Article

DECIDE: A Decision-Making Model for More Effective Decision Making by Health Care Managers

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Abstract

The purpose of this article is to describe a step-by-step process for decision making, and a model is developed to aid health care managers in making more quality decisions, which ultimately determines the success of organizations. The DECIDE model is the acronym of 6 particular activities needed in the decision-making process: (1) D = define the problem, (2) E = establish the criteria, (3) C = consider all the alternatives, (4) I = identify the best alternative, (5) D = develop and implement a plan of action, and (6) E = evaluate and monitor the solution and feedback when necessary. The DECIDE model is intended as a resource for health care managers when applying the crucial components of decision making, and it enables managers to improve their decision-making skills, which leads to more effective decisions.

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... Il est structuré autour de la proposition des étapes du processus de prise de décisions SCCP, incluant les principes clés des interactions avec le système d'information SCCP ainsi que la structuration des rôles des personnes prenants part à ce processus. Les grandes étapes du processus de prise de décisions proposé par le cadre conceptuel SCCP sont inspirées de processus de résolution de problèmes et de prise de décisions décrit dans la littérature (Bell et al. 1977, Sainfort et al. 1990, Klein et al. 1993, Guo 2008. Les trois grandes étapes sont les suivantes : l'identification des alternatives, l'évaluation des alternatives, et enfin la comparaison des alternatives pour supporter la prise de décision. ...
... The SCC plan corresponds to a set of decision options, among all existing decision options related to the supply chain capacity, that decision-makers have decided to activate and thus to perform the corresponding actions. A process for making decisions (i.e., a decision-making process) usually implies the following steps that can be found in existing approaches within the literature (Bell et al. 1977, Sainfort et al. 1990, Klein et al. 1993, Guo 2008: identify alternatives and associated information, assess alternatives, compare alternatives, and select the alternative to implement. This thesis focuses on the assessment, comparison, and decision steps, and the link with the identification step ( Figure 7). ...
... The structure of the sequence of activities proposed for performing SCCP is inspired from the structure of existing decision-making and problem-solving approaches described in the literature (Bell et al. 1977, Sainfort et al. 1990, Klein et al. 1993, Guo 2008). ...
Thesis
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Long-term Supply Chain Capacity Planning (SCCP) aims to define the plan of all actions to perform that will shape the available and required capacity of supply chains over several years. When performing long-term SCCP, companies are confronted with a multitude of decision options and uncertainty sources as well as a highly dynamic supply chain environment. Each company configures its own Decision Support System (DSS) to perform SCCP, composed of a decision-making process, an information system, and people. Companies can take advantage of existing decision-making processes and information systems to build their own SCCP DSS. However, the literature review on existing decision-making processes and information systems for SCCP revealed the following three major limitations: first, existing solutions are time-consuming. This constrains companies to consider only a small number of alternative scenarios associated with decision options and uncertainty sources. And it makes it difficult to keep SCCP analysis up to date. Second, existing solutions are designed to perform SCCP analysis on predefined supply chains without considering the whole set of potential alternative configurations. Third, decision-makers are reluctant to accept optimization methods because of the lack of visibility of the analysis leading to the recommended solution. Therefore, this thesis describes a new SCCP DSS proposal aiming to overcome these limitations. It is composed of an SCCP decision-making process proposal relying on an SCCP information system proposal. The SCCP decision-making process proposal contains two processes: implementation and routine. The SCCP information system proposal contains two software programs: a computational software program and a business intelligence software program. The SCCP DSS proposal was validated by undertaking two industrial pilot projects with two industrial partners. The following two major benefits have been confirmed: first, SCCP analysis can be performed in encompassing a multitude of decision options and uncertainty sources at a pace allowing updates in accordance with the pace of supply chain changes. Second, it provides decision-makers with the visibility and understanding of the impacts of their respective decisions and uncertainty sources which bolster their confidence in the decisions they can make. Finally, avenues for future research have been identified, including an opportunity for designing a hyperconnected SCCP DSS that automatically gathers information and triggers decision-making meetings when necessary rather than on a predefined frequency.
... According to the decision-making literature, the decision-making process includes establishing objectives, gathering information, developing and comparing alternatives, making the decision, implementing a plan of action, and reflecting on the decision 14,15 . These inquiries manifest in OHCs as patient post questions pertaining to decisionmaking, specifically, as they compare alternatives. ...
... While decision-making theories highlight the various factors that influence people's decision-making behavior, the decision-making process models 14,15 share in common the steps leading to making a decision. These common steps include: establishing objectives, gathering information, and comparing alternatives. ...
... Annotator 1 (First author--A1) first independently analyzed the top 50 posts from the ranked order based on the LIWC score. Out of the 50 posts, 14 posts contained what A1 considered as comparison of alternatives as identified in the decision-making literature 14,15 . A1 shared the results with A2 (last author) to iteratively refine the codebook on identifying decision-making inquiries. ...
Article
As of 2014, 29.1 million people in the US have diabetes. Patients with diabetes have evolving information needs around complex lifestyle and medical decisions. As their conditions progress, patients need to sporadically make decisions by understanding alternatives and comparing options. These moments along the decision-making process present a valuable opportunity to support their information needs. An increasing number of patients visit online diabetes communities to fulfill their information needs. To understand how patients attempt to fulfill the information needs around decision-making in online communities, we reviewed 801 posts from an online diabetes community and included 79 posts for in-depth content analysis. The findings revealed motivations for posters' inquiries related to decision-making including the changes in disease state, increased self-awareness, and conflict of information received. Medication and food were the among the most popular topics discussed as part of their decision-making inquiries. Additionally, We present insights for automatically identifying those decision-making inquiries to efficiently support information needs presented in online health communities.
... Review of the literature identifies four consistent factors (Fig 1) which support decision-making: resources including people and capabilities, data and information, processes and structures and the culture and organisational context (Guo, 2008;Satterfield et al., 2009). Satterfield et al. 2009) Decisions in the health context are complex. ...
... The process should set boundaries for groups to self-regulate and should protect against pitfalls, biases and 'groupthink'. The decision-making process should encourage experimentation and rapid iterations (fail fast/fail cheap) (Beshears & Gino, 2015;Guo, 2008;Heath & Heath, 2013;Sunstein & Hastie, 2014). ...
