Article

Measures of Classroom Quality in Prekindergarten and Children’s Development of Academic, Language, and Social Skills

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Abstract

This study examined development of academic, language, and social skills among 4-year-olds in publicly supported prekindergarten (pre-K) programs in relation to 3 methods of measuring pre-K quality, which are as follows: (a) adherence to 9 standards of quality related to program infrastructure and design, (b) observations of the overall quality of classroom environments, and (c) observations of teachers' emotional and instructional interactions with children in classrooms. Participants were 2,439 children enrolled in 671 pre-K classrooms in 11 states. Adjusting for prior skill levels, child and family characteristics, program characteristics, and state, teachers' instructional interactions predicted academic and language skills and teachers' emotional interactions predicted teacher-reported social skills. Findings suggest that policies, program development, and professional development efforts that improve teacher-child interactions can facilitate children's school readiness.

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... Past research has not yielded consistent evidences on the effects of childcare quality and quantity. For example, several studies have demonstrated that childcare with higher process quality (e.g., teachers' positive attitudes toward children and responsive communication with children) is associated with higher socioemotional competence and fewer behavior problems in childhood ( Camilli, Vargas, Ryan, & Barnett, 2010 ;Mashburn et al., 2008 ), and that these effects persist through adolescence ( Vandell, Belsky, Burchinal, Vandergrift, & Steinberg, 2010 ). However, other research, including meta-analyses ( Keys et al., 2013 ;NICHD ECCRN, 2006b ), has demonstrated that higher process quality in kindergarten or childcare centers may not be a useful predictor of socio-emotional outcomes. ...
... This study investigates whether childcare process quality (i.e., child-centered teaching attitudes) impacts the development of socio-emotional abilities (i.e., social competence and problem behavior) in 1 -2-year-old children in Japan. Based on research exploring the effects of childcare process quality ( Camilli, Vargas, Ryan, & Barnett, 2010 ;Mashburn et al., 2008 ;Vandell, Belsky, Burchinal, Vandergrift, & Steinberg, 2010 ) and parenting behavior in toddlerhood ( Bratsch-Hines, Carr, Zgourou, Vernon-Feagans, & Willoughby, 2020 ; Howes & Smith, 1995 ;Landry, Smith, Swank, Assel, & Vellet, 2001 ), and the interaction of childcare quality and quantity ( McCartney et al., 2010 ;Votruba-Drzal, Coley, & Chase-Lansdale, 2004 ) in the West, we hypothesize that childcare teachers' child-centered teaching attitudes will be positively correlated with social competence and negatively correlated with problem behaviors in children. ...
... This study explored whether child-centered teaching attitudes at Japanese public childcare centers are related to the development of socio-emotional abilities in one-to two-year-old children. Western studies have demonstrated that high process quality, which includes child-centered teaching, is associated with higher social competence and fewer problem behaviors in young children ( Camilli, Vargas, Ryan, & Barnett, 2010 ;Mashburn et al., 2008 ), and that caregivers' responsiveness and sensitivity positively affect toddlers' social and cognitive skills ( Bratsch-Hines, Carr, Zgourou, Vernon-Feagans, & Willoughby, 2020 ; Howes & Smith, 1995 ;Landry, Smith, Swank, Assel, & Vellet, 2001 ). As expected, based on previous studies, the present study showed that child-centered teaching attitudes, a feature of Japanese childcare centers, contributed to the reduction of problem behavior in 1-2-year-old children. ...
Article
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This study investigated the relationship between the development of the socio-emotional abilities of Japanese children between the ages of one and 2 years, and the quality of care they receive at their childcare centers. The participants were 872 pairs of parents (M = 34.13 years old) and their children (M = 25.65 months old) who attended one of 57 public childcare centers in urban Japan, as well as 373 childcare teachers (M = 37.26 years old) who conducted classes. Parents rated their children's social competence and problem behaviors, and the child-centered teaching attitudes in classrooms were rated by the teachers. The results revealed that the child-centered teaching attitudes in classrooms contributed significantly to low problem behavior among 1- to 2-year-old children, even when child variables (age, sex) and family variables (family income, parent's education, and parent's responsibility) were controlled. Child-centered teaching attitude had a particularly pronounced effect when the family variable of parent responsibility was low. This is the first empirical evidence of this relationship in a non-Western country. Our results suggest the importance of child-centered teaching attitudes for children who experience long hours of childcare outside the home, along with teachers’ beliefs and attitudes regarding the quality of early childhood education and care, and related professional training.
... Classroom quality in ECE settings is often conceptualized in terms of structure-oriented indicators (e.g., class size, teacher education) and processes-oriented features (e.g., warmth, stimulation) that create optimal learning opportunities (Burchinal et al., 2014). Although both are important, classroom processes serve as the primary mechanisms of development and learning (Mashburn et al., 2008). Specifically, effective teacher-child interactions have been identified as a key ingredient of process quality that 2 promotes school readiness (Hamre & Pianta, 2007;Hong et al., 2019). ...
... Yet, only mean Instructional Support was negatively related to children's language skills. Previous research has mostly documented small positive effects of mean Instructional Support on school readiness, including vocabulary (Guo et al., 2010;Hamre et al., 2014;Hu et al., 2017;Hu et al., 2019;Mashburn et al., 2008). Our contradictory findings may be due to the low mean for Instructional Support, which in this sample, fell well below the threshold for what is considered high quality Hatfield et al., 2016;Weiland et al., 2013). ...
... Overall, we uncovered little evidence that variability in CLASS scores and mean CLASS scores were consistently predictive of school readiness skills in the ways that we would expect and that would allow us to make many generalized conclusions. Our findings are largely at odds with the broader literature documenting the role of consistent (Brock & Curby, 2014;Curby et al., 2013) and high-quality (Araujo et al., 2016;Burchinal et al., 2008;Curby et al., 2009;Howes et al., 2008;Mashburn et al., 2008) teacher-child interactions for children's learning. However, they align with a few recent studies indicating small or null associations between mean CLASS scores and child outcomes (Guerrero-Rosada et al., 2021;Perlman et al., 2016;Weiland et al., 2013) and a single study demonstrating mostly nonsignificant relations between variability in CLASS scores and academic outcomes in elementary school . ...
Article
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The Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) is a widely administered measure of classroom quality that assesses teacher-child interactions in the domains of Emotional Support, Classroom Organization, and Instructional Support. We use data from an evaluation of state-funded prekindergarten provided to 684 children from families with low incomes (Mage = 57.56 months, 48% female) to examine the extent to which CLASS scores vary over the course of an observational period within a single day and investigate whether this variability is related to children’s school readiness at the end of the preschool year, holding constant two additional measures of quality. Teacher-child interactions in all three domains were moderately stable. Mean Classroom Organization was positively related to math, and variability in Classroom Organization was negatively related to literacy. Mean Instructional Support was negatively associated with language. Findings have implications for programs that utilize the CLASS to make high-stakes decision and inform professional development.
... According to Pianta and Allen (2008), a positive teacher-student relationship "is the single most important ingredient in promoting youth development" (24). Research findings showed that teacher-student relationships contribute considerably to students' academic, social, and emotional development during the preschool years (Mashburn et al., 2008;Roorda et al., 2011;Brock and Curby, 2014;Longobardi et al., 2021). Prior research suggest that supportive relationships also influence the students' long-term behavioral outcomes (Hamre and Pianta, 2001;Roorda et al., 2014). ...
... Much of research on teacher-student relationships is rooted in attachment theory, which considers the teacher as one of the main attachment figures in young children's lives . Indeed, studies have shown that when students experience warm/positive relationships with their teachers, they feel emotionally secure, a fact which supports their participation in learning activities and allows them to explore the classroom environment (Mashburn et al., 2008;Sabol and Pianta, 2012). Contrary, conflictual relationships between teachers and students are associated with students' school disengagement, lower academic achievement and increasing risk of behavior problems (Hamre and Pianta, 2001;Roorda et al., 2017). ...
... However, despite the existence of numerous studies on the quality of teacher-student relationships, researchers are still trying to configure the underlying mechanisms of teacherstudent relationships quality (e.g., Hamre et al., 2013;Verschueren and Koomen, 2012), and how teachers can develop and maintain effective relationships with individual students (e.g., Roorda DL. et al., 2013;Summers et al., 2017;Tsigilis et al., 2019). Several studies in the last years have studied the teacher-student relationships in whole-classroom setting (Hamre et al., 2013;Mashburn et al., 2008;Roorda et al., 2011;Spilt et al., 2011). Fewer researchers examine teacherstudent interactions or relationships toward an individual student (e.g., Roorda D. L. et al., 2013;Lippard et al., 2018;Liu et al., 2018;Koenen et al., 2019;de Ruiter et al., 2021;Koenen et al., 2022). ...
Article
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Recent literature has shown the reciprocal influences of teacher-student relationships for both teachers and students in primary school. When it comes to early childhood education, very few studies have examined the level and the nature of agreement between teachers' and students' perceptions for their dyadic relationships. Using the one-with-many model (OWM), a dyadic analysis approach, the present study aims to examine the degree of agreement between teachers' and students' perceptions about their dyadic relations. The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) and the Child Appraisal of the Relationship with the Teacher Scale (CARTS) are used to assess the quality of teacher-student dyadic relationships from teachers' and students' perceptions, respectively. The dyadic sample (N 1,345 teacher-student dyads) is recruited from 168 preschool classrooms in Greece. Results of the OWM analysis showed that teachers and students evaluated their dyadic relationship quality in a different way and there is no reciprocity in their views. Implications of the study's results are also discussed.
... The features of high-quality early childhood education have interested researchers in recent decades Cadima et al., 2010;Hamre, 2014;Pianta et al., 2005;von Suchodoletz et al., 2014), and strengthening the quality of ECEC has been prioritised (see European Commission, 2019). ECEC quality has been conceptualised as comprising the structural and process features (European Commission, 2014) that together influence children's well-being and other outcomes-in particular, the quality of teacher-child interactions Curby et al., 2009;Mashburn et al., 2008;Perlman et al., 2016). Teachers, 1 play a key role in engaging children in meaningful interactions in ECEC, consequently supporting their well-being, development, and learning (McNally & Slutsky, 2018). ...
... The Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS; ) is a wellestablished tool for researching group-level teacher-child interactions across a variety of countries and cultural contexts (see Cadima et al., 2010;Mashburn et al., 2008). Research has increasingly shown that CLASS is a valid and reliable tool for analysing teacher-child interactions in Finnish pre-primary (Pakarinen et al., 2010) and toddler classrooms (Salminen et al., 2021), but that the quality of teacher-child interactions varies across teachers and ECEC classrooms (e.g., Salminen et al., 2012). ...
... Teachers' use of proactive guidance and maximisation of instructional time enhance learning opportunities, orient children towards activities, and prevent behavioural problems (Curby et al., 2009). Finally, instructional support captures the extent to which a teacher uses instructional discussions and activities that effectively challenge and support children's academic learning Mashburn et al., 2008;Pianta & Hamre, 2009) and higherorder thinking skills . CLASS was developed in the United States, but has since been translated into several languages and has been widely and reliably used in several other countries, including Portugal (Cadima et al., 2010), the Netherlands , and Germany (von Suchodoletz et al., 2014). ...
