Cannabis Use and Later Life Outcomes

University of Otago, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, New Zealand.
Addiction (Impact Factor: 4.74). 06/2008; 103(6):969-76; discussion 977-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02221.x
Source: PubMed


To examine the associations between the extent of cannabis use during adolescence and young adulthood and later education, economic, employment, relationship satisfaction and life satisfaction outcomes.
A longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort studied to age 25 years.
Measures of: cannabis use at ages 14-25; university degree attainment to age 25; income at age 25; welfare dependence during the period 21-25 years; unemployment 21-25 years; relationship quality; life satisfaction. Also, measures of childhood socio-economic disadvantage, family adversity, childhood and early adolescent behavioural adjustment and cognitive ability and adolescent and young adult mental health and substance use.
There were statistically significant bivariate associations between increasing levels of cannabis use at ages 14-21 and: lower levels of degree attainment by age 25 (P < 0.0001); lower income at age 25 (P < 0.01); higher levels of welfare dependence (P < 0.0001); higher unemployment (P < 0.0001); lower levels of relationship satisfaction (P < 0.001); and lower levels of life satisfaction (P < 0.0001). These associations were adjusted for a range of potentially confounding factors including: family socio-economic background; family functioning; exposure to child abuse; childhood and adolescent adjustment; early adolescent academic achievement; and comorbid mental disorders and substance use. After adjustment, the associations between increasing cannabis use and all outcome measures remained statistically significant (P < 0.05).
The results of the present study suggest that increasing cannabis use in late adolescence and early adulthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes in later life. High levels of cannabis use are related to poorer educational outcomes, lower income, greater welfare dependence and unemployment and lower relationship and life satisfaction. The findings add to a growing body of knowledge regarding the adverse consequences of heavy cannabis use.

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Available from: David M Fergusson, Jan 22, 2016
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    • "Globally, the number of people smoking or consuming the leaves or buds of a cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plant was estimated at 125–227 million people, approximately 3–5% of 15–64 year olds (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2014). Although many consumers consider cannabis a ''harmless'' drug, the adverse effects of its use have been well documented and these include mental health illness: psychosis and schizophrenia (Moore et al., 2007); severe social disruption: early school departure, crime and violent assaults (Copeland & Swift, 2009; Fergusson & Boden, 2008; Legleye et al., 2010; Rogerson et al., 2014); and physical effects: psychomotor skill impairment; reduced immunity, and respiratory illness (Ashton, 2001; Hall & Solowij, 1998). These adverse effects are dose-dependent, presenting more commonly in heavy cannabis users and in those who misuse alcohol or other drugs adjunct to using cannabis (Stephens et al., 1993). "
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    • "Több vizsgálat kimutatta, hogy a fiatalkorban kezdett, rendszeres és magas THC-tartalmú kannabiszhasználat szignifikáns hatással van későbbi pszichotikus tünetek kialakulására (Hoch et al., 2015; Semple et al., 2005). Szociálpszichológiai kutatások pedig a kannabiszfogyasztást összefüggésbe hozták a szegényebb szociális kapcsolatrendszerrel, alacsonyabb szintű elégedettséggel (Fergusson & Boden, 2008). Ezeknek a kutatásoknak akadnak kritikusai is, akik szerint a közlemények tendenciózuson elfogultak (Martin & Rashi dian, 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: In lack of professional research and appropriate concepts our scientific knowledge of psychedelic agents is limited. According to the long-held official view these drugs are entirely harmful and have no medical use. However, a recent surge of clinical and pharmacological studies in the field indicates that many psychedelic-like agents have therapeutic potentials under proper circumstances. In this paper, from a biomedical and psychological perspective, we provide a brief review of the general effects and promising treatment uses of medical cannabis, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), salvinorin A, ibogaine and the dimethyltryptamine-(DMT)-containing ayahuasca. In Hungary - similarly to many other countries - these compounds are classified as "narcotic drugs" and their research is difficult due to strict regulations.
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    • "Second, most studies have not followed participants into the 30s, a developmental period when adult roles and intimate relationships become increasingly solidified. Third, studies have not been able to comprehensively control for potential confounding factors that pre-date regular marijuana use, which makes it impossible to rule out the possibility that common causal factors account for the association between marijuana use and later adult functioning (Fergusson and Bowden, 2008). Fourth, many studies have failed to account for co-occurring other substance use. "
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