Conference Paper
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Abstract: The article "Sharing of teaching staff information via QR-code usage" presented at the conference, which has the common name "Information Systems Management and Evaluation ». One of the most famous information systems in user practice is an information system - "Human Resources Information System" (HRIS), which is essentially a database of the HR organization, which in itself does not provide any management decisions and need a special person who to this database is constantly filled and made changes. In this article, based on the analysis of empirical data is offered a specific solution for database management of HRIS remotely by members of the company. The process of personnel management becomes more effective and operational with the help of one of the technologies IoT- QR code. University Information about the instructors are constantly changing and the human resources department is necessary each time to make changes to the database. There are cases when you need urgent information on the teacher, and it is impossible to obtain an instant on a number of subjective reasons. QR code technology offers amazing features such as: 1. Easy access 2. Deeper relationship with customers 3. Bridge online and offline media 4. Real-time information 5. Invoke user's curiosity These technologies can provide information about the teachers for students, undergraduates, doctoral students, researchers and administration. Files using this technology consist of not only text but also videos in 3D animation. This article describes a practical example of the use of IoT technologies - QR code to improve the efficiency of the automated human resource management system (for example, Almaty Management University).The purpose of this work: to show the ways to improve the information system "Human Resources Information System” (HRIS) through the use of user-friendly, intuitive and fast QR code technology. The object of study: the work of the personnel department, IC ‘Human Resources Information System’ (HRIS) 6. Research model: observation, cross sectional model 7. Variables: behavioral variables 8. Methodology: analysis of the usage and importance of QR code for users. 9. The results of studies: the formation of stable opinion of the importance of the QR code. 10. Criteria for evaluation of thinking: creativity, innovation and technological advancement 11. Findings: not fully disclosed the potential of QR code technology has a significant impact on society. Practical implications: all the legal information about the instructors optically encoded from paper, which definitely contributes to the idea of open systems. It provides simplicity and high reading speed and user interaction with the information. Keywords: QR code, human resource information system, new content, IoT and IoE, physical web, file formats 1
... There is also what is known in the organizations as the organizational (tactical) level or the middle management level, which is represented by the management of production, marketing and finance (Guo, 2008). According to Kotusev (2020), this functional level requires the existence of administrative technical systems that depend on the resources of the database management system to achieve the required integration in the administrative information related to operations, marketing, human resources, and accounting and financial affairs. ...
... Using information technology in an optimal way (for example, accessing all the information required to make informed decisions on the job through an on-line centralized database) increases the social and organizational capacity within the system (Kotusev, 2020). The increasing complexity of the workplace makes top-down control very difficult and fails to capitalize on the ability of the organization and individuals to learn, adapt and change (Guo, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Information systems are currently used in all organizations due to their effectiveness in the implementation of administrative decisions. This study attempted to examine availability of information systems infrastructure, the impact of information systems on enhancing the procedures of the implementation of administrative decisions, and the obstacles that hinder the use of information systems to implement administrative decisions at Tabuk University in Saudi Arabia. In order to achieve these goals, the researcher used the descriptive analytical approach and used the questionnaire instrument in order to collect the data from the research sample. Population of the study comprised all the administrative employees at Tabuk University. The researcher distributed (325) questionnaires on the research sample and (252) questionnaires were put for study. The findings of the study showed that Tabuk University have a good infrastructure of information system that fit the work requirements and that help the employees to get accurate and timely reports. Also, the findings showed that the information systems have a robust role in enhancing the procedures of the implementation of the administrative decisions in terms of the availability of accurate, correct, and timely data to implement the administrative decisions properly. On the other hand, it was shown that there are obstacles for the use of information systems to implement administrative decisions such as the inappropriate organizational structures, lack of training, routine procedures, lack of funds to update the systems regularly, and employees’ resistance. Based on these results, the researcher recommended having a proper organizational structure that support information systems, holding regular training courses for the employees, motivating employees to avoid resistance, and ensuring the allocation of resources to get the new modern systems.
... Bu belirsizliklerin yaşandığı ortamlarda yöneticilerin etkili ve doğru kararlar verebilmesi, toplum sağlığını olumlu yönde etkilemektedir. Karar verme, bir amaca ulaşmak için en iyi alternatifi seçme sürecidir (Guo, 2008;Orçanlı ve Bekmezci, 2020). Karar verme süreci, problemin belirlenmesi ile başlayıp problemin çözümüne yönelik birden fazla seçeneğin değerlendirilmesini ifade eder (Finkelman, 2012). ...
... Yöneticinin yönetimsel etkinliğinin başarılı olup olmaması, alınan kararların kalitesi ile doğru orantılıdır (Mihaela, 2015). Yöneticiler, karar verirken, sezgilerinin, deneyimlerinin, bilgilerinin yanı sıra bilimsel yöntemlere dayanan karar verme sürecini kullanarak etkili kararlar vermeliler (Guo, 2008;Orçanlı ve Bekmezci, 2020). Salgın döneminde karar vermek için kararı etkileyen parametrelerin, seçeneklerin ve bunların sonuçlarının tam olarak bilinmesi mümkün değildir. ...
Chapter
Salgının kontrol altına alınabilmesi için personel planlama, hasta ve çalışan güvenliği önemleri, iletişim, ekip çalışması, çalışma koşullarının yeniden düzenlenmesi, risk yönetimi gibi yönetimsel eylemlerin gerçekleştirilmesi gerekmektedir. Bu bağlamda salgın sürecinde sağlık kuruluşlarında verilen hizmetlerin etkili bir şekilde yönetilebilmesi, güvenli bakım uygulamalarının gerçekleştirilmesi ve olumlu çalışma ortamlarının oluşturulmasında yöneticilere önemli sorumluluklar düşmektedir.
... Evaluation of options is done according to a set of objective criteria that would qualify one option as most acceptable or favorable over other options. [20][21][22] Ethical decision making, on the other hand, sees options evaluated according to moral criteria or values. 23 In our model we adopted company values as a basis for ethical evaluation and integrated them into the decision-making process, which aims to select the best possible Is the solution proportional to the situation you want to address? ...
... 17 Like most ethical decision-making models used in different fields, our model follows the pattern of facts gathering, option generation, option assessment according to ethical criteria, preferred option choice, and retrospective evaluation. [20][21][22] Previous research in the field of business ethics has reported the need to complement consequentialist and deontological ethics approaches with a virtue-based orientation to make the most comprehensive ethics decision model. [28][29][30] The foundational elements of our model apply such a complementary approach and uniquely support practical prospective decision making: employees are engaged as moral agents applying values and principles to guide their decision in a specific situation. ...
Article
Full-text available
“Values-based decision-making” frameworks and models are widely described in the literature in various disciplines, including healthcare settings. However, there is a paucity of literature on the application of systematic methods or models in the biopharmaceutical research and development (R&D) field of drugs, vaccines, and immunotherapeutics. In this report, we describe our model that uses company values along with framing questions in a five-step process to guide ethical decisions in the vaccines R&D context. The model uniquely supports practical prospective decision-making: employees are engaged as moral agents applying values and principles to guide their decision in a specific situation. We illustrate, by way of case studies, how the model is being used in practice. The consistent application of company values during decision-making calls upon employees to use their judgment, therefore reducing the need for the organization to systematically generate written instructions. Finally, we report on preliminary results of model adoption by teams within our organization, discuss its limitations and likely future contribution. We applied our model within a vaccines R&D context and believe its use can be extended to other areas where business-related decisions impact patients.
... The decision-making process, which can be more or less rational or irrational, can be also regarded as a problem-solving activity that culminates in a solution deemed to be satisfactory (Guo, 2008;Frensch & Funke, 1995). ...
... The new perspective for the improvement of managers and owners' risk attitude and for the integration of the risk management process in the business of every SME is to start analyzing the way decisions are made. Decision making is the process of choosing the best alternative to achieve individual and organizational objectives (Guo, 2008). ...
Chapter
The present paper presents an interpretive case study on the topic of risk management in SMEs. The research identifies an Italian medium-sized company, a family business established in the 1940s, which represents the integrated and holistic approach in managing risks is put into practice. This paper underlines that in a medium enterprise it is not necessary to formalize the risk management process with written procedures. However, the management should hold all the information flow and be able to manage all the events in a holistic way. This paper represents the second step of a huge research project with the aim to understand whether it is possible to validate a conceptual model that considers a risk approach focusing on decision-making, SME entrepreneurship and corporate culture.