Article
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High-quality interactions between teachers and children in early childhood education and care (ECEC) are at the heart of supporting children's development, well-being, and learning. The aim of the study was to examine the quality of an experienced ECEC teacher's and an ECEC student teacher's teacher-child interactions using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS). Furthermore, the study explored the participants' reflections on their pedagogical interactions and the extent to which they aligned with the CLASS framework. The data consisted of video recordings, written observation notes, and stimulated recall interview (SRI) transcripts. The videos were rated according to the CLASS manual, and the data were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis. The results suggested that participants' teacher-child interactions were of relatively high quality, although instructional support was an area for development. However, the interactions of the student teacher varied across observation cycles. In the SRIs, both participants emphasised the importance of emotional support and supporting children's language skills. Differences arose in the participants' positioning toward teacher identity: the ECEC teacher as expert and the student teacher as developing a professional identity. The results provide novel qualitative insights into teacher-child interactions and using CLASS tool in combination to teachers’ self-reflections regarding their interactions with the children.
... Assumptions based on this theory contend that supportive teacher-child interactions facilitate and propel children's language and literacy development when sensitive and responsive to children's social, emotional, and linguistic needs. For this reason, much attention in ECE has been dedicated toward creating and measuring high-quality preschool classrooms because of some positive associations between quality and the development of children's language and literacy skills and later reading ability (B.K. Hamre et al., 2012;Mashburn et al., 2008;Pianta & Hamre, 2009). In particular, process quality, meaning the social, emotional, and instructional aspects of children's day-to-day experiences in ECE settings R. Pianta et al., 2005), relates to their positive academic outcomes (e.g., B.K. Hamre et al., 2012;Burchinal et al., 2010;Mashburn et al., 2008). ...
... For this reason, much attention in ECE has been dedicated toward creating and measuring high-quality preschool classrooms because of some positive associations between quality and the development of children's language and literacy skills and later reading ability (B.K. Hamre et al., 2012;Mashburn et al., 2008;Pianta & Hamre, 2009). In particular, process quality, meaning the social, emotional, and instructional aspects of children's day-to-day experiences in ECE settings R. Pianta et al., 2005), relates to their positive academic outcomes (e.g., B.K. Hamre et al., 2012;Burchinal et al., 2010;Mashburn et al., 2008). Notably, other research suggests that associations between quality indicators and children's outcomes have been generally weak (see, Weiland et al., 2013). ...
... Despite the CLASS's wide use, there is conflicting evidence regarding the relations between CLASS domains and English-speaking children's language and literacy outcomes (Burchinal, 2018). Whereas some studies show Instructional Support to be a significant predictor of children's expressive and receptive English vocabulary and more general language and literacy outcomes (e.g., Burchinal et al., 2010;Mashburn et al., 2008), other research indicates either very modest or null vocabulary associations (e.g., Burchinal et al., 2016;Guerrero-Rosada et al., 2021;Weiland et al., 2013). In some instances, process quality showed to be a stronger predictor of children's English vocabulary when teachers' Instructional Support or Emotional Support scores were higher (Burchinal et al., 2010(Burchinal et al., , 2016. ...
... In toddler classrooms, ECEC teachers play an important role in supporting toddlers' wellbeing and development as 'significant others' (Rogoff, 2008). High-quality teacher-child interactions, as conceptualized within the teaching through interactions -framework (TTI; Hamre et al., 2013) and measured with the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS-PreK; Pianta et al., 2008, CLASS-Toddler;La Paro et al., 2012) have been shown to play an important role for the development of children's academic skills, motivation and self-regulation (e.g., Mashburn et al., 2008;Pakarinen et al., 2011;Salminen, Guedes et al., 2021). The findings from kindergarten and primary grades have documented the importance of high-quality teacher-child interactions in promoting children's social competence (e.g., Pakarinen et al., 2020;Siekkinen et al., 2013;Spivak & Farran, 2012). ...
... These links exist in terms of both improved prosocial behaviors and diminished antisocial behaviors. Emotional support has been shown to predict more advanced prosocial behaviors (i.e., cooperation and empathic behavior) among six-year-old Finnish kindergarteners (Pakarinen et al., 2020) and increased cooperation and participation in social activities among four-year-old kindergarteners in the United States (Mashburn et al., 2008). By focusing on school transition, Broekhuizen et al. (2016) confirmed that higher-quality emotional and behavioral support in preschool and kindergarten classrooms predicted among other things, more cooperation with others and more empathic behavior in both kindergarten and the first grade. ...
... Taken together, the prior literature provides evidence of predictive associations between teachers' emotional and behavioral support-and the consistency thereof-and young children's social competence. Teacher's observed instructional support/engaged support for learning, though, has been more systematically linked with benefits for academic outcomes (e.g., Howes et al., 2008;Mashburn et al., 2008). However, a few studies have suggested that instructional support can also foster social competence. ...
Article
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The present study investigates the quality and variability of teacher-child interactions in relation to children's social competence in Finnish toddler classrooms. The participants included 242 toddlers (114 girls, 128 boys) and their teachers (N = 42). The quality of teacher-child interactions (i.e., emotional and behavioral support; engaged support for learning) was observed using the CLASS-Toddler observation instrument (La Paro et al., 2012), and the average amount of within-day variability was calculated from the observed cycles. Teachers rated toddler's social competence with the Multisource Assessment of Social Competence Scale (MASCS; Junttila et al., 2006) in relation to the toddlers' cooperation, empathy, impulsivity, and disruptiveness. The results revealed that observed engaged support for learning was positively associated with the classroom average level of empathy in the spring when accounting for previous levels of empathy in the fall. In addition, a higher variability in engaged support for learning was negatively related to the empathy. The results emphasize the importance of active facilitation, well-timed feedback, and verbally rich support by teachers in promoting toddlers' empathy throughout one's daily activities, hence attesting to both the quality and consistency of such practices. The results are particularly useful for initial teacher training and in-service training.
... An extensive body of literature has shown that children's participation in highquality early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings can act as a primary mechanism for enhancing their emergent language skills, especially vocabulary knowledge . Previous studies have shown that high-quality teacher-child relationships are an important contributor to the provision of children's language growth within the ECEC settings (Hamre & Pianta, 2001;Mashburn et al., 2008). Children's vocabulary rapidly develops during the early years, and early teacher-child interactions are important in supporting this development (Hoff, 2006). ...
... Moreover, early years have been theorized as the most important time for children to develop their vocabulary skills, as for example comprehension and production of words, before entering to the formal primary education (Grøver, 2017;Manolitsis et al., 2017). However, very few studies have focused on the impact of teacher-child relationship quality on the development of children's receptive vocabulary (Cabell et al., 2015;Mashburn et al., 2008). Given that the quality of teacher-child relationships plays a crucial role in children's lives , it is important to understand how all three relational dimensions (closeness, conflict, and dependency) are associated with children's early language development in the ECEC setting. ...
Article
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The current study aims to examine the way in which teachers’ and children’s perceptions about their relationships influence children’s emergent literacy skills. Participants were 913 children and 114 kindergarten teachers within 72 preschool centers from Greece. The measures used were the Student–Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS), the Child Appraisal of the Relationship with the Teacher Scale (CARTS), and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R). Results of multiple regression analyses showed that teacher–child closeness and children’s age were positively associated with children’s receptive language skills, whereas teacher–child dependency was negatively associated with children’s receptive language skills. Collectively, findings highlight the importance of supportive teacher–child relationships and their impact on child’s language development.
... In ECE settings, the quality of a classroom has been associated with how well children learn and develop (Phillips et al. 2017). A wealth of empirical studies Mashburn et al. 2008), metaanalyses (Perlman et al. 2016), and literature reviews (Aikens et al. 2021;Burchinal 2018) have examined whether there are linear associations between the Pre-K CLASS and children's school readiness outcomes. This research indicates that Pre-K CLASS scores are associated with children's school readiness outcomes in some studies, but the magnitude of these associations is small to modest (Burchinal 2018;Perlman et al. 2016). ...
... There is broad consensus in the field that early and effective teacher-child interactions are important and form the foundation of children's learning and development (Hamre and Pianta 2005;Hamre et al. 2013;Mashburn et al. 2008). ...
Technical Report
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We used data on 982 to 1,517 children from the 2014 Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES 2014), which provides nationally representative data about Head Start programs, centers, and classrooms and the children and families they serve. We predicted children’s spring school readiness outcomes from direct child assessments and teacher reports based on the Pre-K CLASS, controlling for fall scores on the outcome of interest and other child, family, classroom, and teacher covariates. We also examined whether associations between the Pre-K CLASS and children’s school readiness outcomes vary for children who are dual language learners, children of color, and children experiencing poverty. Finally, we examined whether classroom quality scores need to reach a particular level, or threshold, to influence children’s school readiness outcomes. That is, we examined whether the association between classroom quality and children’s outcomes varies in classrooms above and below the median on quality scores.
... Process quality concerns the more proximal processes of children's everyday experience and involves the social, emotional and physical aspects of their interactions with staff and other children while being involved in play, activities or routines (Howes et al., 2008;Ghazvini and Mullis, 2010;Anders, 2015;Slot et al., 2015;Barros et al., 2016). Process quality has been seen as the primary driver of children's development and learning through ECEC (Howes et al., 2008;Mashburn et al., 2008;Weiland et al., 2013;OECD, 2018). Several studies with preschool children have found that sensitive, well-organized, and cognitively stimulating interactions foster children's development in domains such as language, mathematics, self-regulation, and reduction of behavior problems (Howes et al., 2008;Mashburn et al., 2008;Weiland et al., 2013;OECD, 2018). ...
... Process quality has been seen as the primary driver of children's development and learning through ECEC (Howes et al., 2008;Mashburn et al., 2008;Weiland et al., 2013;OECD, 2018). Several studies with preschool children have found that sensitive, well-organized, and cognitively stimulating interactions foster children's development in domains such as language, mathematics, self-regulation, and reduction of behavior problems (Howes et al., 2008;Mashburn et al., 2008;Weiland et al., 2013;OECD, 2018). ...
Article
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Playgroups are community-based services that bring together young children and their caregivers for the purpose of play and social activities. Preliminary evidence shows that playgroup impacts may be dependent on the quality of the playgroup. However, to date, there is no reliable and valid measure of playgroup quality. In this paper we describe the development and validation of the Playgroup Environment Rating Scale (PERS), a standardized observation measure designed to assess the quality of playgroups. PERS builds on traditional measures used to evaluate the quality of formal settings of early childhood education and care, while proposing to assess dimensions of quality specific to the nature of playgroups, namely complex interactions between several types of participants. After developing and testing the observation measure on 24 playgroup videos, we analyzed the psychometric properties. Results showed that the PERS had good interrater reliability, was internally consistent and shows a good preliminary factor structure. Tests for convergent and criterion-related validity also presented promising results. The process of design guaranteed that the PERS can be applied to different contexts of playgroups and may also be useful for informing service planning and practice. Further national and international validation will help replicate the validity of the scale.
... Recent research results suggest that quality of a preschool teacher-child relationships predict children's emotional, social and cognitive development during the early childhood period as well as through elementary years and even later in life (Commodari 2013b;Mashburn et al. 2008;Mortensen and Barnett 2015). Sroufe (2005) stressed the importance of infant attachment, both because of its place in initiating pathways of development and because of its con-nection with so many critical developmental functions -social relatedness, arousal modulation, emotional regulation, and curiosity. ...
... More specifically, Commodari (2013b) demonstrated that children with secure preschool teacher attachment presented better attention skills, in terms of higher reaction time and better selectivity and maintenance. Mashburn et al. (2008) who examined the development of academic, language and social skills among four-year-olds in preschool programs found that positive and close preschool teacher-child interactions may facilitate their school readiness. A recent study, exploring children's representations of attachment and positive teacher-child relationships, revealed that a close attachment-relevant relationship with preschool teachers in early childhood may be related to higher children's verbal capacity (Veríssimo et al. 2017). ...
