostly in propinquity to the phone. ...
Article
Full-text available
The human body is a permissible medium, and radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) waves pass through this medium. The effects exerted by RF-EMF devices such as mobile phones on brain tissues are categorised into thermal and non-thermal effects. The aim of this review was to analyse the interactions and interface between RF-EMF exposure and the nervous system, to ascertain any negative impact on the nervous system at both cellular, molecular and systems level. Original studies that reported on the effects of RF-EMF exposure on the brain function and nervous system from inception to 20 August 2019 were searched online. The PubMed database was utilised. The MeSH system was used to excerpt relevant research studies from PubMed using the following keywords: electromagnetic field, radiofrequency, mobile phone, brain, central nervous system, radiation and neurophysiology. All selected articles were published in the English. Full articles were assessed, and relevant information was extracted. RF-EMF exposure significantly altered several neurophysiological mechanisms based on electroencephalogram studies and molecular and biochemical analysis. However, there was no substantial evidence linking RF-EMF exposure to the pathogenesis of brain tumour.
... La maggior parte degli studi rassicuranti in termini di rischio per la salute, fra cui quelli del Progetto Interphone, su cui si basano le posizioni dell'OMS, hanno ricevuto finanziamenti da soggetti privati 15 , fra cui gli stessi gestori della telefonia mobile 16 . Concordiamo con vari ricercatori che nell'interpretare i risultati degli studi in questo ambito sono da prendere in considerazione le fonti dei finanziamenti (Levis et al., 2012;Levis et al., 2014;Myung et al., 2009 Gli effetti biologici indipendenti dagli effetti termici comprendono danni alla barriera emato-encefalica (con un aumento del rischio di malattie neurodegenerative), infertilità (Gye & Park, 2012), disturbi neurocomportamentali (Schoeni et al., 2015;Huber et al., 2005;Barthelemy et al., 2016), danni diretti alle cellule neuronali (Kim et al., 2017;Zhang et al., 2013Zhang et al., , 2016, danni al feto e alterazioni del neurosviluppo (Divan et al., 2008;Aldad et al., 2012;Del Vecchio et al., 2009), aumento dello stress ossidativo (Kivrak et al., 2017) e del rischio di malattie neurodegenerative (Zhang et al., 2016), danni al DNA (Phillips et al., 2009), disturbi metabolici e del sistema endocrino (Sangun et al., 2015;Meo et al., 2015;Shahbazi-Gahrouei et al., 2016;Lin et al., 2016), alterazione del ritmo cardiaco (Bortkiewicz et al., 2009) (si veda anche fig.2, 3, 4 e tab. 10, 12,13). ...
Book
Full-text available
Il problema dell’invasività e dei rischi dei campi elettromagnetici ad alta frequenza è già stato trattato dalle nostre Associazioni. Nel corso degli anni si sono accumulate numerose evidenze sull’effetto nefasto di questa forma di inquinamento sulla salute umana e sull’ambiente. Nell’ultimo decennio sono state diffuse risoluzioni scientifiche e governative, consensi scientifici e documenti di posizione, rapporti di gruppi di scienziati indipendenti e appelli ai governi per invitare a limitare la diffusione dell’uso di tecnologie di comunicazione promuovendo standard di sicurezza per i campi elettromagnetici basati su evidenze biologiche. Alle raccomandazioni provenienti dal mondo scientifico, purtroppo, come nel caso dei pesticidi, delle emissioni in atmosfera e degli inquinanti organici persistenti (POP), è generalmente seguita una notevole inerzia normativa sia a livello europeo che nazionale. Ancora di più è trascurato, a livello politico e amministrativo, l’effetto sinergico di queste fonti di inquinamento, così come il Principio di Precauzione che dovrebbe guidare qualsiasi scelta in ambito gestionale. Nel frattempo i campi elettromagnetici artificiali e l’inquinamento diffuso hanno continuato ad aumentare significativamente per motivazioni più legate a interessi economici privati che a effettive necessità o al concreto interesse per la salute pubblica e la tutela ambientale. Negli ultimi tempi una notevole inquietudine si è diffusa anche presso i non addetti ai lavori per la nuova tecnologia 5G che minaccia, in un quadro già pericoloso almeno a livello locale, un ulteriore incremento dei campi elettromagnetici artificiali e l’utilizzo di frequenze mai utilizzate su così ampia scala in assenza di regole adeguate e di efficaci sistemi di monitoraggio dell’esposizione pubblica. Per questi motivi e per porre, ancora una volta, all’attenzione pubblica e ai mass media i rischi correlati a queste tecnologie abbiamo trattato in maniera per quanto possibile sintetica le informazioni provenienti dalla ricerca scientifica, offrendo al lettore una notevole bibliografia con la quale aumentare la propria conoscenza e farsi una propria idea della situazione presente, a nostro parere già inquietante. Le conclusioni a cui siamo giunti è che, se è vero che non si possono bloccare le innovazioni tecnologiche, esse devono essere tuttavia impiegate su larga scala solo dopo averne compiutamente considerato i possibili impatti ambientali e sanitari e solo dopo un efficace adeguamento delle normative in relazione alle conoscenze scientifiche, privilegiando la salute e l’ambiente prima di qualsiasi interesse economico. Per tutelare la salute pubblica si rende indispensabile recepire gli studi scientifici più recenti ed attuare quanto indicato dalla Raccomandazione 1815 dell’Assemblea Plenaria del Consiglio d’Europa del 2011, volta ad abbassare i limiti di esposizione alle radiofrequenza in relazione all’uso privato di telefoni mobili, telefoni DECT (cordless), WiFi, WLAN e WIMAX per computer, Baby Phones a 0,2 V/m sul “lungo termine”, mentre secondo il rapporto Bionitiative 2012 sulla base delle evidenze sperimentali e del principio di precauzione deve essere portato a 0,6 V/m nell’immediato. In relazione al 5G, fermi restando i presupposti di cui sopra, è necessaria una moratoria per valutare adeguatamente gli effetti sulla salute e sull’ambiente delle frequenze utilizzate, anche in relazione alla loro prevista onni-pervadenza. Vanno inoltre valutati i possibili effetti sulla sempre più folta comunità degli Elettrosensibili e sui soggetti potenzialmente più vulnerabili, come i bambini. Riteniamo inoltre doveroso, sulla base delle evidenze disponibili, il divieto di installazione di reti Wi-Fi negli asili e nelle scuole frequentate da bambini e ragazzi al di sotto dei 16 anni e il divieto di posizionamento di ripetitori di radiotelefonia in prossimità degli stessi luoghi.. Vi deve essere obbligo, per le Agenzie di Salute Pubblica, di valutare i rischi per la salute connessi alle radiofrequenze, selezionando studi scientifici indipendenti ed escludendo quelli finanziati dall’industria delle telecomunicazioni o da fondazioni ed enti finanziati dalla stessa. Riteniamo che debba essere sottoposto a Valutazione Ambientale Strategica l’intera Strategia per le Telecomunicazioni. Ricordiamo che il processo di VAS impone criteri ampi di partecipazione, tutela degli interessi legittimi e trasparenza del processo decisionale, attraverso il coinvolgimento e la consultazione dei soggetti competenti in materia ambientale e del pubblico che in interessato dall’iter decisionale. Auspichiamo la promozione di investimenti pubblici e detassazione per la connettività in fibra ottica e via cavo, che è la tecnologia più efficiente e sicura per la salute e per l’ambiente. Su questi presupposti siamo lieti di offrire al pubblico il nostro rapporto, svolto in modo del tutto indipendente. Gradiamo costruttivi feedback per migliorare ulteriormente la conoscenza di base e la divulgazione delle problematiche correlate all’incremento dei campi elettromagnetici artificiali e alla necessità di un adeguata normativa e di processi per quanto possibile trasparenti e partecipati di valutazione degli impatti delle nuove tecnologie.
... Behavioral problems have been associated with prenatal and postnatal cell phone exposure. In five cohorts, Birks et al. found cell phone use by a pregnant woman to be associated with an increased risk for behavioral problems, particularly hyperactivity/inattention in her child [63], and Divan et al. reported behavioral problems 13/51 in children up to seven years of age [64] [65]. Studies of children and adolescents report possible associations of wireless technology use with addictions and depression [66], fatigue [67], altered baseline thyroid hormone levels [68], and poorer well-being [69] [70]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Radiofrequency radiation (RFR), used for wireless communications and “smart” building technologies, including the “Internet of Things,” is increasing rapidly. As both RFR exposures and scientific evidence of harmful effects increase apace, it is timely to heed calls to include low RFR levels as a performance indicator for the health, safety and well-being of occupants and the environment. Adverse biochemical and biological effects at commonly experienced RFR levels indicate that exposure guidelines for the U.S., Canada and other countries, are inadequate to protect public health and the environment. Some industry liability insurance providers do not offer coverage against adverse health effects from radiation emitted by wireless technologies, and insurance authorities deem potential liability as “high.” Internationally, governments have enacted laws, and medical and public health authorities have issued recommendations, to reduce and limit exposure to RFR. There is urgent need to implement strategies for no- or low-RFR emitting technologies, and shielding, in building design and retrofitting. These strategies include installing wired (not wireless) Internet networks, corded rather than cordless phones, and cable or wired connections in building systems (e.g., mechanical, lighting, security). Building science can profit from decades of work to institute performance parameters, operationalizing prudent guidelines and best practices. The goal is to achieve RFR exposures that are ALARA, “As Low As Reasonably Achievable.” We also challenge the business case of wireless systems, because wired or cabled connections are faster, more reliable and secure, emit substantially less RFR, and consume less energy in a sector with rapidly escalating green-house gas emissions.