... The decision-making process, which can be more or less rational or irrational, can be also regarded as a problem-solving activity that culminates in a solution deemed to be satisfactory (Frensch and Funke, 1995;Guo, 2008). ...
... This model is definitely more complex than the previous one and starts effectively representing the different cognitive phases of the human decision making. A few decades later, Kristina Guo (2008) elaborated her personal model for health-care managers, called DECIDE, which is an acronym that stands for six different steps (see Figure 6). These models and the related steps base their functioning on the process of human thought reflected in the Critique of Pure Reason of the philosopher Immanuel Kant (Kant, 2007). ...
... The decision-making process, which can be more or less rational or irrational, can be also regarded as a problem-solving activity that culminates in a solution deemed to be satisfactory (Guo, 2008;Frensch & Funke, 1995). ...
... The new perspective for the improvement of managers and owners' risk attitude and for the integration of the risk management process in the business of every SME is to start analyzing the way decisions are made. Decision making is the process of choosing the best alternative to achieve individual and organizational objectives (Guo, 2008). ...
Conference Paper
The present paper represents a preliminary descriptive and interpretive case study on the topic of risk management in SMEs. The research identifies an Italian medium company, a family business founded in 1940s. This company was chosen as it has been through different generational passages and represents the best example of how the integrated and holistic approach in managing risks is put into practice. This paper supports the idea that in a medium enterprise (family firm) it is not necessary to formalize the risk management process with written procedures. However, the management or family owners should hold all the information flows, be able to influence the management dynamics and manage all the events in a holistic way. It is also essential to manage the company in a forward-looking way with an effective planning process. Therefore, it is fundamental that the risk management process coincides with already existing processes and integrates perfectly with the company management. This paper represents the second step of a huge research project. The research aims to understand whether it is possible to validate a conceptual model that considers a risk approach focusing on decision making, SME entrepreneurship and corporate culture. Consistency and effectiveness of the proposed risk approach should be further tested and validated with other case studies. The implications of this research are several: SME owners should consider the uncertainty and challenges from the external environment as opportunities to develop their business; and professionals are fundamental to support SMEs in the business management.
... Hence, several continuous academic and research efforts have been made towards supplying the practical and useful problem-solving frameworks parallel with the progress of thinking and science in specific domain. In this sense, the works of Jacobson & Campion (2008), Guo (2008), Dindyal et. al. (2012 and Rott (2012) are a few examples of novel and alternative problem-solving frameworks. ...
... In the field of healthcare, the approaches set forth by Wegner & Goldin (2006), Jacobson & Campion (2008), Guo (2008 and Haverkamp & Adelman (2010) can be referred to as the examples of the above mentioned problem-solving frameworks. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many frameworks for problem-solving have been made available in mathematics, healthcare, aerospace, business, management and law. Regardless of the many problem solving frameworks established for specific use in various discipline of studies, they are aimed at facilitating effective decision making in normative form. In line with normative theory of decision making, these frameworks offer a staged, systematic, structured and cyclic decision processes. These processes are therefore become critical parts in any problem solving frameworks. This paper outlines the staged, systematic, structured decision processes of inductive inference of Pragmaticism's theory of inquiry of Charles Sanders Peirce (1939-1914). The inductive inference of Peircean Pragmaticism is the third from the three main reasoning processes that aims at the "attainment of belief" or "eliminating doubt" in its actual essence. In tracing and outlining the decision processes of inductive inference, the vast Peircean literature has been extensively reviewed and analyzed by using lexical method. The review has resulted in the identification of decision processes of inductive inference namely Operation and Justification. These two traceable decision processes of Pragmaticism's theory of inquiry frameworks are analyzed and compared with the decision processes of other renowned problem-solving frameworks such as Polya (1957), Simon (1960) and Huber (1980). Through this analytical comparison, the working and the strength of each of Operation and Justification process of inductive inference within Pragmaticism's theory of inquiry can be justified.
... Phase 2 -Simulation: The students migrate to a video conference room, where they encounter the simulation of decisionmaking between the head of the health institution in the face of a wrong record of the referral form. They had to evaluate whether the six phases of the management decision-making methodology have been fulfilled: a) Identification and choice of the problem b) analysis of the problem, c) generation of possible solutions, d) choice and planning of the solution, e) implementation of the solution, f) evaluation of the solution (17) . ...
Article
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Introduction: Medical students are poorly prepared in health services management due to the use of traditional teaching methods, developed in theoretical environments with poor active participation. Virtual simulated training is an innovative alternative in the learning process. Objective: This study aimed to determine the knowledge improvement in managerial decision-making amongst medical students at the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos in Peru, after a virtual simulated training. Methods: A before-after cross-sectional design was undertaken among final year medical students to measure their improvement in management knowledge. The simulation methodology was used as a component of the Medical Externship clinical course in which the administrative dimension of a clinical case such as hypoacusis was considered. Results: Of the 79 participants, 48 (60.8%) were female and the median age was 25 years. There was a median satisfaction level of 3.8 and the performance median score was 17. The median post-test rank scores were higher and statistically significant than pre-test rank scores (p = 0.004); post-test scores for males (p-value = 0.05) and females (p = 0.03) were also statistically higher than pre-test scores. Conclusion: The non-clinical simulation experience improves the knowledge on managerial decision making. It also opens opportunities to work on management issues in clinical courses, providing a comprehensive learning experience. On the other hand, it is an innovative experience where a clinical course adopts a management component.
... 3. DECIDE model of decision-making is an acronym for six steps (Guo, 2008, Project School Wellness, 2020. D stands for defining the problem during which the decision-maker decides the needs to be satisfied. ...
Book
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What is tagged ‘a good afternoon conversation’ among African scholars at Charles Darwin University (CDU), Northern Territory, Australia has metamorphosed into a treatise for public consumption, especially for intellectuals and those individuals with a sense of curiosity about happenings in epistemological space in African education. This book titled ‘African Education and Diaspora Studies’ is a compilation of some outstanding papers presented at the 2019 African - Australian Education and Health Nexus at Charles Darwin University (CDU), Northern Territory, Australia. It presents some scholarly writing from interdisciplinary perspectives. The chapters are well structured and presented in a sequential order to make it more stimulating for our readers to understand issues and perspectives in African education. Readers would get to enjoy topical issues around philosophy, African and Western education, gender, linguistics, culture, policy and diaspora discourse.
... Therefore, thanks to previous research (Crovini, 2019;Crovini et al., 2021aCrovini et al., , 2021b the RM-DM model (Fig. 4) was developed. This model best represents the integration between the phases of the RM process, as stated by the ISO and COSO frameworks, as well as the decision-making process, as represented in the DECIDE Guo (2008). This model was developed after an in-depth analysis of the relevant academic and practical literature on risk management and decision-making, and it was empirically tested in a sample of small and medium enterprises by adopting a multi-perspective approach. ...
