Cerebral vasculitis and unilateral sixth-nerve palsy in acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
Cerebral vasculitis associated with acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) is rare. A 13-year-old girl presented with severe headache, vomiting, oedema and macroscopic haematuria. There was a history of upper respiratory infection 2 weeks previously. A diagnosis of APSGN was made. On admission, she was normotensive and biochemically well balanced. She experienced a tonic-clonic seizure 2 hours later. An MRI brain scan demonstrated multiple areas of abnormal signal intensity in the cerebral and cerebellar white matter, and subarachnoid haemorrhage consistent with vasculitis was diagnosed. A sixth-nerve palsy developed on the 6th day of admission. An elevated anti-streptolysin titre and low serum C3 complement level together with typical features on renal biopsy supported the diagnosis of APSGN. All clinical and laboratory abnormalities improved with corticosteroid therapy, pulse methyl-prednisolone. APSGN can present with central nervous system abnormalities without hypertension, uraemia and electrolyte disturbance.
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