... Our analysis was conducted within 4 population-based birth cohort studies participating in the Generalized EMF Research Using Novel Methods (GERoNiMO) Project (19)-namely, the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) (20,21), the Amsterdam Born Children and Their Development Study (ABCD) (22), the Spanish Environment and Childhood Project (INMA) (23), and the Korean Mothers and Children's Environment Health Study (MOCEH) (24). In total, 113,319 pregnant women were enrolled in these cohorts from 1996 to 2011. ...
Article
Full-text available
Results from studies evaluating potential effects of prenatal exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields from cell phones on birth outcomes have been inconsistent. Using data on 55,507 pregnant women and their children from Denmark (1996-2002), the Netherlands (2003-2004), Spain (2003-2008), and South Korea (2006-2011), we explored whether maternal cell-phone use was associated with pregnancy duration and fetal growth. On the basis of self-reported number of cell-phone calls per day, exposure was grouped as none, low (referent), intermediate, or high. We examined pregnancy duration (gestational age at birth, preterm/postterm birth), fetal growth (birth weight ratio, small/large size for gestational age), and birth weight variables (birth weight, low/high birth weight) and meta-analyzed cohort-specific estimates. The intermediate exposure group had a higher risk of giving birth at a lower gestational age (hazard ratio = 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.07), and exposure-response relationships were found for shorter pregnancy duration (P < 0.001) and preterm birth (P = 0.003). We observed no association with fetal growth or birth weight. Maternal cell-phone use during pregnancy may be associated with shorter pregnancy duration and increased risk of preterm birth, but these results should be interpreted with caution, since they may reflect stress during pregnancy or other residual confounding rather than a direct effect of cell-phone exposure.
... A child born in this era will start to be exposed to electromagnetic waves exposure as soon as he is born and will remain in this environment until he dies. Divan et al. reported behavioral problems in children who were exposed to prenatal and postnatal cell phone [8,9]. This potential is important because the radius of single 1800 MHz frequency electromagnetic wavelength is approximately 16.5 cm [21]. ...
... A child born in this era will start to be exposed to electromagnetic waves exposure as soon as he is born and will remain in this environment until he dies. Divan et al. reported behavioral problems in children who were exposed to prenatal and postnatal cell phone [8,9]. This potential is important because the radius of single 1800 MHz frequency electromagnetic wavelength is approximately 16.5 cm [21]. ...
... Intrauterine exposure is another issue. Behavioural difficulties and particularly increased hyperactivity/inattention problems in children with intrauterine cell phone exposure are stated (7,18). Developmental delay of the chick embryos in the early period was also reported due to EMR emitted by MPs (51). ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: To investigate the effects of electromagnetic waves (EMWs) from mobile phones (MPs) on rat brains of rats by morphological and biochemical analysis. Material and methods: EMW was applied for two hrs/day until birth in stand-by fetal and EMW fetal groups and postnatal 60th day in stand-by and EMW groups. The control group was not exposed to MP. On postnatal 60th day, brain malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels were measured, and western blot analysis was performed to determine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) content. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and GFAP immunohistochemistry were applied. Trigeminal nerves were examined using the transmission electron microscope. Results: In comparison to controls, rats exposed to MP in stand-by or talk modes had significantly increased neuronal damage in the cortex and hippocampus. Increased MDA levels in the EMW group and decreased GSH levels in the stand-by, EMW fetal and EMW groups were found compared with controls. Increased GFAP content in the EMW group and increased GFAP staining in the EMW fetal and EMW groups compared to controls were observed. EMW group had a significantly decreased number of myelinated axons than control animals. Conclusion: 1800 MHz EMWs (SAR=1.79 W/kg) exposure in the prenatal and early postnatal life may lead to trigeminal nerve damage in addition to oxidative stress-induced neuronal degeneration and astroglial activation in the rat brain. Effects seem to be mode related, being more detrimental in groups exposed to MP during talk mode.
... In their DNBC cohort study, Sudan et al. (2016) [69] found an association between mobile phone use of mothers during pregnancy (prenatal) as well as their 7-year-old children (postnatal) and behavioral problems in the children. This association was already suggested in previous studies of the DNBC cohort [70,71] but with limited confidence in the validity. An increased risk of behavioral difficulties was also found in children and adolescents exposed to high RF EMF in the German Mobilfunk: Exposition und Befinden (MobilEe) study [68]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background For more than 20 years, the potential health risks of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure from mobile communication devices on children and adolescents have been examined because they are considered sensitive population groups; however, it remains unclear whether such exposure poses any particular risk to them. Objectives The aim of this review was to systematically analyze and evaluate the physiological and health-related effects of RF EMF exposures from wireless communication devices (mobile phones, cordless phones, Bluetooth, etc.) on children and adolescents. Methods This review was prepared according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Methodological limitations in individual studies were assessed using the Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) Risk-of-Bias Rating Tool for Human and Animal Studies. Results A total of 42 epidemiological and 11 experimental studies were eligible for this review. Most of the studies displayed several methodological weaknesses that limited the internal validity of the results. Due to a lack of consistency regarding the outcomes as well as the lack of scientific rigor in most reviewed studies, the body of evidence for the effects of RF EMF of mobile communication devices on subjective symptoms, cognition, and behavior in children and adolescents was low to inadequate. Evidence from the studies investigating early childhood development, brain activity, cancer, and physiological parameters was considered inadequate for drawing conclusions about possible effects. Discussion Overall, the body of evidence allows no final conclusion on the question whether exposure to RF EMF from mobile communication devices poses a particular risk to children and adolescents. There has been rapid development in technologies generating RF EMF, which are extensively used by children and adolescents. Therefore, we strongly recommend high-quality systematic research on children and adolescents, since they are generally considered as sensitive age groups.
... In fact, the fact that it causes irregularity in the passages on ion channels is something that the ICNIRP has admitted in its manual (ICNIRP, 2020). Studies conducted on RFR exposure have reported that causes adverse effects, such as heart rhythm disorder (Grigoriev, 2018), disturbed metabolic processes (Volkow et al., 2011), damage to stem cell development (Eghlidospour, Ghanbari, Mortazavi, & Azari, 2017), cancers (Hardell & Carlberg, 2009;Havas, 2017), cardiovascular diseases (Bandara & Weller, 2017), cognitive and neurological disorders (Deshmukh et al., 2015;Lai, 2018), DNA damage (Bektas et al., 2020;Lai & Singh, 1996;Zothansiama, Zosangzuali, Lalramdinpuii, & Jagetia, 2017), effects on general well-being (Zwamborn et al., 2003), increase in free radical level and oxidative stress (S. , learning and memory deficits (Narayanan et al., 2009), impaired sperm function and quality (Houston, Nixon, King, De Iuliis, & Aitken, 2016), miscarriage and pregnancy complications (Bektas & Dasdag, 2017), obesity and diabetes (Milham, 2014), etc. Effects on children include autism (Herbert & Sage, 2012), attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (Divan, Kheifets, Obel, & Olsen, 2008, and asthma (Li, Chen, & Odouli, 2011). ...
Chapter
An epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process that leads an epithelial cell to change by gaining a mesenchymal phenotype. During organogenesis, embryogenesis and metastasis of tumor cells, cells differentiate into epithelial or mesenchymal states via EMT and MET processes. Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFβ) and the signaling pathway is the most important EMT stimulator. TGFβ plays a prominent role as a tumor suppressor and a metastatic agent in cancer progression. From embryonic development to homeostasis, TGFβ and its downstream regulators in the signaling pathway are crucial that deficiencies and mutations in the gene or on the pathway cause developmental defects, immunological diseases, and poor prognosis in cancer patients.
... It was found that children who had both prenatal and postnatal exposure to cell phones had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI) of behavioral (emotional and hyperactive) problems. [30] th Ÿ Three hundred seventeen (317) 7 grade students from public and private high schools took two tests measuring speed and accuracy requiring strong mnemonic and attentional information processing. The weekly medium number of voice calls and text messages were 8 each. ...
