Skin smoothing effects of Dead Sea minerals: Comparative profilometric evaluation of skin surface

  • Dermatest GmbH
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The skin smoothing effects of three different liquid gels were compared on 20 mature women. Treatment applications were performed twice a day over a period of 4 weeks, and the skin roughness parameter (Rz) of all test participants was determined at the beginning and at the end of the study using a computer-aided laser profilometry, in accordance with DIN 4768 ff. At the end of the application period, the liquid gel with 1% of a Dead Sea mineral solution had an average skin roughness parameter reduction of 40.7%. The liquid gel without mineral additives showed an average reduction in skin roughness of 27.8%. The control gel without anti-wrinkle agents or the additives showed an average reduction of only 10.4%.

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... Dead Sea water consists of naturally stable, purified, and enriched essential minerals, including sodium, magnesium, calcium, potassium, lithium, and rubidium. These elements play a necessary role in human body skin metabolism (Ma'Or et al. 1997). The Dead Sea is composed of organic and inorganic portions; the overall salt content of the Dead Sea is 320 g/L, and the average mineral salt content is carbonate, 23.20%; calcium, 20.40%; magnesium, 4.90%; chloride, 7.80%; sulfate, 7.80%; sodium, 1.70%; and potassium, 1.30%. ...
... Another mineral-rich constituent of the Dead Sea is black mud, which is generally rich in organic portions and is also known as bituminous tar (Matz et al. 2003). The skin-smoothing treatment can be very efficiently performed with 1% Dead Sea mineral solution, without mineral additives, and control gel without antiwrinkle agents (Ma'Or et al. 1997). Treatment of natural mineral-containing amorphous silica, aluminum oxide, ferric oxide, titanium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, potassium oxide, sodium, and phosphorus oxide on human skin cells with keratinocytes after UV irradiation significantly decreased MMP-1, MMP-2, and IL-2 secretion and increased cell growth and laminin expression (Jung et al. 2009). ...
... Seaweed is one of the richest natural sources of vitamins and minerals, possessing sea mineral salts in high concentrations and also trace elements. It has been demonstrated that similar minerals from the Dead Sea can act as agents in the reduction of skin roughness, and have a beneficial effect on the natural moisturizing factor, NMF (1)(2)(3). It has been shown in several publications that skin may alter its metabolism and its inner enzymatic activities when exposed to a graded concentration of minerals, especially Journal Of Cosmetic Science calcium, magnesium, and potassium ions. ...
... Results from in vitro tests, mainly cell-culture models, have been used recently to support the bioactivity of some cosmetics (13). In a previous article we have reported that the addition of 1% of Mineral Skin Os-moter™ to a control gel contribured to a significant skin smoothing effect (1). The role of minerals in improving skin roughness and hydration was demonstrated. ...
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Synopsis Tests were carried out to compare the skin-smoothing and moisturizing effects of two cosmetic preparations, following two applications a day over a period of four weeks. The skin roughness parameter, Rz, was determined at the beginning and end of the study. The skin hydration was evaluated eight and twelve hours after cream application. At the end of four weeks, the cream enriched with 5% of Triple D Complex TM, composed of Dead Sea Mineral Skin Osmoter TM, Dunaliella salina algae extract and desert plants, had caused an average reduction of the skin roughness parameter by 43%. This effect was almost twice the improvement that was observed when a control cream was tested. From skin hydration results it can be concluded that the Triple D Complex TM may also be considered as an active moisturizing agent. The role of Dunaliella salina biomass enriched with Dead Sea minerals, as an active component of the complex, was examined separately. Several parameters that may affect the mineral biosorption and desorption were evaluated. The relatively low biosorption of calcium and magnesium into the algal biomass and the minimal tendency to release minerals from the biomass at the pH of skin leads to the conclusion that the role of these algae as a vehicle for the tested elements is limited. Similar results in skin smoothing, obtained in two distinct studies, using Dead Sea Mineral Skin Osmoter TM and Triple D Complex TM, suggest that Dead Sea minerals play a major role in the proven antiwrinkle effect.
