Amador JJ, Vicari A, Turcios-Ruiz RM, et al. Outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis with high mortality, Nicaragua, 2005
We investigated a nationwide outbreak of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in Nicaragua in children under 5 years old, leading to many consultations, hospitalizations, and deaths. We questioned whether a vaccine might have prevented these illnesses and deaths, sought to identify risk factors for death, and developed a clinical profile of children hospitalized with diarrhea.
We conducted a case-control study to determine whether children who died had access to routine immunizations, a proxy predicting access to a rotavirus vaccine. We identified risk factors for death among children who died in the outbreak compared with surviving age-matched controls with diarrhea. We collected stools, clinical data, and immunization data on children hospitalized for diarrhea to test for rotavirus, develop the profile, and forecast future access to a rotavirus vaccine.
The outbreak from February to April 2005 caused 47 470 consultations and 52 deaths. Approximately 80% of cases and controls and 60% of children hospitalized with diarrhea had access to routine immunizations and would likely have had access to a rotavirus vaccine. With a vaccine efficacy of 85%, up to 51% of severe rotavirus cases and up to 68% of deaths could have been prevented if a rotavirus vaccine were available as part of routine childhood immunizations. Study of 35 case-control pairs indicated that severe illnesses, malnutrition, and care by traditional healers were risk factors for death. Rotavirus was found in 42% of samples from hospitalized children and was associated with severe disease and dehydration.
The impact of the seasonal outbreaks of rotavirus disease could be diminished with a rotavirus vaccine, improvements in oral rehydration programs, and training of traditional healers in the proper management of children with acute diarrhea.
Available from: Filemon Bucardo
Available from: PubMed Central
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ABSTRACT: Notwithstanding significant advancement in the understanding of pathogenesis and management, diarrheal illnesses remain one of the principal causes of global childhood mortality and morbidity. Infections account for most illnesses, with pathogens employing ingenious mechanisms to establish disease. In 2002, an interdisciplinary program "Populations et al. Espaces à Risques SANitaires" (PERSAN) was set up under the patronage of the Development Research Institute (IRD). Focused on health in Cameroon's urban environment, the program mainly sought to identify diarrhea risk factors in Yaoundé. So for, a cross-sectional epidemiological study in children aged 6-59 months was carried out using a standardized protocol. The survey was initiated in 2002 and conducted during April to June in the year 2005. 3,034 stool samples were collected from children in twenty neighbourhoods in Yaoundé and examined at the Epidemiology and Public Health Laboratory of the Cameroon Pasteur Institute. About 60% of the patients were aged less than two years and 52% were male. Among the 437 patients with the diarrheal disease, 260 were found to be of infectious etiology, i.e. micro organism was detected in 59.5% of the cases. Out of which, 10 (03.8%), 96 (36.9%), and 154 (59.2%) were respectively caused by pathogenic viruses, pathogenic bacteria and pathogenic parasites. Higher prevalence was found in overcrowded and under supply spontaneous settlement (78.4%) than in less crowded and formal residential settlement (21.5%). Etiologic data on diarrheal diseases and their spatial distribution are important tools for public health management and control strategic planning.
Available from: Jon Kim Andrus
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ABSTRACT: Pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5), a live, oral attenuated vaccine, prevented 98% of severe rotavirus diarrhea in a trial conducted mainly in Finland and the United States. Nicaragua introduced RV5 in 2006, providing the first opportunity to assess the association between vaccination and rotavirus disease in a developing country.
To assess the association between RV5 vaccination and subsequent rotavirus diarrhea requiring overnight admission or intravenous hydration.
Case-control evaluation in 4 hospitals in Nicaragua from June 2007 to June 2008. Cases were children age-eligible to receive RV5 who were admitted or required intravenous hydration for laboratory-confirmed rotavirus diarrhea. For each case (n = 285), 1 to 3 neighborhood (n = 840) and hospital (n = 690) controls were selected.
Primary outcome was the association of RV5 and rotavirus diarrhea requiring overnight admission or intravenous hydration in the emergency department. Secondary analysis further classified disease as severe and very severe. We computed the matched odds ratio of vaccination in cases vs controls. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated using the formula 1 - matched odds ratio x 100%.
Of the 285 rotavirus cases, 265 (93%) required hospitalization; 251 (88%) received intravenous hydration. A single rotavirus strain (G2P) was identified in 88% of the cases. Among cases and controls, respectively, 18% and 12% were unvaccinated, 12% and 15% received 1 dose of RV5, 15% and 17% received 2 doses, and 55% and 57% received 3 doses. Vaccination with 3 doses was associated with a lower risk of rotavirus diarrhea requiring overnight admission or intravenous hydration (odds ratio [OR], 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.82). Of the 285 rotavirus cases, 191 (67%) were severe and 54 (19%) were very severe. A progressively lower risk of severe (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.26-0.70) and very severe rotavirus diarrhea (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.08-0.61) was observed after RV5 vaccination. Thus, effectiveness of 3 doses of RV5 against rotavirus disease requiring admission or treatment with intravenous hydration was 46% (95% CI, 18%-64%); against severe rotavirus diarrhea, 58% (95% CI, 30%-74%); and against very severe rotavirus diarrhea, 77% (95% CI, 39%-92%).
Vaccination with RV5 was associated with a lower risk of severe rotavirus diarrhea in children younger than 2 years in Nicaragua but to a lesser extent than that seen in clinical trials in industrialized countries.
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