... Ditengarai alasan utamanya adalah, karena anak diajar langsung oleh gurunya. Anak mengalami perkembangan akademik, bahasa dan keterampilan sosial yang pesat ketika belajar dengan gurunya (Mashburn et al., 2008); pembelajaran formal dengan guru juga mempengaruhi perkembangan emosional anak (Obidike & Enemuo, 2013;Ransford et al., 2009), dan kesiapan mereka masuk ke sekolah dasar (Mashburn et al., 2008). ...
... Ditengarai alasan utamanya adalah, karena anak diajar langsung oleh gurunya. Anak mengalami perkembangan akademik, bahasa dan keterampilan sosial yang pesat ketika belajar dengan gurunya (Mashburn et al., 2008); pembelajaran formal dengan guru juga mempengaruhi perkembangan emosional anak (Obidike & Enemuo, 2013;Ransford et al., 2009), dan kesiapan mereka masuk ke sekolah dasar (Mashburn et al., 2008). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate and assess parents' and teachers' views of the home-visiting program as a method of early childhood education during the COVID-19 outbreak. Exploratory qualitative research employed as methods of inquiry. Twelve resource persons were interviewed (3 teachers and 9 parents). The data revealed, parents and teachers perceive that using home visits has a number of benefits and drawbacks. The benefits are as follows: 1) more effective than online; 2) make learning materials easy for children to understand; 3) pique children's interest and excitement for learning; and 4) eliminate the need for parents to assist their children with their tasks. Meanwhile, the downsides include the following: 1) it was inconvenient for parents because they were needed to entertain teachers and other children; 2) some pupils couldn't study because home visits were far away from their homes.; 3) additional media and learning activities preparation; 4) additional time and energy was wasted; and 5) the risk of exposure to COVID-19 was increased. The researchers recommend that additional study be conducted with a larger and more diverse sample size in order to obtain a more complete picture of this issue.
... children younger than 3 years old) the relationship and the daily interactions between children and their caregivers are considered the most important aspect of process quality [12,13]. In both high and low SES populations studies have found that young children's development and well-being is directly linked with caregiver-child interaction quality [14][15][16][17]. While all children benefit from high quality caregiver-child interactions [5][6][7][8], (positive and negative) effects of the caregiver-child relationship are strongest for children at higher risk for adversity [9,[18][19][20]. ...
Article
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Background In countries where the majority of young children are enrolled in professional childcare, the childcare setting constitutes an important part of children’s caregiving environment. Research consistently shows that particularly the quality of the daily interactions and relationship between young children and their professional caregivers have long-term effects on a range of developmental child outcomes. Therefore, professional caregivers’ capacity for establishing high quality interactions with the children in their care is an important target of intervention. Methods A prospective, parallel, cluster-randomized wait-list controlled trial is used to test the efficacy of the attachment- and mentalization theory informed Circle of Security (COS) approach adapted to the childcare setting (COS-Classroom) on caregiver interactive skills and mind-mindedness. Participants are professional caregivers of children aged 0–2.9 years working in center-based childcare in Denmark. Approximately 31 childcare centers, corresponding to an estimated 113 caregivers, are expected to participate. The primary outcome is caregiver Sensitive responsiveness measured with the Caregiver Interactive Profile Scales (CIP-scales). Secondary outcomes include caregiver Mind-mindedness, the five remaining CIP-scales (Respect for autonomy, Structure and limit setting, Verbal communication, Developmental stimulation, and Fostering positive peer interactions), and caregivers’ resources to cope with work-related stress. Data on structural factors (e.g., staff stability, caregiver-child ratio, and level of pre-service education), caregiver attachment style, acceptability and feasibility of the COS-C together with qualitative data on how the participants experience the COS-C is additionally collected to investigate moderating and confounding effects. Discussion Examining the effectiveness of the COS-C in center-based childcare contributes to the knowledge of evidence-based intervention programs and can potentially improve the caregiver quality early childcare. Trial registration : ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04654533. Prospectively registered December 4, 2020, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04654533 .
... Studies focusing on interaction quality have demonstrated that the quality of ECEC educator-child interactions has an influence on the development and wellbeing of young children Sylva et al., 2004). Various studies have revealed that the extent and quality of educator-child interactions are associated with the development of children's social-emotional and cognitive skills (Dearing et al., 2018;Mashburn et al., 2008;Melhuish et al., 2015;NICHD, 2006;Ruzek et al., 2014;Sylva et al., 2011) as well as with their positive self-image, self-regulation, and inhibitory control Hatfield et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Previous studies have reviewedpositive correlations between the formal education levels of educatorsin Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC)centres and the quality of interactions, but the findings have not beenconsistent (Early et al., 2007; Manning et al., 2017). Moreover, informal learning processes seem to be important too (Pianta et al., 2016). The present paper addressesthis and exploreshow education levelsof ECECstaff, years of service,and the frequency of team meetings relate to the quality of interactions in Austrian centre-based settings for children under 3 years. The interaction quality was measured among early childhood educatorsand assistants (N = 116) using the Graz Scale of Interaction Quality for Children between 0 and 3 years(GrazIAS 0-3) (Walter-Laager, Flöteret al., 2019). Theresults of multiple regression models indicatethat the frequency of team meetings strongly positively correlateswith both the subscales of interaction quality,'ensure relationships and wellbeing'and 'support learning'. Further, the level of education of the ECEC staff and their years of service positively correlate with thesubscale'support learning'with low-to-medium effect sizes. The findings also suggestthat team meetings might be important for increasing the quality of interactionsat ECEC centres.
... Highly educated mothers are more likely to balance childcare and work compared to mothers with low educational attainment (Hsin & Felfe, 2014). Sufficient economic strength may also be a prerequisite for high-quality child care and early education, and high-quality child care may supplement the reduced maternal care due to mother's work, as high-quality child care at young age is associated with infants' higher vocabulary and better cognitive and language skills (e.g., Noble et al., 2006;Belsky et al., 2007;Burchinal et al., 2000;Gialamas et al., 2014;Gormley et al., 2005;Mashburn et al., 2008;National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD] Early Child Care Research Network, 2005). ...
Conference Paper
Maternal education, as a proxy of socioeconomic status, and maternal work status impact young children’s language development. However, it is unclear how maternal educational and work status jointly affect children’s language learning beyond vocabulary size. The current study examines how the two maternal factors impact young children’s productive vocabulary size and novel word learning ability. One hundred 24-month-old monolingual English-learning infants were categorized into three groups based on maternal educational level: low (no college degree), middle (college degree), high (graduate-level degree). Maternal work status was coded as working versus stay-at-home. Caregivers reported the infant's productive vocabulary size using the MCDIs; infants’ novel word learning ability was assessed by their accuracy at distinguishing two novel objects via a mutual exclusivity task adopted from Bion et al. (2013). Results showed that across three maternal education groups, 24-month-olds with working mothers do not differ in either their concurrent productive vocabulary size or their ability to learn new words. However, in the groups of mothers with low educational attainment, infants with working mothers (who were, therefore, more likely to attend daycare) were associated with higher novel word learning ability compared to those with at-home mothers. These findings suggest that providing accessible daycare may be particularly important for infants’ word learning ability. Researchers should consider more language learning indices in addition to vocabulary size to capture potential variations in language development.
... Despite the wide evidence on the relevance of teacher-child interactions and relationships for child development, both national and international research suggests that the quality of teacher-child interactions tend to be mediocre in ECE (e.g. Aguiar, Moiteiro, and Pimentel 2010;Coelho et al. 2019;Hamre et al. 2012;Mashburn et al. 2008), and the need for professional development (PD) programs focusing on improving such relationships has been underlined (e.g. Hamre et al. 2012;Lindo et al. 2019). ...
Article
This study explores how brief in-service training influences preschool teacherś awareness of competences relevant for building high-quality teacher–child relationships. A pre- and post�test design was used, with a 5-h training session in-between. Thirty-four in-service preschool teachers completed a video-based task before and after training. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted. After the session, the number of teachers identifying the key principles of building relationships with children was significantly higher for one out of the five situations analysed; the number of teachers identifying competencies for building positive relationships was significantly higher for three out of the five situations. Strategies such as observing children were easily identified (before and after training) and strategies such as taking into account the child relational needs were hardly ever identified (before and after training). Discussion highlights potential differential effects of brief in-service training according to the complexity of the training content.
... Schools (e.g., kindergartens) have shown a great contribution to children's early MTL development as well, and children's cumulative experience at school has been shown to significantly relate to their MTL vocabulary development . Compared to the home setting, children would be exposed to academic language at school via meaning-focused activities and would establish concepts via discussions with their teachers and peers (Connor et al., 2006;Mashburn et al., 2008). ...
... Despite the large body of quantitative research studying the associations between various aspects of CLASS and the outcomes for children Howes et al. 2008;Mashburn et al. 2008), qualitative analyses of teachers' experiences of CLASS as practitioners are lacking. In this paper, we complement the existing literature with data from interviews with teachers and ECEC professionals to document users' experiences of CLASS with respect to observation, feedback and professional development. ...
Article
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This qualitative study explored Norwegian ECEC professionals’ perceptions and reflections concerning the use of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) Pre-K and Toddler for professional development. Focus group interviews (n = 22), group interviews (n = 4), and in-depth interviews (n = 3) were conducted online. Conventional content analysis was performed using NVivo 12 software. The professionals reported that CLASS contributed to positive structures for professional community and development within which both individual and collective learning occurred. The content analysis yielded four main categories: A shared professional platform, Professionalisation, Quality in practice and Outcomes for children and parents. The CLASS structure improved communication and collaboration between the early childhood education and care (ECEC) centres and support systems. Overall, the findings contribute to new knowledge on how ECEC professionals experience CLASS as a tool for professional development, sense of community, improved collaboration and more thoughtful classroom practice.
... CLASS assesses three primary domains of teachers' interactions with students: (1) emotional support, (2) classroom organization, and (3) instructional support. Each domain consists of dimensions of specific teacher-student and student-student interactions shown to predict students' social-emotional and academic outcomes (Burchinal et al., 2010;Downer et al., 2011;Mashburn et al., 2008). Emotional support includes positive climate, negative climate, teacher sensitivity, and regard for student perspectives. ...
Article
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Objectives This study examined the effect of the Settle Your Glitter mindfulness-based curriculum on kindergarten through second-grade students’ emotion recognition in others, self-control, social problem-solving, and perspective-taking. Methods Students from one school (n = 186; 66% African American and 20% Latinx) experienced the mindfulness intervention plus business-as-usual academic curriculum. Students from another school (n = 214; 84% African American and 11% Latinx) experienced the academic curriculum only with inclusion of a literacy coach (active control). Results Intervention students demonstrated better posttest emotion recognition (Cohen’s d = 0.38) and problem-solving (Cohen’s d = 0.26) than control students. The effect on emotion recognition was moderated by pretest levels of self-control, such that intervention students with lower initial self-control had greater gains in emotion recognition than those with higher initial self-control, whose gain scores did not differ from control students. Control students had higher posttest perspective-taking scores than intervention students, which is likely a result of literacy coaching that control teachers received. Pretest self-control scores positively predicted perspective-taking gain scores, regardless of treatment group. Conclusions The curriculum improved skills that are critical for social awareness and managing relationships with others.
... When considering attachment in the classroom, emotional support is a valuable factor to consider. Higher levels of emotional support are associated with children's higher levels of social competence, increases in autonomy, and decreases in internalizing and externalizing behaviors Domínguez et al., 2011;Duncan & National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network, 2003;Mashburn et al., 2008). Research also shows that when teachers are less emotionally supportive, students may have to rely more on their own abilities to succeed (Bailey et al., 2016;Buyse et al., 2008;Domínguez et al., 2011). ...
