Coeliac disease and risk of sarcoidosis


    Several case reports indicate a link between coeliac disease (CD) and sarcoidosis. Our main objective was to investigate the risk of subsequent sarcoidosis in individuals with CD in a general population cohort study. A second aim was to estimate the risk of CD in individuals with prior sarcoidosis.
    We used Cox proportional hazards method to calculate the risk of subsequent sarcoidosis in 14,349 individuals who had received a diagnosis of CD (1964-2003) and 69,998 age- and sex-matched individuals without a diagnosis of CD. Subjects were identified through the Swedish national Inpatient Register. Conditional logistic regression was used to study the risk of CD associated with prior sarcoidosis.
    CD was associated with an increased risk of sarcoidosis (Hazard ratio (HR) = 4.03; 95% CI = 2.32-7.00; p < 0.001), and was not notably affected by adjustment for socioeconomic index. In individuals with CD listed as the main diagnosis, the HR was 3.66 (95% CI HR = 1.80-7.45; p < 0.001). Prior sarcoidosis was associated with an increased risk of CD (Odds ratio = 3.58; 95% CI = 1.98-6.45; p < 0.001).
    Immune characteristics of CD may be linked to an increased risk of sarcoidosis.