... A precise and automatic system is required for controlling the normal load and sliding velocity of the roughness sensor. Laser profilometry has been used to determine in vivo skin surface roughness but its drawback is that it cannot provide fast scanning [26,27]. ...
... The importance of seaweed in the cosmetics industry is witnessed by the estimation that it makes up almost 40% of the world's hydrocolloid market, as reported by studying the size of the international market for seaweed and its commercially important extracts [340]. Among the inorganic compounds, sea salts are recognized agents for a series of effects in cosmetics [341]. A list of biomolecules featuring a carbon skeleton (organic compounds) follows to describe the macroalgal molecules of interest for the cosmetics industry. ...
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Seaweeds have received huge interest in recent years given their promising potentialities. Their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, hypolipemic, and anticoagulant effects are among the most renowned and studied bioactivities so far, and these effects have been increasingly associated with their content and richness in both primary and secondary metabolites. Although primary metabolites have a pivotal importance such as their content in polysaccharides (fucoidans, agars, carragenans, ulvans, alginates, and laminarin), recent data have shown that the content in some secondary metabolites largely determines the effective bioactive potential of seaweeds. Among these secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds feature prominently. The present review provides the most remarkable insights into seaweed research, specifically addressing its chemical composition, phytopharmacology, and cosmetic applications.
... Non-invasive methods have been applied for in vivo skin measurement. The methods that can be included as non invasive methods such as stripe projection method [15], tribo-acoustical system [16], and laser profilometry [17][18]. The stripe projection method allows fast scanning but it is not reliable to measure the deep-pitted skin surface. ...
Conference Paper
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Scaliness of psoriasis lesions is one of the parameters to be determined during Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scoring. Dermatologists typically use their visual and tactile senses to assess PASI scaliness. However, it is known that the scores are subjective resulting in inter- and intra-rater variability. In this paper, an objective 3D imaging method is proposed to assess PASI scaliness parameter of psoriasis lesions. As scales on the lesion invariably causes roughness, a surface-roughness measurement method is proposed for 3D curved surfaces. The method applies a polynomial surface fitting to the lesion surface to extract the estimated waviness from the actual lesion surface. Surface roughness is measured from the vertical deviations of the lesion surface from the estimated waviness surface. The surface roughness algorithm has been validated against 328 lesion models of known roughness on a medical mannequin. The proposed algorithm is found to have an error 0.0013 ± 0.0022 mm giving an accuracy of 89.30%. The algorithm is invariant to rotation of the measured surface. Accuracy of the rotated lesion models is found to be greater than 95%. System repeatability has been evaluated to successive measurements of 456 psoriasis lesions. The system repeatability can be accepted since 95.27% of the measurement differences are less than two standard deviation of measurement difference.
... Due to the capability of the new C. procera extract to have a protective effect against inflammation and irritation, it had been further elucidated by it combination with Dead Sea water, another regional skin active. Dead Sea minerals are reported in literature for their therapeutic capabilities to treat a variety of skin diseases as well as for their beautifying cosmetic effects [5] [35] [36]. Dead Sea mineral-rich water (DSW; Osmoter™, a natural commercial composition of Dead Sea water) was combined with C. procera extract. ...
... Sea water minerals are also known to have beneficial properties [57]. Sea water notably contains minerals (sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sulfates, and chlorides) which are beneficial for the skin. ...
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Marine resources represent an interesting source of active ingredients for the cosmetics industry. Algae (macro and micro) are rich in proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins (A, B, and C) and oligo-elements such as copper, iron and zinc. All those active principles play roles in hydration, firming, slimming, shine and protection. Marine organisms inhabit a wide spectrum of habitats. Photo-protective compounds can be obtained from organisms subjected to strong light radiation, such as in tropical systems or in shallow water. In the same way, molecules with antioxidant potential can be obtained from microorganisms inhabiting extreme systems such as hydrothermal vents. For example, marine bacteria collected around deep-sea hydrothermal vents produce complex and innovative polysaccharides in the laboratory which are useful in cosmetics. There are many properties that will be put forward by the cosmetic industries.