Article
This article proposesthat the Right to Life Principle, dened as “every person hasthe right to a natural birth and legitimate survival and development into adulthoodwithout environmental or othersystematic injury to theirwell-being,”may be violated byRFRemissionsfromcell phones,Wi-Fi,macro cell phone base stations (MCPBSs), 5G/4G small cell antennas (SCAs), etc. in excess of the standards set by the Building Biology Institute. BBI standardsset1000µW/m2as anextreme anomaly;theprecisedivisionpointofharm/noharmbelow1000µW/m2is unknown. I review literature describing (1) the Right to Life Principle, (2) the attributes of non-ionizing radiation, and (3) proven injury from cell phones, WiFi, MCPBSs, 5G/4G SCAs, etc. to living organisms with 20 categories of illnesses and 58 references. Non-ionizing radiation isshown to place a force eld on negatively charged particles including electrons, neurons, and DNA, and exciting/energizing electrons with shifts to outer orbits with energy emission when they return to ground orbit thereby destabilizing atoms, molecules, cells and organs in the process of orbital shifts. RFR induced illnesses include sperm damage, fetus injury, irreversibility infertility, emotional and hyperactive disorders, cancer, damage to DNA, the immune system, blood brain barrier, and stem cells, increasesin oxidative stress and free radicals, and harm to those living lessthan 500 metersfrom MCPBSs. My recommendationsto reduce injury from RFR are based upon review of the literature, experience in metering residential property and MCPBSsfor RFR, avoiding the use of RFR emitting devices and accessto line-of-sight antennas, and legislative proposalsto show the dangers of RFR devices and antennas by,for example,requiringnotice tobuyers andlessees ofresidentialpropertyof powerdensitieswithinhousingunits.
... Studies examining prenatal exposure to mobile phone use and its effect on child neurodevelopment showed different results depending on the child's developmental stages. Adverse effects have been reported in later ages at 7 years (87,88), and 11 years (89). However, no effects were reported for earlier ages, at 14 months (90), at 6 and 18 months (91), at 3 years (92) and 5 years (93). ...
... EMR emitted by mobile phones can inflict their effects both by thermal and non-thermal impact. The emitted non-ionising EMR is suspected to underlie several health issues, such as headaches, fatigue, behavioural problems, cognitive deficits, reduced fertility, and brain tumor development [3][4][5][6]. Although, there is accumulating evidence that EMR from mobile phone has deleterious effect on human health. According to [7] several haematological parameters are sensitive to EMR from mobile phone. ...
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This study is aimed at investigatingthe effect of radiation from mobile phone on body weight and haematological indices of male wistar albino rats. In this study, male wistar albino rats were continuously exposed to Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) with frequency 900 MHz for 0, 4, 8 and 12 h per day for 30 days. The body weights of the animals were taken at 5-day interval. At the expiration of the experimental period, haematological parameters of the blood were evaluated. The results showed that repeated exposure to mobile phone radiation evoked a reduced body weight and decreased level in red blood cell, packed cell volume and haemoglobin in rats and this effect was markedly amplified with increased exposure duration to the RF-EMR. Intriguingly, there was a direct relationship between exposure duration and frequency to mobile phone radiation and the level of white blood cell counts. In conclusion, the present data provide a strong line of reason to suggest that increased exposure to mobile phone radiation may evoke anaemic condition and predispose frequent users of mobile phone calls to decreased immune system and opportunist infection.
... Especially after this decision, researches on the negative effects of mobile phones on health have begun. There are many studies in the literature such as the effects of non-ionizing radiation, that is, mobile phones, on fetal and maternal health, and the risk of brain tumor formation in children and adults (Christ et al., 2005;Cardis et al., 2008;Divan et al., 2008;Wiart et al., 2008;Rezk et al., 2008;Schüzet al., 2006;Söderqvist et al., 2011).Especially the exposure to GSM and UMTS base stations and to other wireless technologies has led to a growing concern among the public about potential adverse health effects (Bakker, 2012). However some recent studies have shown that mobile phone radiation can have various adverse effects on human health. ...
... Especially after this decision, researches on the negative effects of mobile phones on health have begun. There are many studies in the literature such as the effects of non-ionizing radiation, that is, mobile phones, on fetal and maternal health, and the risk of brain tumor formation in children and adults (Christ et al., 2005;Cardis et al., 2008;Divan et al., 2008;Wiart et al., 2008;Rezk et al., 2008;Schüzet al., 2006;Söderqvist et al., 2011).Especially the exposure to GSM and UMTS base stations and to other wireless technologies has led to a growing concern among the public about potential adverse health effects (Bakker, 2012). However some recent studies have shown that mobile phone radiation can have various adverse effects on human health. ...
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The aim of this research is to measure the level of electromagnetic pollution and calculate to radiation dose index (RID) along Malatya Street of Elbistan District of Kahramanmaraş and to raise awareness about this topic. For this purpose, Narda NBM-550 broadband electromagnetic field meter was used to measure the total electric (E) and magnetic (H) field strengths and equivalent plane wave power densities (S) of the environment. For measurements at GSM 900, GSM 1800 and UMTS (2100) MHz frequencies, Aaronia Spectran HF-60105 V4 Portable Spectrum Analyzer and a laptop computer loaded with MCS coded software were used. In order for the measurements to reach a meaningful result, the measurement time was set to at least six minutes and three measurements were done at each point. The results were compared with the limit values defined by BTK and ICNIRP. The radiation dose index was calculated and it was found as RDI<1.None of the E, H and S values exceeded the limit values defined by international and national institutions such as ICNIRP and BTK.
... Prenatal RF-EM radiation exposure was observed to be associated with behavioral anomalies in children [37]. ...
Article
Humans are exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from various sources throughout life. Because humans are easily impacted by environmental factors during early development, it is believed that EMF can cause structural and functional changes on the developing brain that may lead to behavioural changes. This paper investigates the impact of EMF exposure and zinc supplementation during the prenatal and postnatal periods on behavioural changes and synaptic proteins in a gender-dependent manner. Pups from four groups of pregnant rats were used: Sham, EMF (5 days/wk, 4 h/day EMF-exposure applied), Sham+Zinc (5 days/wk, 5 mg/kg/day zinc applied) and EMF+Zinc (5 days/wk, 4 h/day EMF-exposure and 5 mg/kg/day zinc applied). EMF exposure and zinc supplementation were initiated from the first day of pregnancy to the 42nd postnatal day. Zinc levels in blood, NLGN3 and SHANK3 levels in hippocampus and amygdala, and synaptic structures in amygdala were examined. Behavioural tests showed that EMF exposure had no effect on social behaviour, but adversely affected activity and exploratory behaviour, and led to increased anxiety formation. Zinc supplementation had a partially positive effect on female, but not male offspring. SHANK3 and NLGN3 proteins were significantly lower in EMF groups, however, no positive effect of zinc supplementation was found. In conclusion, EMF exposure may alter the levels of synaptic proteins in the developing brain, leading to behavioural changes in a gender-dependent manner. Evaluation of zinc supplementation at different doses could be beneficial to prevent or reduce the behavioural and structural effects of EMF.
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Electrosensitivity exists as a very real problem. There is ample biological evidence to enable an understanding of this widespread phenomenon. Recent studies suggest possible genetic links, confirm positive subjective evidence, and confirm that voltage-gated calcium channels are an established mechanism for EM effects at nonthermal levels. Problems stemming from the conceptual context explain why even well-intentioned investigators may be tempted to deny, defer, obscure, or otherwise divert truth. It is also noted that there are vested interests at stake. As a result a great deal of EM and RF technology has been developed on the mistaken “presumption of no harm.” Unfortunately, ES not only exists but affects many, many people, the great majority of them undiagnosed (because of lack of medical knowledge) and either expensively investigated or mistreated, or worse still ignored, dismissed or ridiculed. Three case studies are noted, including one of the authors, which may of course incur criticism of bias, but perhaps may achieve an acknowledgement of the use of the human as an instrument of experimentation as well as an honest scientifically trained witness to symptoms. The Austrian Medical Association Guidelines provide a useful tool for the Practitioner.
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Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity is categorised as a multisymptomatic 'el-allergy' in the Nordic classification of 2000 (R.68.8). Its symptoms are 'certainly real' and it can be a 'disabling condition' (W.H.O., 2005). It was first recorded in the mid 20th century as an occupational illness, but it has now spread into the general population through environmental exposure from increasing levels of electromagnetic fields and radiation. This Summary covers current research on this syndrome, covering EM Sensitivity and EM Hypersensitivity. It includes tables of symptoms, EMF sources and exposure guidelines, along with references to scientific studies. This New Edition adds updates, international doctors' protocols, aspects of quantum biology, evidence for sensitivity in animals and plants, case studies, disability issues and human rights.
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Lightweight and stretchable electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials are desirable for wearable electronics. Herein, a graphene armor composed of laminated graphene film (LGF) and hierarchical porous graphene foam (HGF) with film/foam/film sandwich architecture is reported for human EMI shielding and motion monitoring. The LGF with micron-level interlayer spacing (∼2 μm) is fabricated by laser induction in a single step under an ambient atmosphere. Attributed to abundant interfaces and excellent electrical conductivity of 1670 S/m, the LGF exhibits an EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) up to 36.3 dB at a thickness of 19.4 μm. Due to the three-dimensional porous foam structure with the tunability of graphene content, the EMI SE of the HGF can range from 10 to 80 dB. Based on HGF with a graphene content of 27 wt%, the sandwich graphene armor with a thickness of about 2 mm exhibits an EMI SE up to 69.8 dB at an ultralow density of 0.228 g/cm³. Furthermore, the graphene armor possesses excellent mechanical properties as strain sensors that the gauge factor can reach 258 at the strain range up to 100%, thus the graphene armor can be used for motion monitoring while protecting the joints of the human body. The results demonstrate that sandwich architecture can not only enhance the EMI shielding performance of foam materials but also be an effective approach to improving the sensitivity of strain sensors. Therefore, the highly stretchable, conformal, and lightweight sandwich graphene armor is promising for multifunctional applications of EMI shielding and strain sensing.
