Article

Cannabis Use and Later Life Outcomes

University of Otago, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, New Zealand.
Addiction (Impact Factor: 4.74). 06/2008; 103(6):969-76; discussion 977-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02221.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

To examine the associations between the extent of cannabis use during adolescence and young adulthood and later education, economic, employment, relationship satisfaction and life satisfaction outcomes.
A longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort studied to age 25 years.
Measures of: cannabis use at ages 14-25; university degree attainment to age 25; income at age 25; welfare dependence during the period 21-25 years; unemployment 21-25 years; relationship quality; life satisfaction. Also, measures of childhood socio-economic disadvantage, family adversity, childhood and early adolescent behavioural adjustment and cognitive ability and adolescent and young adult mental health and substance use.
There were statistically significant bivariate associations between increasing levels of cannabis use at ages 14-21 and: lower levels of degree attainment by age 25 (P < 0.0001); lower income at age 25 (P < 0.01); higher levels of welfare dependence (P < 0.0001); higher unemployment (P < 0.0001); lower levels of relationship satisfaction (P < 0.001); and lower levels of life satisfaction (P < 0.0001). These associations were adjusted for a range of potentially confounding factors including: family socio-economic background; family functioning; exposure to child abuse; childhood and adolescent adjustment; early adolescent academic achievement; and comorbid mental disorders and substance use. After adjustment, the associations between increasing cannabis use and all outcome measures remained statistically significant (P < 0.05).
The results of the present study suggest that increasing cannabis use in late adolescence and early adulthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes in later life. High levels of cannabis use are related to poorer educational outcomes, lower income, greater welfare dependence and unemployment and lower relationship and life satisfaction. The findings add to a growing body of knowledge regarding the adverse consequences of heavy cannabis use.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: David M Fergusson, Jan 22, 2016
  • Source
    • "Globally, the number of people smoking or consuming the leaves or buds of a cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plant was estimated at 125–227 million people, approximately 3–5% of 15–64 year olds (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2014). Although many consumers consider cannabis a ''harmless'' drug, the adverse effects of its use have been well documented and these include mental health illness: psychosis and schizophrenia (Moore et al., 2007); severe social disruption: early school departure, crime and violent assaults (Copeland & Swift, 2009; Fergusson & Boden, 2008; Legleye et al., 2010; Rogerson et al., 2014); and physical effects: psychomotor skill impairment; reduced immunity, and respiratory illness (Ashton, 2001; Hall & Solowij, 1998). These adverse effects are dose-dependent, presenting more commonly in heavy cannabis users and in those who misuse alcohol or other drugs adjunct to using cannabis (Stephens et al., 1993). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: No previous studies have investigated cannabis withdrawal severity in indigenous or incarcerated populations. Aims: We sought to quantify life-time cannabis use, report cannabis withdrawal symptoms and severity, and define the holistic experience of cannabis withdrawal. Methods: Seventy consenting males (18–40 years) from an Australian correctional center were interviewed about lifetime cannabis use and experience of withdrawal upon incarceration. Results: Findings indicate that participants smoked on average 12.3 cones or joints/day (95%CI: 9.5–15.2) for 9.4 years (95%CI: 7.6–11.1). Cannabis withdrawal symptoms most frequently reported were; physical symptoms (52.9%), insomnia (52.9%) and depressed mood (47.1%). The most severe symptoms were insomnia (22.9%), nervousness/anxiety (17.1%) and aggression (14.3%). Analysis further revealed the construct of “stressing out”, defined as a highly anxious state with increased aggression. Conclusions: Insomnia and physical symptoms were the most commonly reported symptoms with insomnia and nervousness/anxiety the most severe. Psychological symptoms were also voiced by this population sample; however, they were less frequent than the combined aggregated physical symptoms of “stressing out”. Implications: The identification of severe withdrawal symptoms, especially aggression, will facilitate identification and treatment to new inmates upon incarceration. The recognition of “stressing out” will enable safety measures and treatments to be prescribed in this setting.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Substance Use
  • Source
    • "Több vizsgálat kimutatta, hogy a fiatalkorban kezdett, rendszeres és magas THC-tartalmú kannabiszhasználat szignifikáns hatással van későbbi pszichotikus tünetek kialakulására (Hoch et al., 2015; Semple et al., 2005). Szociálpszichológiai kutatások pedig a kannabiszfogyasztást összefüggésbe hozták a szegényebb szociális kapcsolatrendszerrel, alacsonyabb szintű elégedettséggel (Fergusson & Boden, 2008). Ezeknek a kutatásoknak akadnak kritikusai is, akik szerint a közlemények tendenciózuson elfogultak (Martin & Rashi dian, 2014). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In lack of professional research and appropriate concepts our scientific knowledge of psychedelic agents is limited. According to the long-held official view these drugs are entirely harmful and have no medical use. However, a recent surge of clinical and pharmacological studies in the field indicates that many psychedelic-like agents have therapeutic potentials under proper circumstances. In this paper, from a biomedical and psychological perspective, we provide a brief review of the general effects and promising treatment uses of medical cannabis, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), salvinorin A, ibogaine and the dimethyltryptamine-(DMT)-containing ayahuasca. In Hungary - similarly to many other countries - these compounds are classified as "narcotic drugs" and their research is difficult due to strict regulations.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica: a Magyar Pszichofarmakológiai Egyesület lapja = official journal of the Hungarian Association of Psychopharmacology
  • Source
    • "Second, most studies have not followed participants into the 30s, a developmental period when adult roles and intimate relationships become increasingly solidified. Third, studies have not been able to comprehensively control for potential confounding factors that pre-date regular marijuana use, which makes it impossible to rule out the possibility that common causal factors account for the association between marijuana use and later adult functioning (Fergusson and Bowden, 2008). Fourth, many studies have failed to account for co-occurring other substance use. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Given recent changes in marijuana policy in the United States, it is important to understand the long-term effects of marijuana use on adult functioning. We examined whether men who displayed different trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence through emerging adulthood (age ∼15-26) differed in terms of socioeconomic, social, and life satisfaction outcomes in their mid-30s. Methods: Data came from a longitudinal sample of men who were recruited in early adolescence (N=506) and followed into adulthood. Four trajectory groups based on patterns of marijuana use from adolescence into emerging adulthood were compared on adult outcomes (age ∼36) before and after controlling for co-occurring use of other substances and several pre-existing confounding factors in early adolescence. The potential moderating effect of race was also examined. Results: Although there were initially group differences across all domains, once pre-existing confounds and co-occurring other substance use were included in the model, groups only differed in terms of partner and friend marijuana use. Chronic marijuana users reported the highest proportions of both. Frequent and persistent marijuana use was associated with lower socioeconomic status (SES) for Black men only. Conclusions: After statistically accounting for confounding variables, chronic marijuana users were not at a heightened risk for maladjustment in adulthood except for lower SES among Black men. Chronic users were more likely to have friends and partners who also used marijuana. Future studies should take into account pre-existing differences when examining outcomes of marijuana use.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Drug and alcohol dependence
Show more