Δ24 (25)-sterol methenyltransferase: Intracellular localization and azasterol sensitivity in Leishmania major promastigotes overexpressing the enzyme
Instituto de Parasitología y Biomedicina López-Neyra, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Parque Tecnológico de Ciencias de la Salud, Avenida del Conocimiento, s/n 18100 Armilla, Granada, Spain. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
(Impact Factor: 1.79).
08/2008; 160(1):52-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2008.03.010
Trypanosomatids contain predominantly ergostane-based sterols, which differ from cholesterol, the main sterol in mammalian cells, in the presence of a methyl group in the 24 position. The methylation is initiated by S-adenosyl-L-methionine:Delta(24 (25))-sterol methenyltransferase, an enzyme present in protozoa, but absent in mammals. The importance of this enzyme is underscored by its potential as a drug target in the treatment of the leishmaniases. Here, we report studies concerning the intracellular distribution of sterol methenyltransferase in Leishmania major promastigotes and overexpressing cells using a specific antibody raised against highly purified recombinant protein. It was found by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy studies that in L. major wild-type cells sterol methenyltransferase was primarily associated to the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition to this location, the protein was incorporated into translucent vesicles presumably of the endocytic pathway. We also found in this study that cells overproducing the enzyme do not have increased resistance to the sterol methenyltransferase inhibitor 22, 26 azasterol.
Available from: Rajni Singh
- "The methylation is initiated by S-adenosyl-L-methionine: Delta (24 (25))-sterol methenyltransferase, an enzyme present in protozoa, but absent in mammals. The importance of this enzyme is underscored by its potential as a drug target in the treatment of the leishmaniasis . The C-24 transmethylation reactions involving S-adenosyl-L-methionine as the methyl donor and a Δ24(25)-sterol or Δ24(24′)-sterol substrate can be inhibited by various azasterols with a nitrogen substitution in the side chain and such compounds have been tested against trypanosomatids . "
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ABSTRACT: Leishmaniasis ranks the third in disease burden in disability-adjusted life years caused by neglected tropical diseases and is the second cause of parasite-related deaths after malaria; but for a variety of reasons, it is not receiving the attention that would be justified seeing its importance. Leishmaniasis is a diverse group of clinical syndromes caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. It is estimated that 350 million people are at risk in 88 countries, with a global incidence of 1-1.5 million cases of cutaneous and 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. Improvements in diagnostic methods for early case detection and latest combitorial chemotherapeutic methods have given a new hope for combating this deadly disease. The cell biology of Leishmania and mammalian cells differs considerably and this distinctness extends to the biochemical level. This provides the promise that many of the parasite's proteins should be sufficiently different from hosts and can be successfully exploited as drug targets. This paper gives a brief overview of recent developments in the diagnosis and approaches in antileishmanial drug discovery and development.
Available from: Elizabeth Ferrer
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ABSTRACT: The isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway is a very complex route that entails multiple steps and generates a high number of end-products that are essential for cell viability such as sterols, dolichols, coenzyme Q, heme and prenylated proteins. In parasites from the Trypanosomatidae family this pathway provides new potential drug targets for exploitation in the search for improved therapies, and indeed compounds such as ketoconazole, aminobisphosphonates or terbinafine have been shown to have antiprotozoal activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, despite the high therapeutic importance of the pathway, the subcellular compartmentalization of the different steps of isoprenoid biosynthesis is not known in detail. Here we have analysed the intracellular location of the enzymes 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) synthase (HMGS) and mevalonate kinase (MVAK) in Leishmania major promastigotes as well as in Trypanosoma brucei procyclic and bloodstream forms. For this purpose we generated specific polyclonal antibodies against both highly purified recombinant proteins and used those in indirect immunofluorescence and digitonin titration experiments. Results show that sterol biosynthesis is distributed in multiple intracellular compartments and provide evidence indicating that in trypanosomatids the production of HMG-CoA from acetyl Coenzyme A and generation of mevalonate occur mainly in the mitochondrion while further mevalonate phosphorylation is almost exclusively located in glycosomes. Furthermore, we have determined that peroxin 2 (PEX2) is involved in efficient targeting of MVAK and that the enzyme is relocated to the cytosol upon depletion of this peroxin involved in glycosomal matrix protein import.
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