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Radiation exposure has long been a concern for the public, policy makers, and health researchers. Beginning with radar during World War II, human exposure to radio-frequency radiation 1 (RFR) technologies has grown substantially over time. In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published literature and categorized RFR as a "possible" (Group 2B) human carcinogen. A broad range of adverse human health effects associated with RFR have been reported since the IARC review. In addition, three large-scale carcinogenicity studies in rodents exposed to levels of RFR that mimic lifetime human exposures have shown significantly increased rates of Schwannomas and malignant gliomas, as well as chromosomal DNA damage. Of particular concern are the effects of RFR exposure on the developing brain in children. Compared with an adult male, a cell phone held against the head of a child exposes deeper brain structures to greater radiation doses per unit volume, and the young, thin skull's bone marrow absorbs a roughly 10-fold higher local dose. Experimental and observational studies also suggest that men who keep cell phones in their trouser pockets have significantly lower sperm counts and significantly impaired sperm motility and morphology, including mitochondrial DNA damage. Based on the accumulated evidence, we recommend that IARC re-evaluate its 2011 classification of the human carcinogenicity of RFR, and that WHO complete a systematic review of multiple other health effects such as sperm damage. In the interim, current knowledge provides justification for governments, public health authorities, and physicians/allied health professionals to warn the population that having a cell phone next to the body is harmful, and to support measures to reduce all exposures to RFR.
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Introduction: Today, the growing human exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields is of serious concern to the population and the international scientific community. Sources of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in residential areas include mobile radio base stations, signal repeaters, wireless broadband access points, TV and radio transmitters, satellite earth stations, radar and radio relay stations. Launching of 5G mobile networks will further complicate the electromagnetic situation in inhabited areas, especially in megacities where the size of exposed population is the largest. In the system of measures contributing to protection of the population from adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields, standards (regulations and other documents establishing electromagnetic fields permissible levels) play a significant role and lay the foundation for organizational and technical measures of protection. High importance of standards in ensuring electromagnetic safety served as the basis for our study. The objective of the study was to perform a comparative analysis of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields standards for inhabited areas and approaches to setting electromagnetic fields exposure levels adopted by different countries and international organizations. Methods: We reviewed of some aspects of biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, regulations setting electromagnetic fields exposure limits in different countries and recommended by ICNIRP, and approaches to establishing those limits. Conclusions: We found a significant discrepancy in radiofrequency electromagnetic fields limits adopted in different countries, the legal status and scope of regulatory documents. Differences in the methodology for the development, adoption and approval of electromagnetic fields standard accompanied by differences in their legal status prevent uniform EMF standard setting.
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Introduction. The broad spread of cell phones (CP) among schoolchildren and the absence of age standards for their safe use determined the purpose of the study: to reveal the regimens of CP use, critical for the health of children and adolescents. Material and methods. In a cross-sectional study in 2008-2010, by the questionnaire data of 2,137 schoolchildren aged 6-15 years there was assessed the impact of CP usage indices (daily number of calls - CN, call duration - CD, and total daily duration of calls - TCDD) on health (the incidence of headaches and sleep disorders, number of colds). Student and Mann-Whitney criteria and assessment of relative risks were used. Results. The study revealed age-dependent critical values of usage indices (in 6-10 years: CN=2, TCDD=6 minutes.; in 11-13 years: CN=6; in 14-15 years CN=6, CD=3 minutes., TCDD=4 -10 min.), the exceeding of which due to risks: in 6-10 years - to have more than 4 colds a year (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.09-4.62); in 11-13 years to have several headaches per week (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.12-2.30); in 14-15 years - to have several headaches (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.27-2.54) and several sleep disorders (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.17-2.37) per week. Discussion. Age differences in critical modes of CP use and in health violations, as well as the importance of radiation intensity are discussed. Conclusions. Age-related CP use regimens, critical for health, were established. It was shown the need to develop more precise age criteria for safe CP use with taking into account a wider range of health indicators and radiation intensity.
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An die Vereinten Nationen (UNO), die Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO), die Europäische Union (EU), den Europarat und die Regierungen aller Nationen Wir, die unterzeichnenden Wissenschaftler, Ärzte, Umweltschutzorganisationen und Bürger aus () Ländern, sprechen uns dringend für einen sofortigen Stopp des Ausbaus und Einsatzes des 5G Funknetzwerks (Internet der fünften Generation) aus, darin eingeschlossen auch der Einsatz von 5G Sendeanlagen auf Weltraumsatelliten. Der Einsatz von 5G wird eine massiv erhöhte Einwirkung hochfrequenter Strahlung (HF) auf den Menschen zur Folge haben, zusätzlich zu den bereits jetzt genutzten 2G-, 3G-und 4G-Telekommunikations-Netzwerken. Die gesundheitsschädigende Wirkung von Hochfrequenzstrahlung auf Mensch und Umwelt ist bewiesen. Die Anwendung von 5G stellt ein Experiment an der Menschheit und der Umwelt dar, was durch internationales Recht als Verbrechen definiert ist.
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This paper was performed to determine the electromagnetic waves (RFW) released by dissimilar cellular phones and to additional observe the belongings of these waves on the living cells. TriField meter Model 100XE was used to calculate the electromagnetic waves produced by dissimilar mobile phones while receiving a call. To discover the effects of electromagnetic waves on living cells, developing chick embryo was selected for this study. 40 chick fertilized eggs were uniformly divided into manage and an exposed group. 20 fertilized eggs were placed in an egg incubator with a mobile phone in quiet mode having vibration immobilize mode. Mobile was called for total of 50 minutes in 24 hours. 20 embryos each were sacrificed at day 10 and 15, and histology of liver was conducted. The control group, 20 eggs were protecting in the same conditions, having removed the battery from the phone. The TriField readings from dissimilar mobile phones were classified into four groups according to the strength of the waves. Downloading from the net using WiFi also exposed high attentiveness of the waves. Histology of the liver: Control group at day 10, showed developing hepatocytes, row not well formed, and few sinusoids in-between with few spotted RBSs. At day 15, well-formed anastomosing cords of hepatocytes with significant nucleus were experiential and well-formed sinusoids lined by epithelium showing well-formed RBCs can be seen clearly. In the exposed group, the sinusoids were less noticeable and necrosis of hepatocytes was seen. In all the embryos, hepatocytes showed marked penetration of fatty vacuoles in their cytoplasm, necrosis of few hepatocytes showing intensely stained nucleus, derangement of rows forming classic hepatic lobule, deficiency of sinusoids and few scattered RBSs. dissimilar mobile phones showed emission of electromagnetic waves whose strength was high in the old version of mobile phones. These waves affected the enlargement of liver in the chick embryo; hepatocytes exposed fatty change and derangement of sinusoids in the exposed group. This paper concludes that the electromagnetic waves of the mobile phones exaggerated the propagation of living cells in chick embryo.
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The article contains the analysis of modern approaches to determining the limits of the electromagnetic field of radio frequencies. The international discussion about the safe limits of electromagnetic radiation has been going on for half a century. In the 21st century, the national policy of electromagnetic safety is determined by the socio-economic priorities of countries and national legal principles of evidence of harm to health to a greater extent, than scientific data. There are three main approaches to determining the limits of electromagnetic fields. The Anglo-Saxon approach is based on the principle of passive regulation, i.e. using the recommended values of the permissible level of the electromagnetic field. The Soviet-Russian approach is based on establishing the maximum permissible level of the electromagnetic field, which guarantees no harm to present and future generations. The term of the maximum permissible level is historically associated with the concept of the priority of the nervous system responses to the influence of the electromagnetic factor. The state assumes responsibility for the scientific justification of the limit levels and implements the control functions for their observance, which allows excluding any harm to health. The third approach is based on the precautionary principle, the concept of which was first introduced in German law. It is aimed at preventing harm, in the absence of unambiguous, reliable scientific data and, in fact, it is a socially-oriented approach that takes into account social consensus in the context of the development of new technologies. Respectively, this approach implies strict maximum permissible levels (technically achievable), as well as a system of formal restrictions on placement of the electromagnetic field sources in the “susceptible” territories. Separately from the above approaches, a method of managing the safety of the electromagnetic environment in China has been formed: since 2015, electromagnetism has been fully attributed to environmental factors and is controlled by the Ministry of environmental protection. China has abandoned the hygienic regulation of the anthropogenic electromagnetic field, and the system, for establishing and monitoring the electromagnetic environment indices, combines elements of all three mentioned above approaches.
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The impact of electromagnetic waves on health has been clearly established by many studies in recent decades. No State, with the exception of Russia, takes any real precautions in terms of standards for the population. Conflicts of interest and political lies are used to hide the truth about the dangers of electromagnetic pollution. In addition, it would seem that other sources of radiation than the most well-known ones (mobile phones, digital enhanced cordless telecommunication (DECT) phones, bluetooth, base stations, Wi-Fi, 4G, 5G) come into play. A system such as HAARP (High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program), as well as directed wave beams (related to past and recent scandals) must be analyzed and considered in a comprehensive way to understand why the wave level is only increasing despite the considerable amount of scientific work demonstrating that the standards are not adequate to maintain public health. Thus, official documents show that the impact of electromagnetic waves is not only physical and biological. Indeed, the climate and the behavior of the population are also targeted.