Article
Objectives: Preschool teachers' consistency of warm, sensitive, and responsive interactions with children may be more important than average levels and may moderate the association between children's cognitive and emotion regulation and their preschool adjustment. Methods: A sample of 312 boys and girls aged 32 to 68 months in 44 classrooms at 16 privately-funded centers and Head Starts completed assessments of emotional and cognitive regulation and were rated by their teachers using measures of social-emotional functioning. Teacher-child interactions were rated for emotional support. Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously explore three aspects of preschool adjustment. Results: Children who were the least regulated were more adjusted to preschool in classrooms where teachers were more consistent in their emotional support, over and above mean emotional support and after controlling for child- and preschool-level covariates. Conclusions: Consistency matters for children's preschool adjustment perhaps even more so than average levels of emotional support.
... Pourtant il est reconnu que la qualité structurelle et la qualité des processus sont interreliées(Slot, 2018). En effet, la qualification des éducatrices joue un rôle sur la qualité des interactions, sans toutefois constituer un gage de qualitéMashburn et al., 2008). De surcroît, ces deux premières dimensions sont tout autant influencées par la qualité opérationnelle, notamment lorsque l'équipe de gestion prend la décision, avec son équipe éducative, d'adopter une approche pédagogique, ce qui rejoint la qualité des orientations(OCDE, 2006). ...
Article
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Les services de garde éducatifs à l’enfance (SGÉE) jouent un rôle déterminant sur le développement des enfants (OCDE, 2019). Toutefois l’état des connaissances est plus limité concernant les enfants de 0 à 3 ans. Il apparait donc pertinent d’étudier la qualité éducative leur étant offerte. Comme l’approche piklérienne s’intéresse aux enfants de 0 à 3 ans et qu’elle est adoptée par des SGÉE du Québec, cet article présente une revue ciblée de la littérature au sujet de cette approche pédagogique. Trois thèmes d’étude en ressortent : la qualité des interactions, les connaissances, perceptions et croyances des éducatrices, et la relation privilégiée entre l’éducatrice et l’enfant. Bien que ces études abordent de façon parcellaire la qualité éducative, les résultats permettent de croire que certains éléments pourraient contribuer à rehausser la qualité éducative en SGÉE. Toutefois, des études plus approfondies de la qualité éducative dans le contexte de cette approche pédagogique s’avèrent essentielles.
... Previous factor analyses demonstrated that the data support three domains of classroom quality: emotional support, classroom organization, and instructional support (Hamre et al., 2007). Numerous studies provide evidence for the construct and predictive validity of the CLASS (e.g., Mashburn et al., 2008). We used the emotional support domain as it is the most proximal to our constructs of interest. ...
Article
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Theory and research point to the daily interactions between individual children and teachers as formative to teacher–child relationships, yet observed dyadic teacher–child interactions in preschool classrooms have largely been overlooked. This study provides a descriptive examination of the quality of individual children’s interactions with their teacher as a basis for understanding one source of information theorized to inform children’s and teachers’ perceptions of their relationships with each other. Children’s dyadic interactions with teacher, including their positive engagement, communication, and conflict, were observed across a large and racially/ethnically diverse sample of 767 preschool children (M = 4.39 years) at three time points in the year. On average, most children displayed low-to-moderate levels of positive engagement (78%), while nearly all children showed rare communication (81%) and conflict (99%) with the teacher. Boys demonstrated lower positive engagement and higher conflict with the teacher than girls. Black children were observed to demonstrate higher positive engagement with the teacher compared to White children. No differences in interaction quality were observed for Black children with a White teacher compared to White child-White teacher or Black child-Black teacher pairs. Results advance our understanding of dyadic teacher–child interactions in preschool classrooms and raise new questions to expand our knowledge of how teacher–child relationships are established, maintained, and modified, to ultimately support teachers in building strong relationships with each and every preschooler.
... The first step to improve the quality of teacher-student interactions and teacher effectiveness is to measure it. However, most education systems in low-and middle-income countries do not regularly monitor teaching practices or the quality of interactions between teachers and students in the classroom, even though it consistently predicts a range of academic and socioemotional student outcomes Cadima et al., 2010;Curby et al., 2013;Hatfield et al., 2012;Kane et al., 2011;Mashburn et al., 2008;Morris et al., 2012;Muijs et al., 2014;Rimm-Kaufman et al., 2009). Even when education systems attempt to capture teaching practices, most tools used in low-and middle-income countries fall short, as they: (i) measure either the quantity or quality of teaching practices; (ii) do not explicitly focus on teachers' efforts to develop students' socioemotional skills; (iii) use tools designed for other contexts, which may include irrelevant items or fail to X rpt = μ grand mean + μ r -μ rater effect + μ p -μ person effect + μ t -μ task effect + μ rp -μ r -μ p + μ rater × person effect + μ rt -μ r -μ t + μ rater × task effect + μ pt -μ p -μ t + μ person × task effect + X rpt -μ rp -μ rt -μ pt + μ r + μ p + μ t -μ residual (1) Under this study design, a random-effects model would allow to disentangle variance components σ 2 * = E* (μ * -μ) for each effect. ...
Book
This article studies the power of the Lagrange Multiplier Test and the Generalized Lagrange Multiplier Test to detect measurement non-invariance in Item Response Theory (IRT) models for binary data. We study the performance of these two tests under correct model specification and incorrect distribution of the latent variable. The asymptotic distribution of each test under the alternative hypothesis depends on a noncentrality parameter that is used to compute the power. We present two different procedures to compute the noncentrality parameter and consequently the power of the tests. The performance of the two methods is evaluated through a simulation study. They turn out to be very similar to the classic empirical power but less time consuming. Moreover, the results highlight that the Lagrange Multiplier Test is more powerful than the Generalized Lagrange Multiplier Test to detect measurement non-invariance under all simulation conditions.
... Sociocultural perspectives (Vygotsky, 1978) and bioecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2007) provide frameworks to identify the features of quality. Internationally, features of quality in ECEC have been characterised as falling within two domains: "structural quality" and "process quality" (Dowsett et al., 2008;Mashburn et al., 2008;Vandell & Wolfe, 2000). Other taxonomies of quality in ECEC have been proposed which include operational features, educational concepts and the classroom environment in the structural domain (OECD, 2006;Pianta et al., 2016), and interactions, parent engagement and experiences in the process domain (OECD, 2006;Pianta et al., 2016;Urban et al., 2012). ...
... Η σπουδαιότητα της ποιότητας της προσχολικής αγωγής και εκπαίδευσης (ΠΑ&Ε) στις σύγχρονες κοινωνίες είναι αδιαμφισβήτητη, καθώς τα ευρήματα της έρευνας δείχνουν ότι τα υψηλής ποιότητας προγράμματα ΠΑ&Ε μπορούν να ενισχύσουν την ολόπλευρη ανάπτυξη των παιδιών βραχυπρόθεσμα και μακροπρόθεσμα (Mashburn et al., 2008). ...
... Both structural and process characteristics are associated with positive child outcomes (Auger et al., 2014;Burchinal et al., 1996;Burchinal et al., 2002;. However, some studies have also failed to find a positive association between a lower adult/child ratio (fewer children per adult) and positive child outcomes (Clarke-Stewart et al., 1994;Dunn, 1993;Mashburn et al., 2008) or have reported mixed results (Howes, 1997). ...
Article
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Worldwide, a large number of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers are enroled in formal non‐parental early childhood education or care (ECEC). Theoretically, lower adult/child ratios (fewer children per adult) and smaller group sizes are hypothesised to be associated with positive child outcomes in ECEC. A lower adult/child ratio and a smaller group size may increase both the extent and quality of adult/child interactions during the day. The objective of this review is to synthesise data from studies to assess the impact of adult/child ratio and group size in ECEC on measures of process characteristics of quality of care and on child outcomes. Relevant studies were identified through electronic searches of bibliographic databases, governmental and grey literature repositories, Internet search engines, hand search of specific targeted journals, citation tracking and contact to experts. The primary searches were carried out up to September 2020. Additional searches were carried out in February 2022. The intervention was changes to adult/child ratio and group size in ECEC with children aged 0–5 years old. All study designs that used a well‐defined control group were eligible for inclusion. The total number of potential relevant studies constituted 14,060 hits. A total of 31 studies met the inclusion criteria and were critically appraised by the review authors. The 31 studies analysed 26 different populations. Only 12 studies analysing 8 different populations (N = 4300) could be used in the data synthesis. Included studies were published between 1968 and 2019, and the average publication year was 1992. We used random‐effects meta‐analysis, applying both robust‐variance estimation and restricted maximum likelihood procedures to synthesise effect sizes. We conducted separate analyses for process quality measures and language and literacy measures. The meta‐analysis using measures of process quality as the outcome included 84 effect sizes, 5 studies, and 6256 observations. The weighted average effect size was positive but not statistically significant (effect size [ES] = 0.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [−0.07, 0.27]) using robust‐variance estimation. The adjusted degrees of freedom were below 4 (df = 1.5), meaning that the results were unreliable. Similarly, the low number of studies made the estimation of heterogeneity statistics difficult. The I2 and τ2 estimates were both 0, and the Q‐statistic 2.3 (p = 0.69). We found a similar, but statistically significant, weighted average effect size using a restricted maximum likelihood procedure (ES = 0.10, 95% CI = [0.004, 0.20]), and similar low levels of heterogeneity (Q = 0.7, I2 = 0%, τ2 = 0). The meta‐analysis of language and literacy outcomes is based on three studies exploring different changes to group size and/or adult/child ratio in ECEC. The meta‐analysis of language and literacy measures included 12 effect sizes, 3 studies, and 14,625 observations. The weighted average effect size was negative but not statistically significant (ES = −0.04, 95% CI = [−0.61, 0.53]) using the robust variance estimation procedure. The adjusted degrees of freedom were again below 4 (df = 1.9) and the results were unreliable. The heterogeneity statistics indicated substantial heterogeneity (Q = 9.3, I2 = 78.5%, τ2 = 0.07). The restricted maximum likelihood procedure yielded similar results (ES = −0.06, 95% CI = [−0.57, 0.46], Q = 6.1, I2 = 64.3%, τ2 = 0.03). The main finding of the present review is that there are surprisingly few quantitative studies exploring the effects of changes to adult/child ratio and group size in ECEC on measures of process quality and on child outcomes. The overall quality of the included studies was low, and only two randomised studies were used in the meta‐analysis. The risk of bias in the majority of included studies was high, also in studies used in the meta‐analysis. Due to the limited number of studies that could be used in the data synthesis, we were unable to explore the effects of adult/child ratio and group size separately. No study that examined the effects of changes of the adult/child‐ratio and/or group size on socio‐emotional child outcomes could be included in the meta‐analysis. No high quality study examined the effects of large changes in adult/child ratio and group size on measures of process quality, or explored effects for children younger than 2 years. We included few studies (3) in the meta‐analysis that investigated measures of language and literacy and results for these outcomes were inconclusive. In one specification, we found a small statistically significant effect on process quality, suggesting that fewer children per adult and smaller group sizes do increase the process quality in ECEC. Caution regarding the interpretation must be exerted due to the heterogeneity of the study designs, the limited number of studies, and the generally high risk of bias within the included studies. Results of the present review have implications for both research and practice. First, findings from the present review tentatively support the theoretical hypothesis that lower adult/child ratios (fewer children per adult) and smaller group sizes beneficially influence process quality in ECEC. This hypothesis is reflected in the existence of standards and regulation on the minimum requirements regarding adult/child ratios and maximum group size in ECEC. However, the research literature to date provides little guidance on what the appropriate adult/child ratios and group sizes are. Second, findings from the present review may be seen as a testimony to the urgent need for more contemporary high‐quality research exploring the effects of changes in adult/child ratio and group size in ECEC on measures of process quality and child developmental and socio‐emotional outcomes.