Chapter
Risk is intrinsic to each company, and threats can come unexpectedly. Over the past few years, the strict interaction between crisis management (CM) and risk management (RM) has become particularly relevant for small and medium enterprises (SMEs), which have experienced severe difficulties in dealing with crises (e.g. coronavirus pandemic). Most of those companies have no approach or a rudimentary approach to crises, and only a few prevent insolvency or bankruptcy in a timely manner. Accordingly, it is crucial to develop an RM approach that can adapt to the specific characteristics of SMEs and that considers both financial information and non-financial information as early warning indicators of a crisis. Each SME needs to follow a coherent, logical and integrated process to determine if there are liquidity problems and the stage of the financial distress, thus considering a set of indicators as integrated with the risk analysis concerning the business environment, risk mitigation strategies and responses. Therefore, this chapter proposes the integration between risk management process and the most relevant key financial early warning indicators used by practitioners and default prediction models.
... Providing facilities, understanding the necessity of treatment and its process along with urgency, ability to be more empathetic, and giving clear and simple explanations to patients are critical for treatment process which would certainly affect patients' satisfaction as a part of chair side manner. 2,7 Several factors affect the relationship between staff and patients containing staff 's awareness of related health issues and health promotion programmes. 2 On the other hand, the proper planning for maintaining and improving the staff 's oral health, their knowledge, attitude, and practice which are also needed for appropriate dental reform in a dental setting, requires a survey at first place, which measures their awareness towards oral health care. At further stages, an assessment of their oral health status and their treatment needs in terms of dental caries and periodontal diseases are needed. ...
Article
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Objective: This study aimed to design a valid questionnaire to evaluate knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of Mashhad Dental school staff about oral health care and to assess the validity and reliability of this instrument. Methods: The "Dental Staff Awareness of Oral Health Care” (DSAOHC) was divided into three concepts; knowledge, attitude and practice. Ten experts of Mashhad Dental School contributed to design the questionnaire and assessed the face and content validity (I-CVI and S-CVI/AV) in two rounds. The necessity of each item was evaluated according to Lawshe’s Content Validity Ratio (CVR). Construct validity, internal consistency, and reliability were assessed using confirmatory factor analysis, homogeneity coefficients, and test-retest by distributing the instrument among 207 dental staff working in other dental schools and private clinics. Results: Based on the acceptable results of I-CVI, S-CVI/AV (>0.7), and CVR (> 0.62), the final version of DSAOHC was approved with 34 questions, including 10 questions about background information, 8 questions for the knowledge, 5 questions for attitude and 11 questions related to practice. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were acceptable for all domains. The RMSEA criterion was ≤ 0.05 and its upper band confidence interval (CI 90%) was ≤ 0.1. Also, CFI indicated the suitability of the model (the desired value of CFI> 0.9). Inter-Class Correlation/ICC revealed the appropriate measure (ICC=0.998). Conclusion: The measures showed that this instrument is valid and reliable, also culturally adjusted to and acceptable for this community. It may adequately evaluate staffs’ knowledge, attitude, and practice toward oral health.
... A recent study sheds light on the importance of taking a step-by-step approach for making quality decisions, which will ultimately determine the success and suitability of healthcare organizations. The study proposed the DECIDE ("D for defining the problem, E for establishing the criteria, C for considering all the alternatives, I for identifying the best alternative, D for developing and implement a plan of action, and E for evaluating and monitoring the solution and feedback when necessary") model which encompasses all the necessary activities that organizations with clinical settings should consider whenever a decision needs to be made (Guo, 2020). The model is intended to be a resource for all healthcare managers when applying the crucial components of decision making, and it enables managers to improve their decision-making skills. ...
Article
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Each paper must start off with an abstract (with the exception of case studies). The The concept of organizational agility in UAE has been investigated widely in relation to the oil and gas sector and the information technology industry in which the most recent explorations were within the digital marketing field, however, limited research studies investigated organizational agility in relation to organizational excellence in service sector specifically healthcare settings. This study is planned to empirically test the impact of organizational agility on achieving organizational excellence in healthcare services organizations in the UAE healthcare services sector. A quantitative research design, using the surveys-based methodology by adopting two questionnaires to quantify the responses and opinions of the study participants. The study found that organizational agility practices that emphasize extensive sensing agility, and response agility when considered as a comprehensive system, have a significant positive effect on organizational excellence in the UAE healthcare services sector. While agile concepts that have not been explored extensively with respect to the healthcare sector, the study findings emphasized two forms of agility applicable for healthcare settings, sensing agility, and response agility where most of the efforts can be deployed by organizations to achieve excellence. Accordingly, top management in a healthcare setting should precede organizational excellence efforts with organizational agility initiatives. That is because agile organizations are the trend and agility is the valid reason for survival in such a turbulent environment accordingly management should invest in technology, communication channels, and highly mobile resources which are considered as the main enabler of organizational agility.
... The rational model of decision-making is then a more advanced type of decision-making model [8]. Several research works [9,10,11,12] formulated models for implementing rational decision making. They share similar ideas starting with identifying the goals, identifying all possible alternatives, and evaluating them to attain the best choice. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Public policy aims to achieve specific desirable goals despite unstructured and scattered information and many constraints, like time and cost. Despite the availability of various tools and services for evaluating different alternatives for decision-making for policymakers, a systematic process for evaluating these alternatives is yet to find. This paper proposes a framework for assessing public policy alternatives based on goal models. It provides a method to describe a strategy in terms of a goal model. By employing a goal model evaluation technique, the timely success of the possible alternatives to implement this strategy is then estimated, quantifying the expected success of the final goal and the required time and cost to reach that success point for each alternative. The public policy of the software industry in a growing economy country is presented as a case study example. The results and the findings are discussed.
... A set of candidate concepts has been obtained as a result of the analysis of decision-making methodologies [44]- [55]. At the conceptualization stage, this set was revised. ...
Article
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The advantage of human-machine collective intelligence for decision support systems is the ability to make better decisions due to the mitigation of human biases in the generation of potential solutions and their evaluation. So far, the potential of human-machine collective intelligence was used only in few decision support systems, however teamwork between humans and machines has not been achieved. This is partly due to the lack of interoperability in these systems. In earlier works, the authors proposed the apparatus of multi-aspect ontologies implying the integration of multiple domain ontologies to provide interoperability between humans and machines and coordinate interrelated processes going on in the systems of the considered type. Such ontologies have proved efficient for systems that require intensive information and knowledge exchange between loosely-related dynamic autonomous domains (e.g., enterprise knowledge management, product lifecycle management, or human-machine collective intelligence systems). However, existing ontology development methodologies fail to recommend a process that would support cross-domain knowledge integration during the multi-aspect ontology development. Moreover, the structure of the multi-aspect ontology imposes some restrictions on the integration approach. The paper proposes such a methodology for the multi-aspect ontology development that incorporates the aspect integration approach at multiple levels. The methodology is applied to develop a multi-aspect ontology for decision support based on human-machine collective intelligence. An example from the “e-tourism” domain demonstrates the applicability of the proposed methodology as well as the usage of the multi-aspect ontology for a human-machine environment aimed at solving real-world problems. The proposed methodology can facilitate the development of ontologies for complex knowledge-based systems that operate with knowledge from multiple loosely-connected domains.