... Dead Sea minerals are well known for their therapeutic efficacy in treating a variety of skin conditions as well as for their cosmetic benefits. [13][14][15][16] Dead Sea mineral-rich water (DSW; Osmoter™, a natural commercial composition of Dead Sea water) was shown to reduce skin senescence markers, to attenuate the expression of UVB damage biomarkers 17 and to improve skin smoothness. 14 Nevertheless, the topical application of Dead Sea minerals for skin protection against pollution damage has never been tested. ...
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Background Urban pollution is a major source of concern for human health and is a complex of many environmental factors. The topical exposure to pollution activates cutaneous stress. Objective In this study, we tested the antipollution protection of two active components: Dead Sea minerals (Dead Sea mineral-rich water [DSW]) and anionic polysaccharide (PolluStop® [PS]). Materials and methods Two representative pollution models were studied using reconstructed epidermis: 1) mixture of pollutants (MOP) containing heavy metals and atmospheric particulate matter and 2) ozone exposure. DSW and PS were topically applied alone or in combination, and their protection against pollution was assessed by testing the levels of the inflammation markers interleukin 1α (IL-1α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Results MOP exposure induced IL-1α release, which was attenuated following pre-application with DSW and PS alone or in combination. Ozone exposure induced IL-1α and PGE2 release. Pre-application with DSW or PS alone did not inhibit IL-1α and PGE2 overproduction. Only when DSW and PS were mixed together, inhibition of these inflammatory markers was observed. Conclusion The observations reveal the potential use of active agents in combination for a selective mode of protection from urban pollution. This is because many active materials cannot solely provide a broad protection against different types of pollutants. This strategy might be beneficial for future antipollution regimen formulated in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic products.
... It's the high content of CaCl2 that gives the Dead Sea water its oily feel and provide it with its medicinal properties for smoothening of skin and cosmetic application. (5,6) The complications of near drowning according to Uriel Katz et al (6) are many including pneumonitis which could be due to aspiration and or chemical irritation by the high content of minerals, electrolyte disturbances as hypercalcemia and hypermagnesemia which leads to Abnormal cardiac rhythm, CNS damage due to hypoxic encephalopathy secondary to many factors as hypoxemia that occurred during the drowning episode (primary injury), arrhythmia, pulmonary injury. Other complications that may occur after drowning are reperfusion injury, multiorgan dysfunction particularly with prolonged hypoxia, trauma during drowning event and hypothermia. ...
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ABSTRACT Dead Sea has 33.7% salinity which makes it one of the saltiest water on earth. Drowning and swallowing Dead Sea water with its high content of minerals affects significantly the electrolytes balance in the body. We report a nine year old boy who drown in the dead sea and developed secondary life threatening sever hypercalcemia and hypermagnesemia causing abnormal cardiac rhythm; he is successfully treated with hemodialysis. Physician who treat patients drown in the Dead Sea has to be aware of electrolyte abnormalities especially for calcium and magnesium and the proper method of management including hemodialysis or hemofiltration. Key words: Dead Sea Syndrome, Drowning, Hypercalcemia
... Interestingly, it is the CaCl 2 that provides the Dead Sea water that slimy ("oily") feel (1,2,4,5). In fact this property is well known for its cosmetic application: smoothing of the skin (6). In addition, the waters of the Dead Sea have moisturizing properties because of its high magnesium content, which enhances the ability of the skin to retain water (7). ...
... Ειδικότερα, στη βιβλιογραφία γίνονται αναφορές για λάσπη από την Νεκρά 25 Θάλασσα η οποία είναι γνωστή για τις θεραπευτικές και καλλυντικές της ιδιότητες (Ma'or Z. and Yehuda S., 1997). Η Λάσπη της Νεκρά θάλασσας περιέχει σε υψηλά ποσοστά Μαγνήσιο, Κάλιο, Ασβέστιο, Βρώμιο, καθώς και ιχνοστοιχεία όπως Λίθιο, Στρόντιο, Ιώδιο, Χλώριο, που είναι αποτελεσματικά στον καθαρισμό ...
... Due to high affinity to human skin, it rapidly absorb refresh and hydrate the skin. Sea water is known for their therapeutic and cosmetic properties for decades [124]. Various cosmetic products based with these properties exist in the market. ...
