Article

Transfer of Fusarium mycotoxins and 'masked' deoxynivalenol (deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside) from field barley through malt to beer

Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Czech Republic.
Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A (Impact Factor: 1.8). 07/2008; 25(6):732-44. DOI: 10.1080/02652030701779625
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The fate of five Fusarium toxins--deoxynivalenol (DON), sum of 15- and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (ADONs), HT-2 toxin (HT-2) representing the main trichothecenes and zearalenone (ZON) during the malting and brewing processes--was investigated. In addition to these 'free' mycotoxins, the occurrence of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc) was monitored for the first time in a beer production chain (currently, only DON and ZON are regulated). Two batches of barley, naturally infected and artificially inoculated with Fusarium spp. during the time of flowering, were used as a raw material for processing experiments. A highly sensitive procedure employing high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was validated for the analysis of 'free' Fusarium mycotoxins and DON-conjugate in all types of matrices. The method was also able to detect nivalenol (NIV), fusarenon-X (FUS-X) and T-2 toxin (T-2); nevertheless, none of these toxins was found in any of the samples. While steeping of barley grains (the first step in the malting process) apparently reduced Fusarium mycotoxin levels to below their quantification limits (5-10 microg kg(-1)), their successive accumulation occurred during germination. In malt, the content of monitored mycotoxins was higher compared with the original barley. The most significant increase was found for DON-3-Glc. During the brewing process, significant further increases in levels occurred. Concentrations of this 'masked' DON in final beers exceeded 'free' DON, while in malt grists this trichothecene was the most abundant, with the DON/DON-3-Glc ratio being approximately 5:1 in both sample series. When calculating mass balance, no significant changes were observed during brewing for ADONs. The content of DON and ZON slightly decreased by a maximum of 30%. Only traces of HT-2 were detected in some processing intermediates (wort after trub removal and green beer).

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    • "In recent years, the analysis of DON plus its major conjugate DON-3-glucoside (DON3G) in beer has gained more research interest. To date, similar or even higher concentrations of this modified mycotoxin compared with free DON have been detected in beer (Kostelanska et al., 2009;Lancova et al., 2008;Varga, Malachova, Schwartz, Krska, & Berthiller, 2013). DON and ZEA conjugates may be retransformed or converted to further metabolites by the human intestinal microbiota, which increases the overall toxic potential (Dall'Erta et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: The occurrence of several mycotoxins, including ergot alkaloids, alternariol (AOH), deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone (ZEA) in beer (n = 44) from the German market was studied by using enzyme immunoassay methods. Detection limits in beer were 2.1 μg/L (DON), 0.14 μg/L (ZEA), 0.06 μg/L (ergometrine equivalents), and 0.18 μg/L (AOH). DON was detected in 75% of the samples (2.2-20 μg/L, median 3.7 μg/L). All samples were positive for ZEA (0.35-2.0 μg/L, median 0.88 μg/L) and AOH (0.23-1.6 μg/L, median 0.45 μg/L). Most samples (93%) were positive for ergot alkaloids (0.07-0.47 μg/L, median 0.15 μg/L). Correlating toxin levels in beer with European Union tolerable daily intake (TDI) levels for DON (1 μg/kg b.w.), ZEA (0.25 μg/kg b.w.), and ergot alkaloids (0.6 μg/kg b.w.), beer does not represent a major source of intake of these toxins. No TDI data are available for AOH, but considering toxin levels in other foods, beer does not seem to be a major source of intake of this toxin either. Nevertheless, the frequency of their occurrence warrants further study of ergot alkaloids and AOH in raw materials used for beer brewing.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    • "Generally, corn starch and corn syrup are among the adjuncts alternatively used for beer production (Hlywka & Bullerman 1999). With respect to the mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, it is possible to say that they are produced mainly in the field, although some toxin synthesis may occur during storage, or also, in the case of beer, they can increase during the germination of the barley during the malting and brewing process of the beer (Beattie, Schwarz, Horsley, Barr, & Casper, 1998; Lancova et al. 2008; Pietri, Bertuzzi, Agosti, & Donaldini, 2010; Wolf-Hall, 2007). Basically, the temperature and moisture conditions are crucial factors and thereby affect the fungal infection and toxin synthesis (Doyle, 1997). "
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    ABSTRACT: Beer is an alcoholic beverage consumed on a regular basis by many people around the world. Consequently, beer quality and, specifically, its impact on the future health of the consumer must be considered seriously. One issue is the action of mycotoxins and their impact on the beverage. In this sense, the objective of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Deoxynivalenol (DON) and Fumonisin B1 (FB1) in many artisanal beers from southern Brazil and, additionally, to evaluate their physico-chemical properties.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Food Control
    • "The natural occurrence of D3G was first reported in contaminated wheat and maize [13]. Since then, D3G has also been detected in barley, oats and cereal-derived products141516. Due to the toxic potential and high prevalence of DON, the European Commission (EC) established regulatory limits for this mycotoxin in cereal grains and cereal-based products intended for human consumption, by adopting regulation EC No 1881/2006 [17] and amending regulation EC No 1126/2007 [18]. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) after a thorough risk assessment, proposed a provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) for DON of 1 g/kg b.w. per day, including its acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyl-DON (3ADON) and 15- acetyl-DON (15ADON) as additional contributing factors to dietary exposure to DON [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we compared the performance of conventional sample preparation techniques used in mycotoxin analyses against automated on-line sample clean-up for the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its conjugated derivative, deoxynivalenol-3-β-d-glucoside (D3G), in cereal grains. Blank wheat and barley samples were spiked with DON and D3G, extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile:water (84:16, v/v) and processed by one of the following: extract and shoot, MycoSep(®) 227 clean-up columns, MycoSep 227 with an additional acetonitrile elution step and centrifugal filtration, followed by analysis with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Based on method performance characteristics and poor recoveries (<30%) obtained for the polar D3G with some techniques, the extract and shoot approach was chosen for the inter-laboratory method comparison study. Thus, the same spiked samples were analysed in parallel by another laboratory with an in-house validated on-line sample clean-up method, utilising TurboFlow™ chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. Method validation was performed by determination of specificity, linearity, recovery, intra-day precision and the limits of detection and quantification. Matrix-matched linearity (R(2)>0.985) was established in the range of 100-1600 and 20-320μg/kg for DON and D3G, respectively. Average recoveries (%RSD) were acceptable with both methods for wheat and barley, ranging between 73% and 102% (3-12%) for DON and 72% and 98% (1-10%) for D3G. The benefit of using automated sample clean-up in comparison to extract and shoot is the ability to inject directly pure extracts into the mass spectrometer, offering faster analyses and improved sensitivity with minimum system maintenance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Chromatography A
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