... Despite the difficulty to identify low-level subtasks in complex decision-making tasks, prior research has identified a number of major phases that are shared in common in most complex decision-making contexts. The long and rich history of research on rational decision-making is accompanied by numerous models describing complex decision-making processes (Glueck, 1972;Guo, 2008;Hofer & Schendel, 1980;Mazzolini, 1981;Mintzberg et al., 1976;Schwenk, 1984;Simon, 1960;Svenson, 1992Svenson, , 1996. Though these models were developed from different domains and differences exist in the wording and the graduality of phase definitions, three major phases appear in most models, that is, problem identification, alternative-development, and evaluation and selection. ...
Article
Objective The study aims to examine the effects of interruptions in major phases (i.e., problem-identification, alternative-development, and evaluation-and-selection) of complex decision-making tasks. Background The ability to make complex decisions is of increasing importance in workplaces. Complex decision-making involves a multistage process and is likely to be interrupted, given the ubiquitous prevalence of interruptions in workplaces today. Method Sixty participants were recruited for the experiment to complete a procurement task, which required them to define goals, search for alternatives, and consider multiple attributes of alternatives to make decisions. Participants in the three experimental conditions were interrupted to respond to messages during one of these three phases, whereas participants in the control condition were not interrupted. The impacts of interruptions on performance, mental workload, and emotional states were measured through a combination of behavioral, physiological, and subjective evaluations. Results Only participants who were interrupted in the evaluation-and-selection phase exhibited poorer task performance, despite their positive feelings toward interruptions and confidence. Participants who were interrupted in the problem-identification phase reported higher mental workload and more negative perceptions toward interruptions. Interruptions in the alternative-development phase led to more temporal changes in arousal and valence than interruptions in other phases. Conclusion Interruptions during the evaluation-and-selection phase undermine overall performance, and there is a discrepancy between behavioral outcomes and subjective perceptions of interruption effects. Application Interruptions should be avoided in the evaluation-and-selection phase in complex decision-making. This phase information can be either provided by users or inferred from coarse-grained interaction activities with decision-making information systems.
... Decision-making itself is based on actively taking (or not taking) actions [60]; this requires information put into context. Guo [64] published the DECIDE model of decisionmaking based on six steps: define the problem, establish the criteria, consider the alternatives (and consequences), identify the best option, develop and implement, and evaluate and monitor/reflect on the solution. Decision-making generally [65] has three timeframes: operational, tactical, and strategic. ...
Article
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The application of digital twins provides value creation within the fields of operations and service management; existing research around decision-making and value co-creation is limited at this point. Prior studies have provided insights into the benefits of digital twins that combined both data and simulation approaches; however, there remains a managerial gap. The purpose of this paper is to explore this research gap using input from a multiple case study research design from both manufacturing environments and non-manufacturing environments. The authors use ten cases to explore how digital twins support value co-creation through decision-making. The authors were all involved in the development of the ten cases. Individual biases were removed by using the literature to provide the assessment dimensions and allowing a convergence of the results. Drawing on the lessons from the ten cases, this study empirically identified eight managerial issues that need to be considered when developing digital twins to support multi-stakeholder decision-making that leads to value co-creation. The application of digital twins in value co-creation and decision-making is a topic that has developed from practice and is an area where a research gap exists between theory and practice. A cross-case analysis was developed based on the literature and the ten cases (eight industrial and two pilot-scale cases) providing the empirical findings. The findings describe how firms can design, develop, and commercialize digital-twin-enabled value propositions and will initiate future research.
... Decision making is a cognitive process, during which the decision maker engages in choosing an action strategy from a variety of options. The decision-making process involves several phases (Gati & Asher, 2001;Guo, 2008;Mann et al., 1991): ...
Article
This article, in the field of behavioral economics, deals with the impact of technology on the human decision‐making process. Many companies worldwide offer technologies (platforms, devices, search engines, etc.) that purport to help a person in the various phases of decision making but still leave the final decision in the hands of the human being. Technologies may help a person make more intelligent and informed decisions, but they may also expose a person to many decision‐making biases. We review the leading factors that cause decision‐making biases due to the use of technologies and build a theoretical model for analyzing technologies that examines the feasibility of using them for decision making. We also demonstrate the implementation of this model on products of four well‐known companies: Google, ProQuest, MobilEye, and Waze. Our model contributes to the literature on the impact of technology on human decision making and provides an important basis for future research on this topic. This paper proposes a theoretical model for analyzing the decision making process when using technologies, focusing on behavioral biases.
... Наприкл прийняття рішень [41]: визначення цілей; визначення альтерна пошук інформації; зіставлення позитивних і негативни вибір альтернативи (прийняття рішення) і її реалізація. Запропонована трохи ізні е модель прийняття рішень DECIDE містить вже шість етапів [21]: визначення проблеми; визначення обмежень; пошук альтернатив; прийняття рішення на основі вибору к ащої альтернативи; розробка заходів по його реалізації; моніторинг процесу реалізації рішення і при необхідності його дії по його реалізації; пост-аналіз ефективності рішення. Існують і інші варіанти моделей прийняття рішень, але вони або не мають радикальних відмінностей від перелічених, або, навпаки, носять яскраво виражену специфіку певної предметної області (наприклад, психології). ...
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У монографії систематизовано та розширено теоретико-методологічні дослідження процесів синтезу інноваційних інтелектуальних систем прийняття рішень. Визначено методологічні підходи застосування методів інтелектуальних обчислень, зокрема нейронних мереж, генетичних алгоритмів, нечіткої логіки для моделювання систем прийняття рішень. Запропоновано моделі і методи вдосконалення процесів прийняття рішень у контексті забезпечення життєздатності та конкурентоспроможності суб’єктів національної економіки. Для науковців, викладачів, докторантів, аспірантів і студентів економічних спеціальностей вищих навчальних закладів, представників органів державного управління, керівників і менеджерів підприємств та організацій.
... Decision making research is quite diverse and involves the study of optimal algorithms and to make the best decisions possible in particular situations, with applications ranging from psychology 1-3 and management [4][5][6] to reinforcement learning 7 and dynamic resource allocation [8][9][10] . Fundamentally, this type of research addresses how complete or partial information about a given environment is processed by a "user" (human or artificial) to achieve the best possible outcome. ...
Article
Full-text available
Situations involving competition for resources among entities can be modeled by the competitive multi-armed bandit (CMAB) problem, which relates to social issues such as maximizing the total outcome and achieving the fairest resource repartition among individuals. In these respects, the intrinsic randomness and global properties of quantum states provide ideal tools for obtaining optimal solutions to this problem. Based on the previous study of the CMAB problem in the two-arm, two-player case, this paper presents the theoretical principles necessary to find polarization-entangled N-photon states that can optimize the total resource output while ensuring equality among players. These principles were applied to two-, three-, four-, and five-player cases by using numerical simulations to reproduce realistic configurations and find the best strategies to overcome potential misalignment between the polarization measurement systems of the players. Although a general formula for the N-player case is not presented here, general derivation rules and a verification algorithm are proposed. This report demonstrates the potential usability of quantum states in collective decision making with limited, probabilistic resources, which could serve as a first step toward quantum-based resource allocation systems.
... The rational model of decision-making is then a more advanced type of decision-making model [8]. Several research works [9,10,11,12] formulated models for implementing rational decision making. They share similar ideas starting with identifying the goals, identifying all possible alternatives, and evaluating them to attain the best choice. ...