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Cosmeceuticals, derived from the words ‘cosmetic and pharmaceutical’, have drug-like benefits and contain active ingredients such as vitamins, phytochemicals, enzymes, antioxidants, and essential oils. Cosmeceuticals have attracted increased attention because of their beneficial effects on human health. Bioactive substances derived from marine organisms have diverse functional roles as a secondary metabolite and these properties can be applied to the developments of novel pharmaceuticals and cosmeceuticals. Recently, extensive studies have been conducted on the general aspects of the chemical structures, physical and biochemical properties, and biotechnological applications of bioactive substances derived from marine organisms. In this review, we have discussed recent progresses in the biotechnological applications of bioactive substances from marine organisms as cosmeceuticals.
Recently, a great deal of interest has been expressed in the cosmetic industry regarding marine-derived cosmetic active ingredients due to their numerous beneficial effects on human skin health. Bioactive substances derived from marine resources have diverse functional roles as natural skin care agents, and these properties can be applied to the development of novel cosmetics as well as nutricosmetics (from edible seaweeds and edible marine animals). This contribution focuses on marine-derived cosmeceutical active ingredients and presents an overview of their health beneficial effects on human skin.
The objective of this chapter is to discuss specifically the use of human volunteer panels in assessing the efficacy, or performance, of cosmetics and toiletries.
The aim of the study was to investigate skin microcirculation, flux, and temperature changes induced by the application of Dead Sea mud (DSM) formulas with different mud salts and mineral contents using laser Doppler flowmetry. Instrumental analysis of eight over-the-shelf DSM products and four different samples of nonformulated Dead Sea mud were carried out to determine their contents of various salts and elements, including K, Na, Cl, Mg, Mn, Ca, SO3, SiO2, Al, Br, Fe, Hg, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, and Sr. Three DSM samples with different levels of salts were then used to study the influence of salt content on skin irritation potential using laser Doppler flowmetry. Fifteen healthy nonsmoking females aged 18-45 years participated in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to either "Salted" mud group (n = 5), "As is" mud group (n = 5), or "Over-the-Shelf" mud group (n = 5). Five circular areas were marked on the ventral aspect of each forearm. One forearm was assigned randomly for mud treatment and the other forearm was untreated. Ten milliliters of mud was applied on the assigned forearm and left for 30 minutes. Two reading protocols were designed and used to study the effects of tested type of mud on skin blood flux and temperature during mud application (protocol 2) as well as before and after mud removal (protocol 1). All types of tested mud were not associated with a significant measurable elevation in skin temperature and skin blood flow. All types of Dead Sea mud did not cause detectable microcirculatory and skin temperature changes regardless of their different mineral and salts contents.
Most patients with immediate-type-hypersensitivity to natural rubber latex (NRL) give a history of hand eczema. Susceptibility to allergens is increased by irritant hand eczema due to damage to the skin barrier. Therefore, especially for employees in medical or paramedical professions, reduction in skin irritation is of importance. The present study reports the effect of glove powder on skin roughness, one feature of skin irritancy. Skin replicas, performed before and after wearing different types of gloves, were evaluated by laser profilometry. Significant alteration of skin roughness was evident and determined by different factors. Use of unpowdered Biogel gloves on prepowdered hands results in an increase in skin roughness, in contrast to the use of Biogel gloves on hands without any pre-application. On the other hand, powdered Manex neoderm gloves show no influence on the skin structure, whereas powdered Peha taft gloves also increase the roughness of the skin. Other potential candidates causing skin morphology alteration could be the glove pH, rubber chemicals with irritant potential and other characteristics of gloves, which are already under investigation.
Synopsis--A synthetic copy of the natural • noisturizing factor present in human skin has been formulated on the basis of amino acid analysis. It is shown that this synthetic material has penetrating and moisturizing properties similar to those of the natural product. The porosity for water vapor of human sebum is attributed to its content of branched-chain com-pounds. It is shown in in vivo experiments that the addition of branched-chain aliphatic compounds enhances the penetration of water vapor through oily films applied to the skin.