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This work presents a review of the available experimental and theoretical data on the effects of electromagnetic radiation from the global mobile communications system (GSM) on a living organism. Radiation exposure has long been a problem for the public, health policymakers, and researchers. Recently, the effect of radiofrequency radiation on biological objects has increased significantly. In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer reviewed the published literature and classified this type of radiation as a potent (group 2B) carcinogen for humans. To date, research results indicate a wide range of adverse effects on human health associated with radiation in the radio range. Of particular concern is the effects of this factor on reproductive function and the nervous system, particularly in children’s developing brains. Radiation from a cell phone, leaning against the head of a child, has a more detrimental effect on brain structures than in the case of an adult. Experimental studies also show men wearing cell phones in their trouser pockets lead to a significant decrease in sperm cells and the deterioration of mobility and morphology. Based on the accumulated evidence, we suggest Federal Service on Customers’ Rights Protection and Human Well-being Surveillance (Rospotrebnadzor) and Federal Agency for the Supervision in Education and Science (Rosobrnadzor) introduce control over the use of cell phones by children under 16 years of age and pregnant women and review the place of radiofrequency radiation in the systematics of hazardous environmental factors.
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Introduction Few studies have investigated the effect of electromagnetic waves on the human fetus whereas nowadays mobile phone use is ubiquitous. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between mobile phone use by pregnant women and fetal development during pregnancy in the general population. Material and methods Data came from the NéHaVi cohort ("prospective follow-up, from intrauterine development to the age of 18 years, for children born in Haute-Vienne"), a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter (three maternity units in Haute-Vienne) observational cohort focusing on children born between April 2014 and April 2017. Main objective was to investigate the association of mobile phone use on fetal growth. Univariate and multivariate models were generated adjusted for the socioprofessional category variables of the mother, and other variables likely to influence fetal growth. Results For the analysis 1,378 medical charts were considered from which 1,368 mothers (99.3%) used their mobile phones during pregnancy. Mean phone time was 29.8 minutes (range: 0.0 - 240.0 minutes) per day. After adjustment, newborns whose mothers used their mobile phones for more than 30 minutes/day were significantly more likely to have an AUDIPOG score ≤ 10th percentile than those whose mothers used their mobile phones for less than 5 minutes/day during pregnancy (aOR = 1.54 [1.03; 2.31], p = 0.0374). For women using their cell phones 5 to 15 min and 15 to 30 min, there wasn’t a significant association with an AUDIPOG score ≤ 10th, respectively aOR = 0.98 [0.58; 1.65] and aOR = 1.68 [0.99; 2.82]. Conclusion Using a mobile phone for calls for more than 30 minutes per day during pregnancy may have a negative impact on fetal growth. A prospective study should be performed to further evaluate this potential link.
Article
Objective: In recent years, there has been increasing scientific evidence about potential health risks caused by electromagnetic fields because of electronic media devices. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the possible association between electronic media device usage during pregnancy and sleep patterns in children and the possible role of electronic media device presence in the sleeping environment on children's sleep disturbances. Material and methods: The study was carried out with 400 healthy children aged between 1 month and 5 years whose parents agreed to complete the questionnaire form. The questionnaire form consisted of questions about the history of prenatal and postnatal electromagnetic field exposure caused by electronic media devices and the presence of sleep disturbances in children. Data were analyzed with SPSS for Windows program. P-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Sleep problems were more prevalent in children whose mothers lived near a base station during pregnancy (p<0.05). Sleep disorders were more frequent and sleep duration was shorter in children whose mothers used electronic devices (television, computer, mobile phone, wi-fi, microwave oven) during pregnancy (p<0.05). Sleep problems were also more common in children with electronic media devices in the sleeping environment during the night (p<0.05). Sleep disturbances were not associated with maternal consumption of tobacco or alcohol or history of disease during pregnancy (p>0.05). Conclusion: Our results highlight that exposure to electromagnetic fields caused by electronic media devices during the prenatal or postnatal period could be associated with sleep patterns in childhood. Considering the widespread use of electronic media devices, it may be an important public health problem given the long-term consequences of sleep disorders in childhood.
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El capítulo aborda una discusión en torno a la escala en el pensamiento internacional. Desarrolla un análisis sobre el mundo como producción históri- co-social compleja, y también sobre la diferencia como elemento central en la producción de mundo. Considerando que en Relaciones Internacionales la comple- jidad es poco observada, y comprendiendo que la escala mundial es en realidad una yuxtaposición de escalas diferenciadas, el capítulo plantea la necesaria discusión de la escala como tecnología central de ordenamiento, regulación y articulación de la diferencia, así como también discute la diferencia como herencia de la producción histórica de distintos mundos precapitalistas y su incorporación subalterna a la dinámica del capitalismo mundializado, tanto como el proceso de producción de diferencia dentro de patrones de homogeneización y jerarquización que definen al sistema mundial y en los cuales la escala juega un papel central. Por último, propone el concepto de (geo)política de las escalas como proceso de inteligibilidad de la complejidad social y como forma metodológica y política de comprensión de la escala mundial.
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Despite the fact that there are still conflicting opinions about the damage caused by modern wireless communication technologies, most scientists report on the negative biological effects of low-intensity radio frequency electromagnetic radiation at different levels of the organization of live nature. There is no doubt that there is a need not only for a sanitary and hygienic assessment of man-made electromagnetic effects on humans, but also for an environmental assessment for biota. The purpose of the study was to assess the potential environmental risk of electromagnetic impact in the centimeter range on natural ecosystems. The initial data were the authors' own results in the field of radiobiology of non-ionizing radiation, as well as published of other researchers. The article analyzes the biological effects of radio frequency electromagnetic fields detected in organisms of different systematic groups and levels of organization. The data on the non-thermal biological effects of electromagnetic fields indicate a high sensitivity of different species to this factor. The analyzed research results emphasize the need to take into account the features of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on biota, since these radiations can have a negative impact on different hierarchical levels in natural ecosystems.
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There is public concern that use of mobile phones could increase the risk of brain tumours. If such an effect exists, acoustic neuroma would be of particular concern because of the proximity of the acoustic nerve to the handset. We conducted, to a shared protocol, six population-based case–control studies in four Nordic countries and the UK to assess the risk of acoustic neuroma in relation to mobile phone use. Data were collected by personal interview from 678 cases of acoustic neuroma and 3553 controls. The risk of acoustic neuroma in relation to regular mobile phone use in the pooled data set was not raised (odds ratio (OR)=0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7–1.1). There was no association of risk with duration of use, lifetime cumulative hours of use or number of calls, for phone use overall or for analogue or digital phones separately. Risk of a tumour on the same side of the head as reported phone use was raised for use for 10 years or longer (OR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.1–3.1). The study suggests that there is no substantial risk of acoustic neuroma in the first decade after starting mobile phone use. However, an increase in risk after longer term use or after a longer lag period could not be ruled out.Keywords: neuroma, acoustic, telephone, epidemiology, aetiology
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Background: It is well known that the time from conception to early childhood has importance for health conditions that reach into later stages of life. Recent research supports this view, and diseases such as cardiovascular morbidity, cancer, mental illnesses, asthma, and allergy may all have component causes that act early in life. Exposures in this period, which influence fetal growth, cell divisions, and organ functioning, may have long-lasting impact on health and disease susceptibility. Methods: To investigate these issues the Danish National Birth Cohort (Better health for mother and child) was established. A large cohort of pregnant women with long-term follow-up of the offspring was the obvious choice because many of the exposures of interest cannot be reconstructed with sufficient validity back in time. The study needs to be large, and it is aimed to recruit 100,000 women early in pregnancy, and to continue follow-up for decades. The Nordic countries are better suited for this kind of research than most other countries because of their population-based registers on diseases, demography and social conditions, linkable at the individual level by means of the unique ID-number given to all citizens. Exposure information is mainly collected by computer-assisted telephone interviews with the women twice during pregnancy and when their children are six and 18 months old. Participants are also asked to fill in a self-administered food frequency questionnaire in mid-pregnancy. Furthermore, a biological bank has been set up with blood taken from the mother twice during pregnancy and blood from the umbilical cord taken shortly after birth. Data collection started in 1996 and the project covered all regions in Denmark in 1999. By August 2000. a total of 60,000 pregnant women had been recruited to the study. It is expected that a large number of gene-environmental hypotheses need to be based on case-control analyses within a cohort like this.
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The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been translated into the different Nordic languages between 1996 and 2003. During the past few years, SDQs have been completed for nearly 100,000 children and adolescents in population-based studies as well as in clinical samples. The largest studies have been performed in Norway and Denmark, and in these countries the diagnostic interview DAWBA has also been used in conjunction with the SDQ. In addition to a brief overview of past and ongoing SDQ work in Sweden, Finland, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland, we present scale means and standard deviations from selected community studies with comparable age groups, including parental reports for 7, 9 and 11 year-old children and self-reports of 13 and 15 year-olds. The descriptive statistics suggest that the distributions of SDQ scores are very similar across the Nordic countries. Further collaborative efforts in establishing norms and evaluating the validity of the SDQ as a screening instrument are encouraged.