Article
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Goal models have been used for the last two decades in various disciplines to represent business, organizations, and individuals’ objectives. Several methodologies and standards have emerged, and various goal analysis and evaluation algorithms have been introduced serving different sectors, including decision support. In contrast to most researches which are based mainly on simulation to predict the satisfaction levels of final goals, this research proposes a new framework for evaluating goal models based on the state-space representation that is used extensively in control systems. This new approach brings the theories and literature of state-space representation of systems to goal models, opening a new direction for using its available mature techniques and tools, for goal model analysis and evaluation. A hypothetical goal model, which can be used for policymaking after the COVID-19 pandemic, is presented as an example of how the proposed framework can be used, and the results that can be obtained.
... The current results were emphasized by Perinatal Services BC, (2011), stated that practical experience helps students better understand classroom, theories, information and their application to real situations in the workplace. This result was supported by Guo, (2008) who clarified that there is a 6-step decision-making model for determining the nursing scope of practice which helps nurses in making good professional decision. Concerning the first step of decision making the present study revealed that the ordinary process for solving a problem will initially involve defining the problem that nurse want to solve and need to decide what she want to achieve and write it down . ...
Article
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Design: Quasi-experimental study design was used. Aim: To evaluate effect of educational guideline on intern nurses' decision-making skills during labor. Setting: The labor unit in Obstetrical and gynecological department at Beni-Suef hospital. Sampling: A total number of (30) Intern nurses working in the labor unit. Tools:-1. A Structured questionnaire sheet to assess socio demographic data for intern nurses and their knowledge regarding decision making. 2. Evaluation sheet to assess application of decision making steps. Results: The intern nurses were having high decision-making knowledge post intervention. The study revealed statistical significance difference between pre and post intervention in all items of decision making skills (p<0.05). Conclusion: Educational guideline affected positively on intern nurses, knowledge and skills regarding Decision making process. Recommendation: Develop training program regarding decision making process during care of other areas of obstetrics and gynecological nursing specialty.
... Decision making research is quite diverse and involves the study of optimal algorithms and to make the best decisions possible in particular situations, with applications ranging from psychology 1-3 and management [4][5][6] to reinforcement learning 7 and dynamic resource allocation [8][9][10] . Fundamentally, this type of research addresses how complete or partial information about a given environment is processed by a "user" (human or artificial) to achieve the best possible outcome. ...
Preprint
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Situations involving competition for resources among entities can be modeled by the competitive multi-armed bandit (CMAB) problem, which relates to social issues such as maximizing the total outcome and achieving the fairest resource repartition among individuals. In these respects, the intrinsic randomness and global properties of quantum states provide ideal tools for obtaining optimal solutions to this problem. Based on the previous study of the CMAB problem in the two-arm, two-player case, this paper presents the theoretical principles necessary to find polarization-entangled N-photon states that can optimize the total resource output while ensuring equality among players. These principles were applied to two-, three-, four-, and five-player cases by using numerical simulations to reproduce realistic configurations and find the best strategies to overcome potential misalignment between the polarization measurement systems of the players. Although a general formula for the N-player case is not presented here, general derivation rules and a verification algorithm are proposed. This report demonstrates the potential usability of quantum states in collective decision making with limited, probabilistic resources, which could serve as a first step toward quantum-based resource allocation systems.
... The structure of the sequence of activities proposed for performing SSCCP is inspired from the structure of existing decision-making and problem-solving approaches described in the literature (Bell, Keeney, and Raiffa 1977;Sainfort et al. 1990;Klein et al. 1993;Guo 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Supply chains now cope with a lot of uncertainties, and their stakeholders are intensely interconnected, revealing new opportunities at a tremendous pace. In this context, companies must rethink their decision support systems to remain competitive. Particularly strategic supply chain capacity planning systems that should ensure resource availability. Unfortunately, existing systems do not satisfactorily consider this new deal. Therefore, this paper develops a conceptual framework providing guidelines for designing a decision support system for strategic supply chain capacity planning under uncertainty. To validate the conceptual framework, a decision support system has been designed accordingly, and two industrial experiments have been conducted.
... Marc was assisted by the SLP following a detailed decisionmaking support method (see Decision-Support Charting, Table 1), which uses components commonly cited in standard decision-making protocols. 31,32 He was asked to consider his reasons and express his thoughts at each decision-making step. By using these support methods, Marc was able to reveal his intact capacity to make the decision to replace his substitute decision-makers so that his financial decisions could be made in accordance with his wishes and in his best interests. ...
Article
This article explores the issue of aphasia and decision-making within the context of clinical ethics and patient rights. The cases described illustrate the danger of making assumptions about the inherent competence of people with aphasia and the life-altering consequences if no attempt is made to “accommodate” or support communication when competence may be masked by aphasia. Speech-language pathologists have a moral obligation and a key role to play in providing communication support that may serve to reveal a person's intact capacity to make specific decisions, as well as in supporting the steps involved in the decision-making process. This role also extends to providing guidance, education, and training for others involved in evaluating the decision-making capacity of people with aphasia. Communication support strategies useful at each stage of the decision-making process are detailed.
... ❑ Phase-I: ❑ Decision-making in hospital stroke unit ❑ Summary of findings (staff perspective) 3 Background Decision-making in health care involves a process of choosing the best alternative to achieve individual and organizational objectives in a dynamic and uncertain clinical situations (Guo 2008 ...
Conference Paper
Approximately 150,000 stroke survivors living with severe disabilities (modified Rankin score ≥ 4 for physical dependency) in England depend on the health care systems for help with their everyday activities. Deciding who would benefit from rehabilitation post-hospital discharge after stroke can be difficult. Poor decisions impact on whether a patient receives rehabilitation and influence the use of healthcare resources. Several variables have been reported to influence decisions for provision of rehabilitation to stroke survivors. However, it is not known how these decisions are made in practice for stroke survivors with severe disabilities. This is especially important as stroke rehabilitation is now being transferred earlier into the community. Aim:To investigate the process of decision-making and factors influencing the provision of rehabilitation for people with severe disabilities after stroke. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 key multi-disciplinary staff from an acute stroke unit. Their perspectives of the process deciding rehabilitation provision for people with severe disabilities after stroke was explored. Data was thematically analysed using template analysis. Results:The variables considered by staff while deciding rehabilitation care for people with severe disabilities after stroke were: medical factors, severity of impact of stroke, patient’s potential to progress with rehabilitation, organisational factors, patient and their families’ wishes and preferences, safety and needs. Decisions governing the provision of rehabilitation evolved during the hospital stay and were made at three distinct phases. The decision-making required several formal processes of communication within and outside the multi-disciplinary team, patient and family. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of patient values and organisational factors in a multi-stage decision-making process for rehabilitation post-hospital discharge. Findings can inform future provision of rehabilitation for stroke survivors with severe disabilities.
... For example, in 1980s, GOFER model was introduced. It classified decision-making process into five steps: goals, options, facts, effects and reviews (Janis, 1977); in 2008 a DICIDE model, alternatively, classified the process into six steps which slightly different components to GOFER model (Guo, 2008). JS Lerner also describe how emotion involved decision-making process (Lerner, 2015). ...