... Keywords Teacher-student interactions · Burnout · Aggression · Teacher-student relationships High quality teacher-student interactions hold profound implications for students' academic success, social-emotional development, and mental health (Hamre et al., 2014;Mashburn et al., 2008;McLean & Connor, 2015); however, far too little is known about the factors that contribute to high quality, effective classroom interactions (Abry et al., 2017;Early et al., 2007). Recent findings suggest that overall classroom interaction quality may be influenced by aspects of teachers' emotional experience and mental health (Ansari et al., 2020), challenging student behaviors (Luckner & Pianta, 2011), and relational factors rooted in the quality of dyadic teacher-student relationships (Pennings et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Research consistently demonstrates that high quality teacher-student interactions have meaningful links to students’ learning, development, and mental health (Choi et al., Early Education and Development, 30(3):337–356, 2019; Mashburn et al., Child Development 79:732–749, 2008; McLean and Connor, Child Development 86:945–954, 2015). However, little is known about the factors that contribute to quality teacher-student interactions (Early et al., 2007). These interactions are dynamic; therefore, they are likely influenced by teacher characteristics, student characteristics, and dyadic relational elements. In 330 third- and fourth-grade classrooms across 60 high needs elementary schools, we aimed to better understand how teacher burnout, student aggression, and teacher-student relational closeness explained variation in observed classroom interaction quality (i.e., emotional support, instructional support, and classroom organization) later in the year, controlling for earlier observations. Importantly, student aggression and teacher-student relational closeness were measured from both teacher and student perspectives. While teacher burnout earlier in the year was not significantly associated with changes in interaction quality across the year, the results highlighted the importance of student behavior and relational factors. Specifically, more teacher-reported classroom-level aggression was associated with less emotional support and classroom organization across the year. Additionally, greater student-reported teacher-student relational closeness was linked to increased emotional support, instructional support, and classroom organization. These results indicate that fostering close teacher-student relationships may contribute to improved classroom interaction quality. Practical implications for teachers, instructional coaches, and school psychologists are discussed.
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L’explicitation des différences de réussite entre élèves à l’école élémentaire a déjà mobilisé de nombreuses recherches dans le champ de l’éducation. Dans le cadre de cette thèse, nous explorons le développement chez l’élève de six compétences psychosociales (OMS, 1994) : la coopération, l’empathie, la maîtrise de soi, l’anxiété, l’estime de soi et l’internalité. Eu égard à la prégnance de l’effet des pratiques enseignantes sur le parcours scolaire de l’élève (Bressoux, 1994, 2001 ; Hanushek, 2002, 2014), nous avons fait l’hypothèse que (1) le profil interactionnel des enseignants du premier degré avait un lien avec le niveau de développement des compétences psychosociales et que (2) le niveau de développement des compétences psychosociales en lien avec le profil des enseignants avait un effet sur la réussite scolaire des élèves de l’école élémentaire. Les compétences psychosociales étaient donc envisagées comme de potentielles variables médiatrices entre les pratiques de l’enseignant et les performances des élèves. Fondé sur un échantillon constitué de 623 élèves de CE2, CM1 et CM2 et de 26 enseignants, notre protocole de recherche a permis de recueillir (1) des données sur le profil interactionnel des enseignants à partir de la perception des élèves et des enseignants eux-mêmes, (2) des données en début et en fin d’année sur les compétences psychosociales des élèves et (3) des données sur les performances des élèves en français et en mathématiques. Si nous constatons un effet moindre du profil interactionnel de l’enseignant sur le niveau scolaire des élèves, nous notons un effet direct de ce même profil sur les compétences psychosociales des élèves et un effet de ces compétences sur la réussite des élèves. L’utilisation d’analyses de structure de covariance avec LISREL a mis en évidence un effet indirect d’une forme de bienveillance de l’enseignant sur les performances des élèves qui transiteraient par le bien-être psychosocial scolaire des élèves.
Article
Observational studies comparing child outcomes in early care and education classrooms of differing quality are often confounded by between‐child differences. A within‐child design, tracking children across contexts, can identify the effects of quality with less confounding. An analysis of Australian children (N = 1128, mean age 5 years, 48% female, 2.9% Indigenous, ethnicity data unavailable) tracked across pre‐K, K, and year 1 (2010–2012) was conducted to assess how changes in observed quality (Classroom Assessment Scoring System) were associated with changes in cognitive development (Woodcock–Johnson III). Thresholds of quality were also investigated. Increases in Emotional Support were associated with improved language development (β = 0.54, 95% CI [0.1–0.99], approximating 2.6 weeks development). Results highlight that emotional quality is an integral and potent component of early learning.
Article
Continuity of pre-k and kindergarten classroom experiences is a key area of interest for early childhood researchers interested in supporting public pre-k children's development over time. To advance the empirical evidence on this topic, this study examined whether differences in classroom experiences as children transition from pre-k to kindergarten are associated with kindergarten social-emotional and self-regulation skills among low-income, race- and language-diverse public pre-k children. Children attending public pre-K were assessed in the spring of pre-k and fall and spring of kindergarten on a range of social-emotional and self-regulation skills (N = 1,358; 67.1 months old (SD = 3.6) in kindergarten; 50% male; 60% Hispanic and/or Latine, 17% Black, 10% White, 13% other). Classroom experiences (teacher-child interactions, teacher-child closeness, and the amount of time spent in teacher-structured activities) were assessed using observations and teacher reports in both grade levels. Regression models adjusted for kindergarten nesting indicated that decreases in teacher-child closeness and the quality of teacher-child interactions were associated with children's lower social competence, learning behaviors, and inhibition in the fall of kindergarten, relative to spring of pre-k. There were limited associations with child gains from fall to spring. Results suggest that differences between pre-k and kindergarten academic and social environments may be difficult for children as they adjust to kindergarten. Findings are discussed in terms of the implications for efforts to align classroom experiences across grades.
Article
Early childhood education programs invest in assessments of classroom quality to enable accountability and to enact efforts toward quality improvement. The Early Childhood Environment Rating System – Revised (ECERS-R) and Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) are 2 widely used classroom quality assessments that have inconsistently been linked to longitudinal change in preschoolers’ school-readiness skills. The current study examined how the ECERS-R and CLASS scores relate to changes in preschoolers’ skills and whether associations are stronger in the second half of the school year than across the whole school year. We used data from classrooms in the San Francisco Unified School District preschool program primarily serving low-income families; 164 classrooms were observed using the CLASS (N = 2327) and 131 classrooms were observed using ECERS-R (N = 1792). School readiness was assessed using teacher reports of cognitive, physical, self-regulation, social-emotional, verbal language, and written language development measured in the fall, winter, and spring and a direct assessment of children's letter awareness and pre-literacy skills measured in the fall and spring. Results showed that measures of classroom quality did not relate to children's skills in spring controlling for fall skills, while the ECERS-R Interactions was the only quality domain associated with all teacher-reported skills in spring controlling for winter scores. We provide recommendations to incorporate professional development, coaching, and assessment to improve classroom interactions and support child skills throughout the preschool year.
Article
We investigated the perceptions of teachers about challenges and opportunities associated with group characteristics in early childhood education (ECE) settings. We analyzed individual semi-structured interviews with 18 preschool teachers (Mage = 51.77, SD = 7.74), serving in Portuguese public ECE settings, using thematic analysis. According to teachers' accounts, groups with children with disabilities, mixed-age groups and groups with a higher number of younger children, socioeconomic disadvantaged groups, groups with children who speak a language other than Portuguese, and groups with more boys than girls, can be particularly challenging; larger groups and a lower adult-child ratio can also present increased challenges. Teachers noted the impact of teachers' age on their ability to manage groups perceived as more challenging. Teachers’ accounts further indicated that increased challenges can result from an interaction between microsystemic variables. Findings support the relevance of considering multiple structure characteristics and the interactions among them when investigating variations in ECE quality.
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The critical developmental implications of childcare centre teachers’ caregiving sensitivity have been extensively documented. More efforts are pressing to identify antecedents of such sensitivity and elucidate implicated mechanisms. This study examined the association between socioeconomic status and caregiving sensitivity among Chinese childcare centre teachers, with adaptive caregiving belief as a mediator and childcare centre type as a moderator. Survey data for 1,316 Chinese teachers were used. The results indicated that teachers’ monthly income was positively associated with their caregiving sensitivity via positive associations with their verbal stimulation beliefs. This effect did not vary by childcare centre type. Our findings highlight possible avenues for interventions aimed at promoting caregiving quality in childcare centre setting, such as improving teachers’ adaptive caregiving belief.
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Bu araştırmanın amacı, Erken Çocukluk Sınıf Ortamı Değerlendirme Ölçeği’nin (EÇSODÖ) geliştirilmesi ve geçerlik-güvenirlik çalışmasının yapılmasıdır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu maksimum çeşitlilik örnekleme yoluyla belirlenen toplam 312 okul öncesi öğretmeni oluşturmaktadır. Öncelikle Temel Bileşenler Analizi (TBA) daha sonra Doğrulayıcı Faktör Analizleri (DFA) yapılmıştır. Güvenirlik analizleri için de Cronbach alfa iç tutarlılık güvenirliği hesaplanmıştır. Analizler sonucunda ölçeğin 38 madde ve 5 faktörden oluştuğu belirlenmiştir. Faktörler toplamda %52.13 oranında ortak varyansı açıklamıştır. Analizler sonucunda ölçeğin uyum indeks değerleri (RMSEA=.076, SRMR=.025, GFI=.67, AGFI=.63, NFI=.79, NNFI=.89, CFI=.90, IFI=.90) incelendiğinde GFI, AGFI, NFI değerleri zayıf uyuma karşılık gelirken NNFI, CFI, IFI’ nın iyi uyuma karşılık geldiği görülmektedir. Cronbach alfa iç tutarlık katsayıları sırasıyla .86, .84, .74, .66 ve .84 olarak belirlenmiştir. Bu doğrultuda geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçek elde edilmiştir.