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Handheld mobile phones were introduced in Sweden during the late 1980s. The purpose of this population-based, case-control study was to test the hypothesis that long-term mobile phone use increases the risk of brain tumors. The authors identified all cases aged 20–69 years who were diagnosed with glioma or meningioma during 2000–2002 in certain parts of Sweden. Randomly selected controls were stratified on age, gender, and residential area. Detailed information about mobile phone use was collected from 371 (74%) glioma and 273 (85%) meningioma cases and 674 (71%) controls. For regular mobile phone use, the odds ratio was 0.8 (95% confidence interval: 0.6, 1.0) for glioma and 0.7 (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 0.9) for meningioma. Similar results were found for more than 10 years' duration of mobile phone use. No risk increase was found for ipsilateral phone use for tumors located in the temporal and parietal lobes. Furthermore, the odds ratio did not increase, regardless of tumor histology, type of phone, and amount of use. This study includes a large number of long-term mobile phone users, and the authors conclude that the data do not support the hypothesis that mobile phone use is related to an increased risk of glioma or meningioma.
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In today's world, technologic developments bring social and economic benefits to large sections of society; however, the health consequences of these developments can be difficult to predict and manage. With rapid advances in electromagnetic field (EMF) technologies and communications, children are increasingly exposed to EMFs at earlier and earlier ages. Consistent epidemiologic evidence of an association between childhood leukemia and exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields has led to their classification by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a "possible human carcinogen." Concerns about the potential vulnerability of children to radio frequency (RF) fields have been raised because of the potentially greater susceptibility of their developing nervous systems; in addition, their brain tissue is more conductive, RF penetration is greater relative to head size, and they will have a longer lifetime of exposure than adults. To evaluate information relevant to children's sensitivity to both ELF and RF EMFs and to identify research needs, the World Health Organization held an expert workshop in Istanbul, Turkey, in June 2004. This article is based on discussions from the workshop and provides background information on the development of the embryo, fetus, and child, with particular attention to the developing brain; an outline of childhood susceptibility to environmental toxicants and childhood diseases implicated in EMF studies; and a review of childhood exposure to EMFs. It also includes an assessment of the potential susceptibility of children to EMFs and concludes with a recommendation for additional research and the development of precautionary policies in the face of scientific uncertainty.
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Handheld mobile phones were introduced in Sweden during the late 1980s. The purpose of this population-based, case-control study was to test the hypothesis that long-term mobile phone use increases the risk of brain tumors. The authors identified all cases aged 20–69 years who were diagnosed with glioma or meningioma during 2000–2002 in certain parts of Sweden. Randomly selected controls were stratified on age, gender, and residential area. Detailed information about mobile phone use was collected from 371 (74%) glioma and 273 (85%) meningioma cases and 674 (71%) controls. For regular mobile phone use, the odds ratio was 0.8 (95% confidence interval: 0.6, 1.0) for glioma and 0.7 (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 0.9) for meningioma. Similar results were found for more than 10 years' duration of mobile phone use. No risk increase was found for ipsilateral phone use for tumors located in the temporal and parietal lobes. Furthermore, the odds ratio did not increase, regardless of tumor histology, type of phone, and amount of use. This study includes a large number of long-term mobile phone users, and the authors conclude that the data do not support the hypothesis that mobile phone use is related to an increased risk of glioma or meningioma.
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The authors conducted a cohort study within the Danish National Birth Cohort to determine whether coffee consumption during pregnancy is associated with late fetal death (spontaneous abortion and stillbirth). A total of 88,482 pregnant women recruited from March 1996 to November 2002 participated in a comprehensive interview on coffee consumption and potentially confounding factors in pregnancy. Information on pregnancy outcome was obtained from the National Hospital Discharge Register and medical records. The authors detected 1,102 fetal deaths. High levels of coffee consumption were associated with an increased risk of fetal death. Relative to nonconsumers of coffee, the adjusted hazard ratios for fetal death associated with coffee consumption of 1/2-3, 4-7, and > or =8 cups of coffee per day were 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89, 1.19), 1.33 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.63), and 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.13), respectively. Reverse causation due to unrecognized fetal demise may explain the association between coffee intake and risk of fetal death prior to 20 completed weeks' gestation but not the association with fetal loss following 20 completed weeks' gestation. Consumption of coffee during pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of fetal death, especially losses occurring after 20 completed weeks of gestation.
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The widespread use of cellular telephones has generated concern about possible adverse health effects, particularly brain tumors. In this population-based case-control study carried out in three regions of Germany, all incident cases of glioma and meningioma among patients aged 30–69 years were ascertained during 2000–2003. Controls matched on age, gender, and region were randomly drawn from population registries. In total, 366 glioma cases, 381 meningioma cases, and 1,494 controls were interviewed. Overall use of a cellular phone was not associated with brain tumor risk; the respective odds ratios were 0.98 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74, 1.29) for glioma and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.62, 1.13) for meningioma. Among persons who had used cellular phones for 10 or more years, increased risk was found for glioma (odds ratio = 2.20, 95% CI: 0.94, 5.11) but not for meningioma (odds ratio = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.35, 3.37). No excess of temporal glioma (p = 0.41) or meningioma (p = 0.43) was observed in cellular phone users as compared with nonusers. Cordless phone use was not related to either glioma risk or meningioma risk. In conclusion, no overall increased risk of glioma or meningioma was observed among these cellular phone users; however, for long-term cellular phone users, results need to be confirmed before firm conclusions can be drawn.
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Mobile phones create a radio-frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) around them when in use, the effects of which on brain physiology in humans are not well known. We studied the effects of a commercial mobile phone on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in healthy humans using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Positron emission tomography data was acquired using a double-blind, counterbalanced study design with 12 male subjects performing a computer-controlled verbal working memory task (letter 1-back). Explorative and objective voxel-based statistical analysis revealed that a mobile phone in operation induces a local decrease in rCBF beneath the antenna in the inferior temporal cortex and an increase more distantly in the prefrontal cortex. Our results provide the first evidence, suggesting that the EMF emitted by a commercial mobile phone affects rCBF in humans. These results are consistent with the postulation that EMF induces changes in neuronal activity.
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To validate short term recall of mobile phone use within Interphone, an international collaborative case control study of tumours of the brain, acoustic nerve, and salivary glands related to mobile telephone use. Mobile phone use of 672 volunteers in 11 countries was recorded by operators or through the use of software modified phones, and compared to use recalled six months later using the Interphone study questionnaire. Agreement between recalled and actual phone use was analysed using both categorical and continuous measures of number and duration of phone calls. Correlations between recalled and actual phone use were moderate to high (ranging from 0.5 to 0.8 across countries) and of the same order for number and duration of calls. The kappa statistic demonstrated fair to moderate agreement for both number and duration of calls (weighted kappa ranging from 0.20 to 0.60 across countries). On average, subjects underestimated the number of calls per month (geometric mean ratio of recalled to actual = 0.92, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.99), whereas duration of calls was overestimated (geometric mean ratio = 1.42, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.56). The ratio of recalled to actual use increased with level of use, showing underestimation in light users and overestimation in heavy users. There was substantial heterogeneity in this ratio between countries. Inter-individual variation was also large, and increased with level of use. Volunteer subjects recalled their recent phone use with moderate systematic error and substantial random error. This large random error can be expected to reduce the power of the Interphone study to detect an increase in risk of brain, acoustic nerve, and parotid gland tumours with increasing mobile phone use, if one exists.
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The BJC is owned by Cancer Research UK, a charity dedicated to understanding the causes, prevention and treatment of cancer and to making sure that the best new treatments reach patients in the clinic as quickly as possible. The journal reflects these aims. It was founded more than fifty years ago and, from the start, its far-sighted mission was to encourage communication of the very best cancer research from laboratories and clinics in all countries. The breadth of its coverage, its editorial independence and it consistent high standards, have made BJC one of the world's premier general cancer journals. Its increasing popularity is reflected by a steadily rising impact factor.
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The use of cellular and cordless telephones has increased dramatically during the last decade. There is concern of health problems such as malignant diseases due to microwave exposure during the use of these devices. The brain is the main target organ. Since the second part of the 1990's we have performed six case-control studies on this topic encompassing use of both cellular and cordless phones as well as other exposures. Three of the studies concerned brain tumours, one salivary gland tumours, one non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and one testicular cancer. Exposure was assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Regarding acoustic neuroma analogue cellular phones yielded odds ratio (OR) = 2.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.0-4.3, digital cellular phones OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.1-2.1 and cordless phones OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.04-2.0. The corresponding results were for astrocytoma grade III-IV OR = 1.7, 95 % CI = 1.3-2.3; OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.2-1.9 and OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.1-1.9, respectively. The ORs increased with latency period with highest estimates using > 10 years time period from first use of these phone types. Lower ORs were calculated for astrocytoma grade I-II. No association was found with salivary gland tumours, NHL or testicular cancer although an association with NHL of T-cell type could not be ruled out. We found for all studied phone types an increased risk for brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant brain tumours. OR increased with latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV. No consistent pattern of an increased risk was found for salivary gland tumours, NHL, or testicular cancer.