Article
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People may have knowledge to handle a certain situation; however, often they might not be able to perform their behaviour well when encountering the actual situation. There are knowledge-to-action gaps that make ones do not aware the existing knowledge and act improperly. This research aims to motivate learner to become aware of their thought by proposing 1) a learning model using “surprise” as a trigger for motivating learner to realize their thinking process; and 2) a Relax-Half-Baked Microworld and its decision-making model which are used as a simulated environment. Learners could modify parameters, anticipate expected outcomes and compare observed simulated outcomes with their expected ones. Learners would feel surprise from unexpected results in the comparison, and used it to reflect their thought and to be aware of how did they make decision.
... The decision-making process starts from decision problem analysis [4]. Steps in decisionmaking model include [5]: ...
... As with the CLC Terms & Concepts, SOLVE becomes a focus of deliberate practice for participants. As with many other CLC Terms & Concepts, SOLVE is an integrative representation of multiple models from the decision-making literature (for example, Guo, 2008;Nutt, 1999;Hammond et al., 2002;Beyth-Marom et al., 1991). The term SOLVE and its corresponding set of concepts (items in bold) are described as follows: ...
... Decision making is the process of choosing the best alternative to achieving individual and organisational objectives. 1 According to Herbert A. Simon and associates, the work of managers is about 'choosing issues that require attention, setting goals, finding or designing suitable courses of action, as well as evaluating and choosing among alternative actions'. 2 He stressed that 'nothing is more important for the wellbeing of the society than for this work to be performed effectively'. ...
Article
Introduction The study was aimed at comparing the applicability of quantitative techniques and its relevance in decision making by clinical and non-clinical healthcare managers and administrators. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study in design conducted at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife amongst 52 clinical and 50 non-clinically related healthcare managers and administrators. Data collection tool was a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics of SPSS version 20 with statistical significance determined at p < 0.05. Results A higher proportion of the non-clinical healthcare managers and administrators were familiar and had used more quantitative techniques than their clinical counterparts. Experience ranked highest as the current method employed by both groups for most decision needing scenarios presented. There was no statistically significant difference in their perceived effectiveness of the current methods guiding decision making. However, a statistically significant difference was found in the methods preferred by both study population only for ‘reducing waiting lines, p = 0.015’ and in ‘maximising the use of human resources, p = 0.017’. Conclusions Approach to decision making in the Nigerian health sector is still largely experiential and more of a personalised bargaining process. Acknowledgement of the relevance of quantitative techniques by clinical and non-clinically related health managers and administrators as found in this study is hoped to accelerate the adoption of these techniques. It is believed that its application will lead to improved health service delivery and health outcomes.
... As a consequence, the teachers indicated that they accorded students the opportunity to suggest rewards of their choice so that there is no duplication of the same reward that could demotivate the learners. High achievers were also encouraged to help the low achievers as a form of promoting non-monetary reward which is in support of Guo (2008) who indicated that managers are constantly searching for ways to create a motivational environment where employees can work at their optimal levels to accomplish organisational objectives through managers acknowledging their own weaknesses and strengths and others' needs and wants. ...
... In this case, decision-making is a result of an organised and precise process composed by a series of steps that managers should take to make a decision about the necessary improvements that the evaluation object should have. Each letter of the acronym DECIDE stands for 1 of 6 specific activities that must be carried out to define and perform the evaluation process (Guo 2008). It could be considered as six items checklist that help planning the evaluation studies and to remind about the issues that is needed to think about, based on Preece, Rogers, and Sharp (2002): ...
Article
Nowadays, research has had a fundamental role for the economic development and growth of economies at a worldwide level. Research has contributed with new ideas, studies, implementations and innovations, which requires an effective validation to be launched for production or exploitation. Thereby, it is important for entrepreneurs to have new technical and business tools, such as frameworks to help them in the evaluation and validation of such new technologies development. In this article, a methodology to analyse the economic viability of the involvement of companies in research projects is presented. However, the focus of this work is about to propose a framework for its technological research results assessment for one of its phases. This phase intends to ensure an efficient validation approach, which supported by an effective change management of the research results appliance, would result in a favourable condition for their successful exploration. Authors proposed a framework that was tested in the evaluation of a research project pilot through an execution in the textile domain.
... organization.52 A review of the literature related to HWEs, empowerment, change management, innovation, and Magnet designation identified 2 structural components that must be present: (1) leadership support for shared decision making at all levels, which demonstrates commitment to the process, and(2) organizational support that empowers nurses. ...
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... In business and management, the problem solving frameworks 4,5,6 are often used. In healthcare, frameworks 7,8,9 are available for use. These examples indicate that specialized PSF are intended for specific use in multidimensional human life. ...
Conference Paper
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Many problem solving frameworks have been established in education, business and management, engineering, aerospace, laws and medicine in supporting effective decision making endeavors. Despite of the problem solving framework varieties in the numerous domains, they are all capable of solving problematic issues they are dealing with. This indicates that the frameworks share similar characteristics and capabilities regardless of their varieties. This paper reviews and synthesizes the essential characteristics and properties observed in problem solving framework across multiple domain of studies into a generalized principle. As a result of synthesis, there are nine essential and inherent characteristics observed in problem solving frameworks. This paper progresses to suggest the establishment of an alternative problem solving framework in the future should be based such generalized principles.
Article
Purpose The objective of this research is to develop a decision method that can generate appropriate risk response strategies for international construction project managers (PMs) and allow these strategies to reflect their different risk preferences. Design/methodology/approach The optimal model approach is adopted. A credibility-based fuzzy chance constrained programming (CFCCP) model is developed, which simultaneously minimizes the expected losses of risk events and total costs of risk response. To solve this multi-objective model, a fuzzy interactive solution method is used. Moreover, the model performance is demonstrated by a real international industrial plant project. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of the model is conducted. Findings The result of the sensitivity analysis indicates that PMs with a greater risk aversion can lead to a higher mitigation ratio of expected losses of risk events and a higher total cost of risk response. Practical implications This research provides contractors with an effective decision-making model to develop a project risk response plan, and it will assist contractors to minimize risk losses and enhance the project performance in the international construction market. Originality/value Previous studies overlook the risk preference, which is an important behavioral factor influencing decisions in risk response strategy selection. This research proposed a novel risk response strategy selection decision method that considers different attitudes toward risk among decision makers.
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Objective The aim of this cohort study was to gain insight on influencing factors on the decision-making process in conventional medicine compared to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Methods A standardized questionnaire was distributed among cancer patients who attended the counselling facility for CAM of a German university hospital in 2020. Results Fifty patients (30.3%) returned the questionnaire. After counselling on CAM, most patients made a decision in CAM but also in conventional medicine. Thus, the focus on informed decision-making during counselling on CAM had a strong effect on the decision-making process in conventional medicine. Patients reporting good support also reported making decisions together with physicians and relatives. Moreover, after counselling on CAM, patients reported being more satisfied with their decision in both settings afterwards. Conclusion Information on CAM which focuses on informed decision-making, supports patient’s ability to understand and weigh risks and benefits of treatments, supports shared decision-making and enables patients to transfer these competences also to decisions on conventional medicine. So counselling on CAM may further decision-making competences in cancer patients. This encourages patients to engage in shared decision-making and increases patient’s satisfaction with decisions.