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The last two decades have seen significant growth in e-Learning in many institutions, with the main growth engine being significant development of technologies providing access to information. These technologies have dramatically changed how societies and individuals communicate. The current study examined whether the paradigm of good teaching dimensions customary in the research literature can predict students’ self-efficacy and social-academic climate in e-Learning. For this purpose, 147 students from different academic institutions were sampled and asked to choose one course they had studied online, completing a questionnaire on their experience of the course. The questionnaire was divided into four sub-topics, where at first the participants were asked to answer several demographic questions and the rest of the questions were divided by the research variables as follows: the first group of questions dealt with perceived self-efficacy; the second group dealt with the teaching dimensions presented in Hativa’s (2015) theory, from which select teaching behaviors were extracted. In the final part, the questionnaire examined the social-academic climate during the course. The research results show correlations between the research variables and some of the demographic variables. The higher the respondent’s age and years of schooling, the higher the lecturer’s evaluation. Furthermore, men were found to rank lecturers on teaching dimensions significantly lower than did women. Respondent self-efficacy rose with age and years of schooling. Moreover, the higher the participants’ age, the more positive the climate reported, and women tended to rank classroom climate higher than did men. Keywords: classroom climate, e-Learning, self-efficacy, teaching dimensions
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Zusammenfassung. Hintergrund: Positive Fachkraft-Kind-Interaktionen in der Kita werden als vorteilhaft für die Entwicklung von Kindern und deren schulrelevanten Fähigkeiten angesehen. Die gemessenen Zusammenhänge sind jedoch größtenteils schwach. Möglicherweise wirkt sich die Interaktionsqualität stärker auf Kinder mit niedriger Emotionsregulation aus, da diese stärker auf die Ko-regulation durch Fachkräfte angewiesen sein könnten. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht den Zusammenhang von Interaktionsqualität mit Lern- und Sozialverhalten und eine mögliche Moderation durch Emotionsregulation. Methode: Daten von 65 Kindern ( M Alter = 36.9 Monate) aus 9 Kitagruppen werden analysiert. Fachkräfte beantworteten Fragebögen zu Lernverhalten, positiven Peerbeziehungen und aggressivem Verhalten der Kinder zu zwei Messzeitpunkten innerhalb von 8 Monaten und zur Emotionsregulation zu T1. Zudem wurde die Interaktionsqualität anhand des Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) Toddler zu T1 erfasst. Ergebnisse: Die Analysen deuten auf einen positiven Zusammenhang zwischen aktiver Lernunterstützung und der Entwicklung des Lernverhaltens hin, insbesondere für Kinder mit niedriger Emotionsregulation. Die Interaktionsqualität zeigt keinen Zusammenhang mit dem Sozialverhalten. Diskussion: Diese Ergebnisse zeigen, dass eine aktive Lernunterstützung in der frühen Kindheit zum späteren Schulerfolg beitragen könnte, insbesondere für Kinder mit herausforderndem Verhalten.
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This study used secondary data from the My Teaching Partner‐Math/Science 2013–2016 randomized control trial to explore whether equitable sociocultural classroom interactions (see Curenton et al., 2019) were associated with the skills of 105 four‐ and five‐year‐olds (52% boys; drawn from 20 unique video recordings of preschool teachers/classrooms; 43% were Black, Latine, Asian, or other racially marginalized learners). Equitable interactions predicted children's skills with effect sizes ranging from small (0.01–0.44) to large (1.00). Moderation analyses revealed that when classrooms had more racially marginalized learners, teachers’ use of equitable disciplinary and personalized learning practices were associated with higher executive functioning gains across prekindergarten. Findings illustrate how classroom composition can be a key indicator between equitable classroom interactions and young children's early skills.
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ישראל היא מדינת הגירה מרובת תרבויות המציבה בפני מערכת החינוך אתגרים חינוכיים- תרבותיים בהם נדרשת התמודדות עם הטרוגניות, עם קבוצות מיעוט ועם קביעת מדיניות שתעודד שוויון, שילוב והכלה. מטרת המחקר היא לבחון תפיסות ועמדות בפיתוח כשירות בין-תרבותית של סטודנטים הלומדים בתוכנית להסבת אקדמאים לקראת תעודת הוראה, עם או בלי התנסות מחוץ לכותלי בית הספר. המחקר מתבסס על מודל להערכת התפתחות הכשירות הבין-תרבותית של סטודנטים מתחומי דעת שונים, והוא מותאם לשפה הנהוגה בתחום של הכשרת מורים. זהו מחקר איכותני-פרשני המתמקד בהבנת נקודת מבטם של הסטודנטים בעת ההתנסות בהוראה. נתוני המחקר נאספו מתוך שמונה משימות שכתבו שתי קבוצות של סטודנטים: קבוצה א מנתה עשרה סטודנטים שהשתתפו בהתנסות בית ספרית ובאינטראקציות בהקשרים קהילתיים וחברתיים-תרבותיים מחוץ לכותלי בית הספר; קבוצה ב מנתה עשרה סטודנטים שהשתתפו רק בהתנסות בית ספרית. המשימות כללו שני חלקים - תיעוד ורפלקציה – אותם כתבו כל הסטודנטים בתום כל התנסות או מפגש והם נשמרו בתלקיט דיגיטלי. מן הממצאים עולים הבדלים בין שתי הקבוצות. קבוצה א חוותה חוויות ייחודיות במפגש הבלתי אמצעי עם ההטרוגניות האתנית בסביבת החיים האותנטית, צברה ידע חדש והגיעה לתובנות עמוקות יותר בתהליך גיבוש זהות מקצועית פלורליסטית המגלה מחויבות רגשית-תרבותית ומחזקת את הקשר בין הוראה לתרבות בהשוואה לסטודנטים מקבוצה ב. כמו כן, אופי התגובה של הסטודנטים מקבוצה א היה מעשי ודינמי יותר ובא לידי ביטוי בתכנון וביצוע שיעורים המשלבים תכנים של תרבות ארץ המוצא, מאפשרים דיון בנושאים שנויים במחלוקת ומעודדים את הילדים לשתף בסיפורים אישיים על התרבות האחרת. בנוסף, יחד עם ההורים וילדיהם, העצימו הסטודנטים את תרבות ארץ המוצא במרחב הבית ספרי וביטאו בכך אקטיביזם חברתי-חינוכי. מגבלות המחקר הן באפשרויות ההכללה שלו על מקומות אחרים בארץ ובעולם, משום שהוא נערך בקרב אוכלוסייה מצומצמת במרכז הארץ. בכוחם של מחקרים עתידיים לבחון את תפיסותיהם ופעולותיהם של הסטודנטים באמצעות תצפיות, תוך התאמת הצהרותיהם ליישום בפועל בשדה ההוראה ובאמצעות מבדקי עמדות טרם ביצוע המחקר ואחריו. סוגיה מעניינת אחרת היא בחינת נקודת מבטם של התלמידים על אודות פעולות המורים.
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This chapter reviews current theoretical and empirical work on associations between young children's mobile media use in early childhood education settings and their social development, including social relationships and foundational social skills such as communication, collaboration, and positive social interactions and engagement. Touchscreen tablets are highlighted given their increased presence in early childhood education as well as their unique affordances specifically for young children. Particular attention is paid to factors influencing whether, what, and how educators integrate tablets into their classroom environments; facilitators and barriers to integration; how such integration may enable or interfere with social skills and relationships; and implications for practice and policy.
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Internationally, standard observational measures of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) are used to assess the quality of provision. They are applied as research tools but, significantly, also guide policy decisions, distribution of resources and public opinion. Considerable faith is placed in such measures, yet their validity, reliability and functioning within context should all be considered in interpreting the findings they generate. We examine the case of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) in the Australian study, Effective Early Education for Children (E4Kids). Using this measure Australian educators were identified as “low quality” in provision of instruction (average 2.1 on a scale of 1–7). When these results became public, they attracted negative press coverage and the potential for harm. We interrogate these findings asking three questions relating to sampling, contextual and empirical evidence that define quality and measurement strategies. We conclude that measurement problems, most notably a floor effect, is the most likely explanation for uniformly low CLASS-Instructional scores among Australian ECEC educators, and indeed across international studies. Using a theoretically and empirically informed rescaling strategy we show that there is a diversity of instructional quality across Australian ECEC, and that rescaling might more effectively guide improvement strategies to target those of lowest quality. Beyond, our findings call for a more critical approach in interpretation of standard measures of ECEC quality and their applications in policy and practice, internationally.
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This study used person-centered approaches to examine whether educator beliefs and practices transformed as a result of a randomized coaching intervention focused on the quality of teacher-child interactions. It also considers whether educators' beliefs and practices at the end of the intervention were in turn jointly associated with children's development. Latent profile analysis with a sample of 281 preschool educators working primarily in public school prekindergarten and Head Start programs across nine U.S. cities revealed three profiles of educators with distinct patterns of beliefs and practices: Average, Strong, and Mixed. Random assignment to coaching increased the likelihood that educators belonged to a profile defined by strong beliefs and practices at the end of the intervention. Latent transition analysis suggested that this positive effect was concentrated among a small proportion of educators who either built or maintained strong beliefs and practices. Few differences were found in children's language, literacy, and executive function skills based on educator profiles at the end of the intervention. Implications of this work for educational leaders designing and offering individualized supports for classroom educators are discussed.
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Current educational reform efforts in the United States are setting forth ambitious goals for schools, teachers, and students (e.g., National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1989; National Education Goals Panel, 1991; National Research Council, 1993). Schools and teachers are to help students develop rich understandings of important content, think critically, construct and solve problems, synthesize information, invent, create, express themselves proficiently, and leave school prepared to be responsible citizens and lifelong learners. Reformers hold forth visions of teaching and learning in which teachers and student engage in rich discourse about important ideas and participate in problem solving activities grounded in meaningful contexts (e.g., American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1989; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1989, 1991). These visions of teaching and learning depart significantly from much of the educational practice that currently typifies American classrooms — practice that is based on views of teaching as presenting and explaining content and learning as the rehearsal and retention of presented information and skills.
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Observations of 780 third-grade classrooms described classroom activities, child-teacher interactions, and dimensions of the global classroom environment, which were examined in relation to structural aspects of the classroom and child behavior. 1 child per classroom was targeted for observation in relation to classroom quality and teacher and child behavior. These children were enrolled in the ongoing NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development: 80% of the sample was Caucasian, 22% had a family income-to-needs ratio of 2.0 or less, and 26% of mothers had a high school education or less. Classrooms were observed for a minimum of eight, 30-minute cycles over the course of the day, beginning at the start of the school day, with an intention of observing during academic instruction time. Time samplings of activities, teacher behaviors, and child behaviors as well as global ratings of the classroom environment were obtained. The most frequently observed forms of activity were whole-group instruction or individual seatwork. As expected, the largest portion of time was allocated to literacy-related activities. By a ratio of nearly 11:1, instructional activities (across any content area) were basic-skill-focused versus focused on analysis/inference or synthesis of information. There was wide variation in the frequency of most activities across classrooms. Global ratings also demonstrated significant variability across classrooms. Global and time-sampled codes of teacher behavior and classroom climate were only slightly related to a range of structural factors, such as class size, child-teacher ratio, or teacher experience. Students' engagement in academic activities was higher when classrooms provided more instructional and emotional support. From first to third grade, global aspects of the classroom, such as positive climate or teacher sensitivity, had significant but low stability; time devoted to literacy or math activities was uncorrelated across the two grade levels. These findings suggest that third grade is a highly variable context for children in the United States with a strong emphasis on learning basic skills and that structural factors, such as class size and teacher education and experience, show little relation to the experiences of children in classrooms.