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The widespread use of cellular telephones has heightened concerns about possible adverse health effects. The objective of this study was to investigate cancer risk among Danish cellular telephone users who were followed for up to 21 years. This study is an extended follow-up of a large nationwide cohort of 420,095 persons whose first cellular telephone subscription was between 1982 and 1995 and who were followed through 2002 for cancer incidence. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated by dividing the number of observed cancer cases in the cohort by the number expected in the Danish population. A total of 14,249 cancers were observed (SIR = 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93 to 0.97) for men and women combined. Cellular telephone use was not associated with increased risk for brain tumors (SIR = 0.97), acoustic neuromas (SIR = 0.73), salivary gland tumors (SIR = 0.77), eye tumors (SIR = 0.96), or leukemias (SIR = 1.00). Among long-term subscribers of 10 years or more, cellular telephone use was not associated with increased risk for brain tumors (SIR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.44 to 0.95), and there was no trend with time since first subscription. The risk for smoking-related cancers was decreased among men (SIR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.86 to 0.91) but increased among women (SIR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.21). Additional data on income and smoking prevalence, primarily among men, indicated that cellular telephone users who started subscriptions in the mid-1980s appeared to have a higher income and to smoke less than the general population. We found no evidence for an association between tumor risk and cellular telephone use among either short-term or long-term users. Moreover, the narrow confidence intervals provide evidence that any large association of risk of cancer and cellular telephone use can be excluded.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the association of exposures to tobacco smoke and environmental lead with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Prenatal and postnatal tobacco exposure was based on parent report; lead exposure was measured using blood lead concentration. ADHD was defined as having current stimulant medication use and parent report of ADHD diagnosed by a doctor or health professional. Of 4,704 children 4-15 years of age, 4.2% were reported to have ADHD and stimulant medication use, equivalent to 1.8 million children in the United States. In multivariable analysis, prenatal tobacco exposure [odds ratio (OR) = 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-5.2] and higher blood lead concentration (first vs. fifth quintile, OR = 4.1; 95% CI, 1.2-14.0) were significantly associated with ADHD. Postnatal tobacco smoke exposure was not associated with ADHD (OR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3-1.3; p = 0.22). If causally linked, these data suggest that prenatal tobacco exposure accounts for 270,000 excess cases of ADHD, and lead exposure accounts for 290,000 excess cases of ADHD in U.S. children. We conclude that exposure to prenatal tobacco and environmental lead are risk factors for ADHD in U.S. children.
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We investigated the effects of radio frequency electromagnetic fields on brain physiology. Twenty-four healthy young men were exposed for 30 min to pulse-modulated or continuous-wave radio frequency electromagnetic fields (900 MHz; peak specific absorption rate 1 W/kg), or sham exposed. During exposure, participants performed cognitive tasks. Waking electroencephalogram was recorded during baseline, immediately after, and 30 and 60 min after exposure. Pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure reduced reaction speed and increased accuracy in a working-memory task. It also increased spectral power in the waking electroencephalogram in the 10.5-11 Hz range 30 min after exposure. No effects were observed for continuous-wave radio frequency electromagnetic fields. These findings provide further evidence for a nonthermal biological effect of pulsed radio frequency electromagnetic fields.
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Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the use of mobile phones and other sources of microwave radiation, raising concerns about possible adverse health effects. As children have longer expected lifetime exposures to microwaves from these devices than adults, who started to use them later in life, they are a group of special interest. We performed a population-based study to assess ownership and use of mobile phones and cordless phones among children aged 7-14 years. A questionnaire comprising 24 questions was sent to 2000 persons selected from the Swedish population registry using a stratified sampling scheme. The response rate was 71.2%. Overall, 79.1% of the respondents reported mobile phone access, and 26.7% of them talked for 2 minutes or more per day. Of those who reported mobile phone access, only 5.9% reported use of hands-free equipment. Use of cordless phones was reported by 83.8% of the respondents and 38.5% of them talked for 5 minutes or more per day. Girls generally reported more frequent use than boys. This study showed that most children had access to and used mobile and cordless phones early in life and that there was a rapid increase in use with age. It also showed very low use of hands-free equipment among children with mobile phone access, and finally that girls talked significantly more minutes per day using mobile and cordless phones than boys did.
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One hundred children were patch tested with 5% nickel sulphate, 0.5% potassium dichromate, 5% cobalt chloride and pure petrolatum. Seventeen children (11 having eczematous and 6 having non-eczematous dermatoses) showed positive patch test reactions to one or more metals, chromium (13%), nickel (8%) and cobalt (1%). The incidence of metal sensitivity was highger (32.5%) in the older children (8-14 years) as compared to the younger children 7 years of age (2.66%). The female children had a higher incidence of sensitivity as compared to the male children.
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Introduction Between two and five per cent of all live-born infants have a major developmental defect. Up to 40 per cent of these defects have been estimated to result from maternal exposure(s) to harmful environmental agents that directly or indirectly create an unfavourable intrauterine environment. A spectrum of adverse effects can occur, including death, structural malformation, and/or functional alteration of the fetus/embryo. The traditional focus of the science of developmental toxicology has been on the role of agents (environmental or drugs) that cause either premature death of the fetus or birth defects. In recent years, attention has turned to examining the effects of in-utero or neonatal exposure to environmental agents on functional changes in tissues, e.g. permanent changes in tissue function that are not the result of overtly or grossly teratogenic effects but that result in increased susceptibility to disease/dysfunction later in life. The epidemiology data that support the concept of the fetal basis of adult disease, together with the preliminary data showing alterations in gene expression and tissue imprinting due to in-utero exposures to some environmental agents, provide an attractive framework for understanding delayed functional effects of toxicant exposures. We propose that exposure to certain environmental chemicals, alone or in combination with altered nutrition, leads to aberrant developmental programming that permanently alters gland, organ or system potential. © P. D. Gluckman and M. A. Hanson 2006 and Cambridge University Press, 2009.
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Background Child psychiatric disorders are common and treatable, but often go undetected and therefore remain untreated. Aims To assess the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as a potential means for improving the detection of child psychiatric disorders in the community. Method SDQ predictions and independent psychiatric diagnoses were compared in a community sample of 7984 5- to 15-year-olds from the 1999 British Child Mental Health Survey. Results Multi-informant (parents, teachers, older children) SDQs identified individuals with a psychiatric diagnosis with a specificity of 94.6% (95% Cl 94.1-95.1%) and a sensitivity of 63.3% (59.7-66.9%). The questionnaires identified over 70% of individuals with conduct, hyperactivity, depressive and some anxiety disorders, but under 50% of individuals with specific phobias, separation anxiety and eating disorders. Sensitivity was substantially poorer with single-informant rather than multi-informant SDQs. Conclusions Community screening programmes based on multi-informant SDQs could potentially increase the detection of child psychiatric disorders, thereby improving access to effective treatments.
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A novel behavioural screening questionnaire, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), was administered along with Rutter questionnaires to parents and teachers of 403 children drawn from dental and psychiatric clinics. Scores derived from the SDQ and Rutter questionnaires were highly correlated; parent-teacher correlations for the two sets of measures were comparable or favoured the SDQ. The two sets of measures did not differ in their ability to discriminate between psychiatric and dental clinic attenders. These preliminary findings suggest that the SDQ functions as well as the Rutter questionnaires while offering the following additional advantages: a focus on strengths as well as difficulties; better coverage of inattention, peer relationships, and prosocial behaviour; a shorter format; and a single form suitable for both parents and teachers, perhaps thereby increasing parent-teacher correlations.
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We carried out a cross-sectional community study in Singapore to determine the prevalence of specific central nervous system (CNS) symptoms among hand-held cellular telephone (HP) users compared to nonusers and to study the association of risk factors and CNS symptoms among HP users. A total of 808 men and women between 12 and 70 years of age, who lived in one community, were selected using one-stage cluster random sampling and responses to a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of HP users was 44.8%. Headache was the most prevalent symptom among HP users compared to non-HP users, with an adjusted prevalence rate ratio of 1.31 [95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.70]. There is a significant increase in the prevalence of headache with increasing duration of usage (in minutes per day). Prevalence of headache was reduced by more than 20% among those who used hand-free equipment for their cellular telephones as compared to those who never use the equipment. The use of HPs is not associated with a significant increase of CNS symptoms other than headache.
Article
Background: Child psychiatric disorders are common and treatable, but often go undetected and therefore remain untreated. Aims: To assess the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as a potential means for improving the detection of child psychiatric disorders in the community. Method: SDQ predictions and independent psychiatric diagnoses were compared in a community sample of 7984 5- to 15-year-olds from the 1999 British Child Mental Health Survey. Results: Multi-informant (parents, teachers, older children) SDQs identified individuals with a psychiatric diagnosis with a specificity of 94.6% (95% Cl 94.1-95.1%) and a sensitivity of 63.3% (59.7-66.9%). The questionnaires identified over 70% of individuals with conduct, hyperactivity, depressive and some anxiety disorders, but under 50% of individuals with specific phobias, separation anxiety and eating disorders. Sensitivity was substantially poorer with single-informant rather than multi-informant SDQs. Conclusions: Community screening programmes based on multi-informant SDQs could potentially increase the detection of child psychiatric disorders, thereby improving access to effective treatments.