Chapter
A Basic Sustainability Framework (BSF) is presented in this chapter in terms of three dimensions: governance, goal orientation, and decision-making to cope with increasing complexity in science, engineering, and management, which otherwise seem an amorphic mass of interesting concepts. The novelties of BSF include: (i) the connectivity between these dimensions is made visible to avoid haphazardly knowledge transfer between disciplines; (ii) there is no unifying architecture within each system but BSF contributes toward showing the possibility of such an architecture; and (iii) inherent entropies contained in systems, emerged since industrialization circa 1750, remain evasive but such a framework can show a way forward. BSF can serve as an architecture for science, engineering, and organizations to serve Sustainable Development Goals as promoted by the United Nations. To manage complexity, this chapter presents a “critical review” to reap the information covering the modern era. The review connects a raft of activities in terms of the above three basic dimensions to serve as a proof of concept for BSF for modern sociotechnical systems, including those in civil engineering. The architecture makes it easier to transfer knowledge from one discipline to another and to maximize the returns for research investments.
Chapter
Efficient collaboration of humans and machines has the great potential for improving many knowledge-intensive processes in variety of applications. Therefore, developing means supporting such collaboration and making it efficient is an important area of research. The paper presents a part of research aimed on the development of a collective intelligence environment that would support joint work of humans and machines on decision support problems, allowing participants to self-organize (define and adapt the plan of actions). In particular, it describes an approach to solving semantic interoperability issues in supporting human-machine collective intelligence for decision-making scenarios. The proposed approach is based on using multi-aspect ontologies and ontology-based smart spaces.
Chapter
In a broad sense, solving a problem can be treated as deciding or making a decision what the solution to this problem is. In particular, decision-making with respect to a question means finding an answer to the question. Thus, solution of any problem can be treated as decision-making. However, traditionally decision-making is understood as making a choice from a set of alternatives, which are usually alternatives of actions. Here we consider decision-making in the traditional form exploring the role and features of information in this process. In section “The Process of Decision-Making”, we consider existing models and elaborate a more detailed model of decision-making. In section “Properties of Information and Their Evaluation”, we demonstrate that each stage and each step of decision-making involve work with information—information search, acquisition, processing, evaluation, and application. Evaluation of information is especially important for decision-making because utilization of false or incorrect information can result in wrong and even disastrous decisions. We show how to evaluate quality of information in the context of decision-making, what properties are important for information quality, and what measures can be useful for information evaluation. The obtained results are aimed at improving quality of information in decision-making by people and development of better computer decision support systems and expert systems.
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Background: Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), a formal decision support framework, has been growing in popularity recently in the field of health care. MCDA can support pricing and reimbursement decisions on the macro level, which is of great importance especially in countries with more limited resources. Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to facilitate the development of future MCDA frameworks, by proposing a set of criteria focusing on the purchasing decisions of single-source innovative pharmaceuticals in upper middle-income countries. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted on the decision criteria included in value frameworks (VFs) or MCDA tools. Scopus, Medline, databases of universities, websites of Health Technology Assessment Agencies, and other relevant organizations were included in the search. Double title-abstract screening and double full-text review were conducted, and all extracted data were double-checked. A team of researchers performed the merging and selection process of the extracted criteria. Results: A total of 1,878 articles entered the title and abstract screening. From these, 341 were eligible to the full-text review, and 36 were included in the final data extraction phase. From these articles 394 criteria were extracted in total. After deduplication and clustering, 26 different criteria were identified. After the merging and selection process, a set of 16 general criteria was proposed. Conclusion: Based on the results of the systematic literature review, a pool of 16 criteria was selected. This can serve as a starting point for constructing MCDA frameworks in upper middle-income countries after careful adaptation to the local context.
Article
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Shared-decision making (SDM), occasionally called "participatory governance" is the approach in healthcare to ensure that patients have the right to participate effectively in the decision-making (DM) process. The aim of this research was to discuss the external aspect of SDM and put forward applicable solutions to ensure SDM at both patient and physician levels. A standardised validated nine-item SDM questionnaire (patient version SDM-Q-9) was employed. SPSS version 25 was used to perform data analysis. Multiple tests such as Mann-Whitney U and Jonckheere-Terpstra were used. Kendall's Tau coefficient was used for interpretation of the significant relationship among all items of SDM-Q-9 and education. A total of 465 chronically ill patients took part, where majority (63.4%) of patients was above the age of 47. The cohort was dominated by females (67.5%) with 92% of the sample was married. Majority (86.9%) of the patient reported not involved in any decision. During analysis, considerable association was reported between gender and all items of SDM-Q-9, where more men were involved in SDM when compared with women. Our findings did produce significant association between education and SDM-Q-9, which reveals that increase in education can improve the SDM. SDM should not be limited to chronic or emergency in practice. Specific and tailored shared medical DM programmes must be developed for low literacy population implementation. SDM is to be supported at policy and operation levels.
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Background: Increasingly, multi-criteria decision analysis has gained importance as a method by which to assess the value of orphan drugs. However, very little attention has been given to the weight (relative preferences) of the individual criteria used in a framework. Aims: This study sought to gain an understanding of the preferential weights that should be allocated in a multi-criteria decision analysis framework for orphan drugs, from a multi-stakeholder perspective. Method: Using key MCDA criteria for orphan drugs reported in the literature, we developed an interactive web-based survey tool to capture preferences for different criteria from a general stakeholder sample who were requested to assign weights from a reimbursement perspective. Each criterion could be assigned a weight on a sliding scale from 0 to 100% as long as the sum of all the criteria was 100%. We subsequently used the interactive tool with an expert focus group, followed up with a group discussion regarding each criterion and their perspectives on the weight that each criterion should be allocated when assessing an orphan drug. The expert focus group participants were then able to adjust their weights, if the group discussion had changed their perspectives. Results: The interactive tool was completed by 120 general stakeholder sample from a wide range of countries and professional backgrounds and an expert focus group of ten members. The results showed the differences in perspectives on the importance of criteria. Both groups considered Treatment efficacy to be the most important criterion. The general stakeholder sample weighted Treatment safety at 12.03% compared to the expert focus group's average of 20%. The results also demonstrated the value of the group discussion, which provided additional insights into the perspectives on the importance of criteria in assessing orphan drugs. Conclusion: This study aimed to contribute to the important aspect of preferences for different criteria in MCDA. This study sheds light on the important aspect of the preferences of the different criteria. All respondents agreed on the relative importance of Treatment efficacy and Treatment safety, criteria that are captured in conventional cost-effectiveness studies, but they also expressed the view that in addition to those, several disease-related and drug-related criteria should be included in MCDA frameworks for assessing orphan drugs.
Chapter
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The central role of knowledge in production processes is one of the greatest characteristics of the information society. Nowadays, new economic and productivity paradigms have emerged where money, labor, raw material or energy are no longer the most important factors and instead knowledge is a more important factor. With the change, the whole structure of human knowledge is shaken and the old foundations have collapsed. As organizations and economies are restructured, the production and distribution of information and symbols used to transmit it are completely reorganized. The data collected within the framework of this restructuring have become the most necessary resource for creating wealth by becoming information related to each other in a multi-faceted way. Today‘s most advanced economies are built on the availability of knowledge. The relative advantage in these areas is often determined by the competitive use of information used in technological innovations. This has made the information the most important pillar of the power and wealth of nations.
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