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This report analyzes emerging workforce issues as California develops a universal preschool system, focusing on service delivery mechanisms, workforce standards for staff qualifications and compensation, and professional development and higher education system capacity. The review covers current conditions, emerging questions, research findings, gaps in available data, relevant activities in other states, and the decisions California program planners and policymakers will face as they progress. The report notes that in order to determine the kind of preschool workforce needed, a number of questions about the service delivery system will need resolution, including the extent to which existing early care and education providers will participate in the new system, the scope and types of universal preschool services, setting and auspice issues, and the extent to which universal preschool will be embedded within a comprehensive model of family support. Pointing out that universal preschool offers California an opportunity to confront challenges of qualifications and compensation standards, so that professional development is directly tied to a coherent wage and career ladder, the report contends that when qualification standards are not linked to an appropriate system of financial reward, compensation, qualifications, and retention of preschool staff will vary based on program location, thus failing to address the fundamental need for a skilled, stable, high-quality workforce. The report then summarizes the degree programs and training currently available in California at various levels and discusses challenges to building a universal preschool workforce through existing institutions and delivery mechanisms as they relate to articulation, content, and institution capacity. The report concludes with recommendations for workforce development, staff qualifications and compensation, and professional development needs and higher education system capacity. Appendices include a profile of California's current early care and education workforce and a description of Massachusetts' workforce development board. (Contains 29 references.) (KB)
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It is intriguing and frustrating that while research evidence on characteristics of effective staff development programs has existed for some time, these features are not commonly in practice. Most of the staff development conducted with K-12 teachers corresponds with the short-term transmission model, with no concern for what is already going on in a particular classroom, school, or district, little opportunity for participants to become involved in the conversation, and no follow-up. This paper lists some of the research-based characteristics of professional development (Table 1) that are known and might lead to reform: (1) Schoolwide; (2) Long-term with follow-up; (3) Process should encourage collegiality; (4) Agreement on goals/vision; (5) Supportive administration; (6) Adequate funds for materials, outside speakers, substitute teachers; (7) Buy-in from participants; (8) Outside facilitator/staff developer; and (9) Should acknowledge participants' existing beliefs/practices. The paper notes Alexis De Toqueville's descriptions of a sort of character that relates to living in a democracy--that of individualism or independence, stating that there are times when a collective sense of goals and instructional approaches are called for. It finds that the need for some sense of community activity with common goals is apparent to those in education today. The paper discusses teacher change, suggesting that teachers change all the time. It then provides a framework based on examination of the school organizational and teacher change research literature (Table 2). It states that professional development is a complex enterprise--full of ethical, structural, and cultural dilemmas and that foundational sources such as Toqueville's work can help educators think about the nature of the society within which they are working to achieve significant and worthwhile school change through professional development. (Contains 4 notes and 17 references.) (NKA)
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While child care quality has been examined in numerous studies, the definition of quality and specifically, the concepts of structural and process quality, have not been adequately explored. In this qualitative analysis of the constructs of process and structural quality, a content analysis of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R), a commonly used measure of process quality, was conducted to investigate its use as a measure of process quality. Through constant comparative analysis of the ECERS-R at the indicator level, definitions of structure and process were formulated. Results show that over half of the indicators of the ECERS-R are measuring structural quality rather than process quality. Further examination of quality as a dynamic exchange between individuals and context is needed to advance research in the area of early childhood program quality.
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Influences of age of child-care entry, quality of care, and family characteristics on social adjustment were contrasted in a longitudinal study of 80 children. Children at the toddler, preschool, and kindergarten periods and adult socialization in toddler period were assessed. Early-entry children in low-quality care had the most difficulty with peers in preschool and were distractible, low in task orientation, and less considerate of others in kindergarten. In 29 families observed prior to child-care entry, parents who would subsequently enroll children in low vs high quality care had more complex lives and used less appropriate socialization practices. Family socialization best predicted outcomes in children enrolled after infancy, and teacher socialization best predicted outcomes in children enrolled prior to 12 months. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Conducted 2 studies to formulate and validate a teacher–child rating scale (TCRS), designed for use as a socioemotional measure. The TCRS was based on the Classroom Adjustment Rating Scale and the Health Resources Inventory. Approximately 200 teachers' ratings of 1,379 kindergarten through 6th graders on the TCRS were factor analyzed into 3 6-item problem and 3 6-item competence scales. Indices of reliability and validity support the use of the TCRS as a parsimonious diagnostic and screening measure. Potential applications and additional scale developmental steps are discussed. (48 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The intersection of maternal employment and child care in the 1st 3 yrs of life was considered. The cognitive and behavioral effects of continuity, intensity, and timing of maternal employment in the 1st yr and of the different types of child-care arrangements were investigated. Employment in the 1st yr had detrimental effects on the cognitive and behavioral development of all children regardless of gender or poverty status. Infancy-care arrangements affected cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Grandmother care was the most beneficial arrangement for cognitive development of children in poverty. Regarding behavioral development, mother care was most beneficial for boys, and baby-sitter care was most beneficial for girls. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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States have accumulated considerable experience in operating publicly sponsored pre-kindergarten programs. In spite of this extensive experience, only fragmentary accounts exist of how these pre-kindergarten (pre-k) programs handle issues such as program intensity, location, staffing, and population served. These issues are addressed by the National Center for Early Development and Learning's Multi-State Study of Pre-Kindergarten, which collected data from 240 programs. Data were weighted to represent the 4 states (Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Ohio) and each of the 2 regions in California and New York from which they were drawn. Using these weighted data, we estimate that slightly more than half of these school-related programs were part-day and slightly more than half were located outside of school buildings. Although these programs varied in process quality, on average, they met National Association for the Education of Young Children recommended standards for class size, adult:child ratios, and teacher certification. The programs served an ethnically, linguistically, and economically diverse population of children, although about half of pre-k children were from low-income backgrounds. African American, Asian, and Latino children were more likely than White children to attend a pre-k class with a high proportion of children from low-income backgrounds. Issues of process quality were highlighted in the study.
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Child care has become the norm for young children in the United States. In 1995, 59 percent of children who were 5 years or younger were in nonparental care arrangements on a regular basis (Hofferth, Shauman, Henke, and West, 1998). This care typically began at early ages and lasted substantial hours: with 44 percent of infants under the age of 1 year were in nonparental care for an average of 31 hours a week. In the late preschool years, 84 percent of 4- to 5-year-olds were recorded as being in child care for an average of 28 hours per week. The use of nonparental care in the United States is expected to grow even further as welfare reform is fully implemented (Vandell, 1998). It is within this framework of widespread and early-age use that questions about child care quality have been raised. Among child care researchers, the established view is that child care quality contributes to children's developmental outcomes, higher quality care being associated with better developmental outcomes and poorer quality care being associated with poorer outcomes for children (Clarke-Stewart and Fein, 1983; Phillips, 1987). This view is reflected in Michael Lamb's (1998) comprehensive critique of child care research that was published in the Handbook of Child Psychology. Lamb concluded, based on extant research, that: "Quality day care from infancy clearly has positive effects on children's intellectual, verbal, and cognitive development, especially when children would otherwise experience impoverished and relatively unstimulating home environments. Care of unknown quality may have deleterious effects." (p. 104)
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The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care compared 3 statistical methods that adjust for family selection bias to test whether child care type and quality relate to cognitive and academic skills. The methods included: multiple regression models of 54-month outcomes, change models of differences in 24- and 54-month outcomes, and residualized change models of 54-month outcomes adjusting for the 24-month outcome. The study was unable to establish empirically which model best adjusted for selection and omitted-variable bias. Nevertheless, results suggested that child care quality predicted cognitive outcomes at 54 months, with effect sizes of .04 to .08 for both infant and preschool ages. Center care during preschool years also predicted outcomes across all models.
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Examined effects on the quality of children's child care environments of (a) the stringency of state child care regulations, (b) voluntary compliance with proposed federal child care standards, and (c) the legal auspice of the center. Quality of care was assessed in 227 child care centers in five metropolitan areas. Centers in states with more stringent child care regulations tended to have better staff-child ratios, staff with more child-related training, and lower staff turnover rates. Similarly, centers that more fully complied with the ratio, group size, and training provisions of a set of proposed federal child care standards had significantly lower staff turnover rates, more age-appropriate classroom activities, less harsh and more sensitive teachers, and more teachers with specialized training. For-profit centers offered children less optimal care than did nonprofit centers. These findings are placed in the context of ecological models of research and of contemporary policy debates about child care.
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Most studies of the long-term effects of early childhood educational interventions are of demonstration programs rather than large-scale public programs. Previous studies of one of the oldest federally funded preschool programs have reported positive effects on school performance, but effects on educational attainment and crime are unknown. To determine the long-term effectiveness of a federal center-based preschool and school-based intervention program for urban low-income children. Fifteen-year follow-up of a nonrandomized, matched-group cohort of 1539 low-income, mostly black children born in 1980 and enrolled in alternative early childhood programs in 25 sites in Chicago, Ill. The Chicago Child-Parent Center (CPC) Program (n = 989 children) provides comprehensive education, family, and health services and includes half-day preschool at ages 3 to 4 years, half- or full-day kindergarten, and school-age services in linked elementary schools at ages 6 to 9 years. The comparison group (n = 550) consisted of children who participated in alternative early childhood programs (full-day kindergarten): 374 in the preschool comparison group from 5 randomly selected schools plus 2 others that provided full-day kindergarten and additional instructional resources and 176 who attended full-day kindergartens in 6 CPCs without preschool participation. Rates of high school completion and school dropout by age 20 years, juvenile arrests for violent and nonviolent offenses, and grade retention and special education placement by age 18 years. Relative to the preschool comparison group and adjusted for several covariates, children who participated in the preschool intervention for 1 or 2 years had a higher rate of high school completion (49.7 % vs 38.5%; P =.01); more years of completed education (10.6 vs 10.2; P =.03); and lower rates of juvenile arrest (16.9% vs 25.1%; P =.003), violent arrests (9.0% vs 15.3%; P =.002), and school dropout (46.7% vs 55.0%; P =.047). Both preschool and school-age participation were significantly associated with lower rates of grade retention and special education services. The effects of preschool participation on educational attainment were greater for boys than girls, especially in reducing school dropout rates (P =.03). Relative to less extensive participation, children with extended program participation from preschool through second or third grade also experienced lower rates of grade retention (21.9% vs 32.3%; P =.001) and special education (13.5% vs 20.7%; P =.004). Participation in an established early childhood intervention for low-income children was associated with better educational and social outcomes up to age 20 years. These findings are among the strongest evidence that established programs administered through public schools can promote children's long-term success.
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Influences of age of child-care entry, quality of care, and family characteristics on social adjustment were contrasted in a longitudinal study of 80 children. Children at the toddler, preschool, and kindergarten periods and adult socialization in toddler period were assessed. Early-entry children in low-quality care had the most difficulty with peers in preschool and were distractible, low in task orientation, and less considerate of others in kindergarten. In 29 families observed prior to child-care entry, parents who would subsequently enroll children in low vs high quality care had more complex lives and used less appropriate socialization practices. Family socialization best predicted outcomes in children enrolled after infancy, and teacher socialization best predicted outcomes in children enrolled prior to 12 months.
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Research on teacher-child relationships, classroom environments, and teaching practices provided the rationale for constructing a system for observing and assessing emotional and instructional elements of quality in early childhood educational environments: the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS). The CLASS provides a framework for observing key dimensions of classroom processes, such as emotional and instructional support, that contribute to quality of the classroom setting from preschool through third grade. This article provides information about the development, field testing, and use of this instrument in prekindergarten. Data from a national sample of 224 prekindergarten classrooms in 6 states are presented to provide reliability and validity information. The full range of the scale was used for the majority of ratings. Ratings reflected generally positive impressions of the classroom environment and teacher-child interactions. Factor scores from the CLASS were related to the Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale (ECERS) total score and most strongly related to the ECERS interactions and language-reasoning subscales. Implications for policy and professional development from prekindergarten to third grade are discussed.