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OBJECTIVES: This paper reviews the effects of elevated maternal temperature on embryo and foetal development in experimental animals and in humans. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperthermia during pregnancy can cause embryonic death, abortion, growth retardation and developmental defects. Processes critical to embryonic development, such as cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and programmed cell death (apoptosis) are adversely affected by elevated maternal temperatures, showing some similarity to the effects of ionizing radiation. The development of the central nervous system is especially susceptible: a 2.5 degrees C elevation for 1 h during early neural tube closure in rats resulted in an increased incidence of cranio-facial defects, and a 'spike' temperature elevation of 2-2.5 degrees C in an exposure of 1 h during early neurogenesis in guinea pigs caused an increase in the incidence of microencephaly. However, in general, thresholds and dose-response relationships vary between species and even between different strains of the same species, depending on genotype. This precludes rigorous quantitative extrapolation to humans, although some general principles can be inferred. In humans, epidemiological studies suggest that an elevation of maternal body temperature by 2 degrees C for at least 24 h during fever can cause a range of developmental defects, but there is little information on thresholds for shorter exposures. Further experimental and epidemiological studies are recommended, focusing on stage-specific developmental effects in the central nervous system using a variety of sensitive assays.
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Radiofrequency exposure from mobile phones is concentrated to the tissue closest to the handset, which includes the auditory nerve. If this type of exposure increases tumor risk, acoustic neuroma would be a potential concern. In this population-based case-control study we identified all cases age 20 to 69 years diagnosed with acoustic neuroma during 1999 to 2002 in certain parts of Sweden. Controls were randomly selected from the study base, stratified on age, sex, and residential area. Detailed information about mobile phone use and other environmental exposures was collected from 148 (93%) cases and 604 (72%) controls. The overall odds ratio for acoustic neuroma associated with regular mobile phone use was 1.0 (95% confidence interval = 0.6-1.5). Ten years after the start of mobile phone use the estimates relative risk increased to 1.9 (0.9-4.1); when restricting to tumors on the same side of the head as the phone was normally used, the relative risk was 3.9 (1.6-9.5). Our findings do not indicate an increased risk of acoustic neuroma related to short-term mobile phone use after a short latency period. However, our data suggest an increased risk of acoustic neuroma associated with mobile phone use of at least 10 years' duration.
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Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity that affects 8-12% of children worldwide. Although the rate of ADHD falls with age, at least half of children with the disorder will have impairing symptoms in adulthood. Twin, adoption, and molecular genetic studies show ADHD to be highly heritable, and other findings have recorded obstetric complications and psychosocial adversity as predisposing risk factors. Converging evidence from animal and human studies implicates the dysregulation of frontal-subcortical-cerebellar catecholaminergic circuits in the pathophysiology of ADHD, and molecular imaging studies suggest that abnormalities of the dopamine transporter lead to impaired neurotransmission. Studies during the past decade have shown the safety and effectiveness of new non-stimulant drugs and long-acting formulations of methylphenidate and amfetamine. Other investigations have also clarified the appropriate role of targeted psychosocial treatments in the context of ongoing pharmacotherapy.
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This paper provides a summary of the current conceptualization of what AD/HD is, and its etiology, and then reviews some of the recent literature on the correlates and lifecourse outcomes for individuals diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). The intention is to synthesize that which is known, and to identify important gaps in the literature and knowledge base, which secondary analysis of prospective large-scale longitudinal cohorts, tracking individuals from birth to adulthood, could help to fill. This review highlights the fact that such datasets are rare and that their analysis offers important opportunities for advancing knowledge, particularly of the adult outcomes of childhood AD/HD.
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Potential adverse effects of electromagnetic field exposure on the developing child have been discussed during the last decades. Effects during fetal development could have major consequences and possibly lead to various adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study summarizes the evidence on adverse pregnancy outcomes in relation to extremely low frequency (ELF) and radiofrequency (RF) exposures and briefly discusses other potential health effects, excluding cancer, following childhood exposures to these fields. Most studies of ELF exposures have not demonstrated any consistent risk increases for adverse pregnancy outcomes, but limitations in the exposure assessment methods and very limited power to study high exposure levels prevents any conclusions. Findings of an increased risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to maximum magnetic field exposures in two studies need to be confirmed. Studies of RF exposure have mostly been limited to physiotherapists and although some positive findings have been reported, no specific type of malformation or other adverse outcome has been consistently reported. Different types of symptoms and effects on cognitive function in relation to both ELF and RF fields have been reported in adults, but scientific studies have not confirmed that these symptoms are caused by the electromagnetic fields. No information is available for children.
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This study examined the accuracy of maternal recall of obstetric complications and birth characteristics and its determinants for both preterm and term deliveries 3-9 years ago. In 101 preterm and 107 term deliveries at the National Taiwan University Hospital during 1995-2000, recall data were obtained by telephone interview with the mothers and were matched with medical records. Among 10 obstetric complications assessed, the accuracy of maternal recall could either have high sensitivity and high specificity (Cesarean section, gestational hypertension, and induced labor), low to moderate sensitivity and high specificity (pre-eclampsia, breech, and cord loops), or low sensitivity and low specificity (ante partum vaginal bleeding, edema, and proteinuria). The correlations between maternal recall and medical records for birth weight (r = .95) and gestational age (r =.93) in the preterm group were slightly higher than those in the term group (r = .89 and .83, respectively). Factors associated with higher recall accuracy included preterm delivery, first birth order, and lower total parity, but no factor consistently related to maternal accuracy for all obstetric complications and birth characteristics. The accuracy of maternal recall on obstetric complications varied depending on the nature of complications examined, whereas that on birth characteristics was high.
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increase of users during the 1990s.9 Slightly less than 6% of the population used mobile phones in 1990, 23% in 1995, and over 80% today. Therefore, a study based on the Swedish population will have a large proportion of long-term users, which is crucial for the possibility of detecting any increased risk of tumors related to long-term mobile phone use. The study reported here is part of the INTERPHONE study,10 an international collaborative case-control study of brain tumors, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland tumors in relation to mobile phone use. We report here results for acoustic neu- roma; results for the other outcomes will be reported sepa- rately. Study Population
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Events during pregnancy and labour may influence the future health and well-being of offspring. Many studies rely on maternal reports of pre and peri-natal factors. Both maternal and child characteristics may potentially influence the reliability and accuracy of maternal recall. However, this has not been previously examined. To examine agreement between information from maternally reported questionnaires and medical records for a range of pre and peri-natal factors. To examine whether maternal and child characteristics influence the level of agreement with medical records. A survey of women who had school aged children born following in vitro fertilization (IVF) was carried out. Mothers completed a postal questionnaire booklet which included the Lewis and Murray scale which asks about antenatal and obstetric complications and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire which assesses child behaviour problems. Antenatal case notes were also reviewed. Multi-centre ethical approval was obtained. Complete data were available for 126 women. The agreement between maternal report and medical records was very good for the majority of outcomes examined (infant birth weight, infant admission to special care baby unit, method of delivery, smoking during pregnancy, high blood pressure/oedema during pregnancy). Exceptions were length of labour and alcohol use during pregnancy. However, alcohol use during pregnancy was not routinely recorded in medical records. Maternal characteristics did not substantially influence level of agreement for the majority of outcomes examined. Exceptions were that agreement for length of labour was better in women with more educational qualifications and that agreement for pre-natal smoking was worse in women from higher socio-occupational groups. There was little evidence that child behaviour problems influenced the level of agreement between maternal recall and medical records. For the majority of pre and peri-natal events examined, mothers can provide accurate reports in comparison to information from medical records.
Article
The purpose of this work was to investigate the dependence of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR), calculated using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, on the width of the free space region between a numerical phantom and the perfectly matched layer (pml) absorbing boundary. Results show that an increase in this width from 2 cells to 70 cells caused variations in the calculated whole-body averaged SAR of less than 2% for the FDTD code employing split-field pmls. Similarly, an increase in the width of the pml layer had little effect on the whole-body SAR values.
Article
The objective of this study was to measure the agreement between hospital records and maternal reporting of mode of delivery in a representative UK sample. Population-based survey (Millennium Cohort Study). UK. A total of 12,391 singleton infants born in 2000-2002. Mothers were interviewed when infants were approximately 9 months old. Information was collected by interview on many obstetric and perinatal factors including mode of delivery. Record linkage to the mother's delivery hospital records was undertaken in those who gave consent (90%). A matching record was found for 83%. Maternal report and hospital records were compared using mode of delivery classified into three (normal, assisted and caesarean) and six groups. Factors associated with disagreement between the two data sources were identified. Proportion of records in which there was agreement between the two data sources. Agreement between maternal report and hospital records was at least 94% using six mode of delivery groups and 98% using three groups. Much of the disagreement (57-63%, depending on country) was between forceps and ventouse, and between planned and emergency caesarean. Disagreement was more common in women whose babies were first born and in women not born in the UK. Our study confirms that maternal reporting of mode of delivery is highly reliable. This is important for clinical staff caring for women and those conducting epidemiological studies. Additional data sources may be necessary to gather reliable data from ethnic minority women, particularly those born outside the UK, or to distinguish forceps from ventouse, or planned from emergency caesarean section.