The effects of Vittel water on the proliferation of fibroblasts, proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes from human origin were studied. To determine the relative importance of calcium and other elements of the mineral water, cultures were raised in a low-calcium medium (low-Ca medium), in a medium prepared with Vittel water (Vittel medium) and in a medium containing an identical calcium concentration to that of Vittel medium (Ca medium). The fibroblasts and keratinocytes were cultured in immersion for proliferation assays and on a reconstructed epidermis at the air-liquid interface to evaluate keratinocyte differentiation. Vittel medium decreased proliferation of keratinocytes when compared to low-Ca medium. The effect was similar to that of Ca medium at the beginning of the experiment, but significantly higher at day 7. A stratified epithelium appeared with the three types of media when keratinocytes were incubated at the air-liquid interface; however the number of sheets was more regular and greater in Vittel medium and Ca medium than in low-Ca medium. Filaggrin and transglutaminase expression appeared earlier with Vittel medium than with the other media. After 2 weeks, expression of markers was similar in the three media. After 3 weeks culture in Vittel medium, there was a greater expression of filaggrin. Proliferation of young fibroblasts was significantly higher in Vittel medium than in Ca medium. It was lower in low- Ca medium. With old fibroblasts the degree of proliferation was lower than with young fibroblasts. The augmentation of proliferation happen earlier in Vittel medium than in low-Ca medium and Ca medium. Vittel medium regulated the growth rate of old fibroblasts, rendering it identical to that of young fibroblasts in low-Ca medium. The effects of Vittel water were not linked to the sole presence of calcium since, with medium at an equimolecular concentration in calcium, the medium containing Vittel water had a better activity. One explanation of these effects of Vittel water might be the presence of magnesium. Les effets de l'eau de Vittel ont étéétudiés sur la prolifération de fibroblastes, la prolifération et la différenciation de kératinocytes d'origine humaine. Afin d'apprécier l'importance du calcium et des autres constituents de l'eau minérale, les cultures ont été réalisées dans un milieu pauvre en calcium (milieu-Ca-faible), dans un milieu préparé avec l'eau de Vittel (milieu-Vittel) et dans un milieu contenant un taux de calcium identique à celui présent dans l'eau de Vittel (milieu-Ca). Les fibroblastes et les kératinocytes sont cultivés en monocouche pour les essais de prolifération et sur épiderme reconstruit à l'interface air-liquide pour la differenciation des kératinocytes. Le milieu-Vittel et le milieu-Ca diminuent la prolifération des kératinocytes par rapport aux effets sur la croissance entrainés par le milieu-Ca-faible. L'action inhibitrice du milieu-Vittel est supérieure à celle du milieu-Ca au bout d'ne semaine. Un épithélium stratifié apparait avec les trois milieux lorsque les kératinocytes sont cultivés à l'interface air-liquide visant à obtenir un épiderme différencié. Le nombre de couches est plus régulier et plus important dans le milieu-Vittel et le milieu-Ca que dans le milieu-Ca-faible. L'expression de la filaggrine et de la transglutaminase apparait plus rapidement avec le milieu-Vittel qu'avec les autres milieux. Apres deux semaines I'expression des marqueurs est identique pour les trois milieux, celle de la filaggrine est la plus intense avec le milieu-Vittel apres trois semaines. La proliferation des fibroblastes jeunes est significativement plus elevte dans le milieu-Vittel que dans le milieu-Ca; elle est la plus faible dans le milieu-Ca-faible. Dans le cas des fibroblastes dges le degre de proliferation est inferieure celui obtenu avec les fibroblastes jeunes. Les effets apparaissent plus precocement avec le milieu-Vittel qu'avec les deux autres milieux. Le milieu-Vittel regularise la croissance des fibroblastes dges et la rend identique á celle des fibroblastes jeunes en milieu- Ca-faible. Les effets de I'eau de Vittel ne sont pas uniquement lies a sa teneur en calcium puisque le milieu renfermant une concentration de calcium identique a celle de l'eau minerale a une activite plus faible. Le magnesium present dans I'eau de Vittel pourrait renforcer les effets du calcium.
Profilometry is a novel procedure allowing precise analysis of skin surface structure. With the help of a synthetic material a negative image of a defined area of the skin is taken. During the subsequent analytical procedure the roughness is determined by means of a profilometer. A commercially available statistics software program is used for statistical analysis of the results. This procedure was applied to check for to evaluate positive effects of oestrogen creams on the structure of the skin surface on the face.