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This collaborative study assessed the long-term effects of early childhood education experience on children from low-income families. In 1976, 12 investigators, who had independently designed and implemented infant and preschool programs in the 1960s, pooled their original data and conducted a collaborative follow-up of the original subjects, who were aged 9-19 at the time. Coordination of data collection and joint analyses were supervised by two additional investigators. The multisample secondary analyses reported here addressed two general questions: Were there long-term effects of early childhood programs? Were programs more effective for some subgroups of the low-income population than for others? Outcome measures included indicators of school competence (special education assignment and grade retention), developed abilities (standardized intelligence and achievement tests), children's attitudes and values, and impact on the family. Each early childhood project was considered separately for each hypothesis test and the results of the separate hypothesis tests were pooled using a pooled-z technique. This procedure tested the null hypothesis that there was no average effect of program participation across the different early education programs. Detailed attrition analyses indicated that attrition was essentially random, introducing no noticeable biases into the data analyses. Results show that early education programs for children from low-income families had long-lasting effects in four areas: school competence, developed abilities, children's attitudes and values, and impact on the family. 1. Children who attended programs were significantly more likely to meet their school's basic requirements. Controlling for family background factors and initial ability, program graduates were significantly less likely to be assigned to special education classes and less likely to be retained in grade than were controls. The effect apparently operated for all the children regardless of sex, ethnic background, initial ability level, or early family background factors. 2. Children who attended early childhood programs surpassed their controls on the Stanford-Binet intelligence test for several years after the program had ended. There was no evidence that the programs differentially raised the IQ test scores of some subgroups of children (differing on sex, initial ability, and family background). There was some indication that program graduates performed better on achievement tests than did controls. 3. In 1976, children who had attended early education programs were significantly more likely than were controls to give achievement-related reasons, such as school or work accomplishments, for being proud of themselves. Older program graduates also rated their school performance significantly better than did controls. 4. Program participation also affected maternal attitudes toward school performance and vocational aspirations relative to those of the child. The school competence results are placed in a larger developmental context through exploration of two empirically derived paths from program participation to increased school competence. The educational, social, and economic significance of the results are discussed and implications for social policy are detailed.
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Objectives: This study assessed outcomes for children when child care centers meet recommended care standards. Methods: Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care were used to examine the association between meeting standards for child-staff ratios, group sizes, caregiver training, and caregiver education and children's development at 24 and 36 months of age. Results: There were 5 major findings: (1) most classes observed did not meet all 4 recommended standards (compliance ranged from 10% at 6 months of age to 34% at 36 months of age); (2) linear associations were found between number of standards met and child outcomes, and this was more the case at 36 months than at 24 months of age: (3) there was no evidence of threshold effects; (4) children in classes that met more standards had better school readiness and language comprehension scores as well as fewer behavior problems at 36 months of age; and (5) child outcomes were predicted by child-staff ratio at 24 months and caregiver training and education at 36 months of age. Conclusions: Outcomes were better when children attended classes that met recommended child-staff ratios and recommended levels of caregiver training and education.
Article
Secondary data analysis of data from 3 large child-care studies was conducted to address questions about whether factors such as poverty, minority ethnic background, gender, or parental authoritarian beliefs moderate the association between child-care quality and child cognitive and social outcomes. Data (N = 1,307) were combined to accrue a sufficient number of children who attended high-quality child-care centers who were from impoverished families or minority ethnic backgrounds to reliably compare their developmental outcomes with those of children in poorer quality care. Children's behavior, language skills, and preacademic skills were analyzed as a function of child-care quality (low-, medium-, and high-quality groups based on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale total scores), background risk factors, and parental attitudes to test hypotheses about risk and protective factors. Results provide further support for the hypothesis that quality of child care is related to children's development for all children and quite limited support that child-care quality may matter more for children experiencing social risk factors. Language development was the only outcome in which child-care quality interacted with a risk variable, ethnicity, suggesting that quality of care is differentially more important for language development for children of color than for White-non-Hispanic children.
Article
SAS PROC MIXED is a flexible program suitable for fitting multilevel models, hierarchical linear models, and individual growth models. Its position as an integrated program within the SAS statistical package makes it an ideal choice for empirical researchers and applied statisticians seeking to do data reduction, management, and analysis within a single statistical package. Because the program was developed from the perspective of a "mixed" statistical model with both random and fixed effects, its syntax and programming logic may appear unfamiliar to users in education and the social and behavioral sciences who tend to express these models as multilevel or hierarchical models. The purpose of this paper is to help users familiar with fitting multilevel models using other statistical packages (e.g., HLM, MLwiN, MIXREG) add SAS PROC MIXED to their array of analytic options. The paper is written as a step-by-step tutorial that shows how to fit the two most common multilevel models: (a) school effects models, designed for data on individuals nested within naturally occurring hierarchies (e.g., students within classes); and (b) individual growth models, designed for exploring longitudinal data (on individuals) over time. The conclusion discusses how these ideas can be extended straighforwardly to the case of three level models. An appendix presents general strategies for working with multilevel data in SAS and for creating data sets at several levels.
Article
Eighty-six Hong Kong Chinese kindergarten children were pretested on the Preschool and Primary Chinese Literacy Scale (PPCLS) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test—Third Edition (PPVT-III), and assigned randomly within schools to 1 of 3 conditions, dialogic reading, typical reading and control. After an 8- week intervention, the children were posttested. Results indicated a significant main group effect for performance on both the PPCLS and the PPVT-III, with children in the dialogic reading group benefiting significantly from the intervention. These results indicate that early literacy-related activities in the home have strong and direct effects on both children's literacy growth and language development in Chinese. The success of the dialogic reading technique in this study contributes to the goal of raising global literacy standards and educational achievement.
Article
Previous studies consistently indicate that caregivers with more formal education in early childhood tend to provide higher quality child care. Caregiver training in these studies was characterized by the highest level of formal education that the caregiver achieved. Nevertheless, many caregivers continue to receive further training such as attending workshops or classes, even if they have obtained higher levels of formal education previously. In this study of 553 infant, toddler, and preschool-center classrooms, the association between classroom quality and both the highest level of formal education and whether the caregiver had attended training workshops at the center, in the community, or at professional meetings was examined. Results indicated that caregivers with formal education in early children or who attended workshops were rated as more sensitive in interactions with children and as providing higher quality care than other caregivers, even after adjusting for the caregivers' experience and differences related to state, adult-child ratios, and type of classroom. Furthermore, children in those caregivers' classes also had more advanced language skills if caregivers reported either formal or informal training. These findings must be interpreted cautiously because they are based on caregiver report of training, but they are encouraging because informal training is a common mechanism used to promote better quality child care.
Article
With data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care, we used structural equation modeling to test paths from structural indicators of child-care quality, specifically caregiver training and child-staff ratio, through a process indicator to child outcomes. There were three main findings: (a) Quality of maternal caregiving was the strongest predictor of cognitive competence, as well as caregivers' ratings of social competence; (b) quality of nonmaternal caregiving was associated with cognitive competence and caregivers' ratings of social competence; and (c) there was a mediated path from both caregiver training and child-staff ratio through quality of nonmaternal caregiving to cognitive competence, as well as to caregivers' ratings of social competence, that was not accounted for entirely by family variables. These findings provide empirical support for policies that improve state regulations for caregiver training and child-staff ratios.
Article
Examined the relation between 2 particular structural dimensions of child care quality, teacher background and adult:child ratio in center-based child care, using 2 representative samples: the Cost, Quality, and Outcome Study ( N = 655 classrooms and 760 children, aged 3.2–5.6 yrs) and the Florida Quality Improvement Study ( N = 410 classrooms and 820 children). Classrooms were classified according to whether the observed adult:child ratio met professional standards and by the background (formal education and early childhood education training) of the lead teacher. Children and teacher behaviors were compared, based on these classifications. Results show that in both samples, teacher background made an independent contribution, distinguishing between teaching behaviors, children's activities, and outcomes. Teachers with the most advanced education were most effective. Teachers with associate of arts degrees and CDA certificates were more effective than teachers with some college or just high school plus workshops. In the Cost, Quality, and Outcome study, but not the Florida Quality Improvement Study, classrooms that complied with professional standards also had teachers with more effective teaching and more positive child outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
As part of the Cost, Quality, and Outcomes Study, child and family characteristics were tested to see whether they moderated the relation between center-based child care quality and preschool children's concurrent cognitive and socioemotional development. Analyses included a multisite sample of 170 child-care centers of varying quality and 757 children (mean age 4.3 yrs). Results provide further evidence that there is a positive relation between child-care quality (both observed classroom practices and teacher ratings of teacher-child closeness) and children's cognitive and socioemotional outcomes. Moderating influences of family characteristics were observed for some outcomes, indicating stronger positive effects of child-care quality for children from more at-risk backgrounds. Further, there was no evidence that children from more advantaged families were buffered from the effects of poor-quality care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The impact of day-care participation during the first 3 years of life on the cognitive functioning of school age children was examined. 867 5- and 6-year-old children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth who completed the 1986 assessment were included in the sample. The dependent measures were scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) subtests of mathematics and reading recognition. In addition to day-care participation, the impact of the pattern of day-care was examined by analyzing the effect of the number of years in day-care, the timing of initiation of day-care, and type of day-care arrangement. After controlling for confounding factors, there were significant interactions between all 3 measures of day-care patterning and family income for reading recognition performance. This association was further examined by exploring the interaction between the pattern of day-care participation and the quality of the home environment. Initiation of day-care attendance before the first birthday was associated with higher reading recognition scores for children from impoverished home environments and with lower scores for children from more optimal environments. In addition, a significant interaction between the type of day-care arrangement and the quality of the home environment emerged for mathematics performance. Center-based care in particular was associated with higher mathematics scores for impoverished children and with lower mathematics scores for children from more stimulating home environments. These findings are discussed in the context of developmental risk.
Article
The relations between quality of center-based child care and infant cognitive and language development were examined in a sample of 79 African-American 12-month-old infants. Both structural and process measures of quality of child care were collected through interviews with the center director and observation of the infant classroom. Results indicated that quality of infant care positively correlated with scores on standardized assessments of cognitive development (Bayley Scales of Infant Development), language development (Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development), and communication skills (Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales). In addition, quality of care in child care centers and at home was positively related. Analyses that adjusted for this association between quality of care at home and in child care suggested that the process measure of quality of child care independently related to the infant's cognitive development, and one structural measure, the infant-adult ratio, independently related to the infant's overall communication skills. Neither child nor family factors was found to moderate the association between child care quality and infant development. These findings, in conjunction with the growing child care literature, suggest that researchers and policymakers should focus on how quality of child care can be improved to enhance, not impair, infant development.
Article
The cognitive ad socioemotional development of 733 children was examined longitudinally from ages 4 to 8 years as a function of the quality of their preschool experiences in community child-care centers, after adjusting for family selection factors related to child-care quality and development. These results provide evidence that child-care quality has a modest long-term effect on children's patterns of cognitive and socioemotional development at least through kindergarten, and in some cases, through second grade. Differential effects on children's development were found for two aspects of child-care quality. Observed classroom practices were related to children's language and academic skills, whereas the closeness of the teacher – child relationship was related to both cognitive and social skills, with the strongest effects for the latter. Moderating influences of family characteristics were observed for some outcomes, indicating stronger positive effects of child-care quality for children from more at-risk backgrounds. These findings contribute further evidence of the long-term influences of the quality of child-care environments on children's cognitive and social skills through the elementary school years and are consistent with a bioecological model of development that considers the multiple environmental contexts that the child experiences.
Article
Literature on the influences of ratio and group size on children''s development in day care is reviewed. Relatively few studies are responsible for the widely held beliefs about the influence of ratio and group size on children''s development. When measured separately, ratio and group size are sometimes, but not always related to children''s development. Some significant relationships are not in the expected direction. When included as variables in quality clusters, ratio and group size are more likely to be related to developmental outcomes. Group size more consistantly influences development in the expected direction than ratio. This suggests the need for increased attention to group size in the policy arena. Regardless of methodology, ratio and group size explain a relatively small protion of the variance in children''s development. Ratio and group size have been found to have both direct and indirect effects on development, indicating that they are potentially valuable as proxy measures of children''s experience in day care programs.