The epidermal permeability barrier is formed by lipids delivered to the intercellular spaces through the secretion of lamellar bodies. Prior studies have shown that the rate of lamellar body secretion appears to be regulated by the extracellular calcium content of the upper epidermis, which is altered following permeability barrier disruption. To determine directly whether changes in extracellular calcium content in the upper epidermis versus disruption of the barrier regulate lamellar body secretion, we experimentally manipulated the Ca++ content of the upper epidermis by sonophoresis of aqueous solutions containing physiologic Ca++ (and K+) versus ion-free solutions across hairless mouse stratum corneum. Sonophoresis at 15 MHz did not alter barrier function, but in the absence of Ca++ the extracellular calcium content of the outer epidermis, as revealed by ion capture cytochemistry, was displaced downward toward the basal layer and dermis. In contrast, following sonophoresis of Ca(++)-containing solutions, the extracellular Ca++ gradient became obscured by excess Ca++ in the cytosol at all levels of the epidermis. These changes in the extracellular calcium content lead, in turn, to accelerated lamellar body secretion (with low Ca++), or basal rates of lamellar body secretion (with normal Ca++). These results demonstrate that the epidermal extracellular calcium content in the upper epidermis can be manipulated by sonophoresis without prior barrier disruption, and that changes in the Ca++ gradient induce lamellar body secretion, independent of barrier disruption.
Modern Dead Sea cosmetics have developed in order to meet the demands of new regulations, technical opportunities, and today's consumer expectations for higher quality standards and proven performance. As an example of the application of this approach, the authors describe the development of a new cosmetic formulation, based on "Osmoter", a special Dead Sea mineral composition, and the evaluation of this formulation's effect on the depth of skin wrinkles, by a controlled assay. Possible mode of action is discussed.
The effect of five selected minerals abundant in the Dead-sea brine was studied on proliferation of fibroblasts grown from psoriatic and healthy skin biopsy specimens in cell culture. The reason for carrying out this study was looking for the mechanism of the antiproliferative effect of selective Dead-sea minerals in improving the psoriatic condition. Psoriatic skin shave biopsy specimens (both from involved and uninvolved areas of the body) as well as healthy skin (obtained from amputated limbs) were incubated in tissue culture, and their outgrowing fibroblasts were used for this study. The number of cells and their cyclic AMP content were used as parameters for cell division and for proving the selective involvement of magnesium salts in the antiproliferative effect. It is shown that the inhibitory effects of magnesium bromide and magnesium chloride on cell growth were significantly stronger than those of their corresponding potassium salts or of sodium chloride. These results were obtained with both psoriatic and healthy skin fibroblasts, indicating that the inhibitory effect of the selected Dead-sea minerals is present in healthy and psoriatic skin cells.
Eine Dokumentations methode der Hautstruktur
  • M Binder
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Composition of the skin’s natural moisturizing factor (NMF)
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Percutaneous absorption of cosmetics: implications in safety and efficacy
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Marty, J.P. and Wepierre, J. Percutaneous absorption of cosmetics: implications in safety and efficacy. In Cosmetic dermatology (R. Baran and H.I. Maibach, eds.), pp. 61-76. Martin Dunitz, London (1994).
Die Laserprofilometrie nach DIN 4768ff im Rahmen klinisch – dematologischer Untersuchungen. 6 th Forum Cosmeticum Potsdam
  • W Voss
Voss, W. Die Laserprofilometrie nach DIN 4768ff im Rahmen klinisch – dematologischer Untersuchungen. 6 th Forum Cosmeticum Potsdam 14-15
Skin penetration enhancement. Clinical pharmacological and regulatory considerations
  • V P Shah
  • C C Peck
  • R L Williams
Shah, V.P., Peck, C.C. and Williams, R.L. Skin penetration enhancement. Clinical pharmacological and regulatory considerations. In Pharmaceutical skin penetration enhancement (K.A. Walters and J. Haddgraft, ed.), pp. 417- 427. Marcel Dekker, New York (1993).