Article

A new electromagnetic exposure metric: High frequency voltage transients associated with increased cancer incidence in teachers in a California school

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Abstract

In 2003 the teachers at La Quinta, California middle school complained that they had more cancers than would be expected. A consultant for the school district denied that there was a problem. To investigate the cancer incidence in the teachers, and its cause. We conducted a retrospective study of cancer incidence in the teachers' cohort in relationship to the school's electrical environment. Sixteen school teachers in a cohort of 137 teachers hired in 1988 through 2005 were diagnosed with 18 cancers. The observed to expected (O/E) risk ratio for all cancers was 2.78 (P = 0.000098), while the O/E risk ratio for malignant melanoma was 9.8 (P = 0.0008). Thyroid cancer had a risk ratio of 13.3 (P = 0.0098), and uterine cancer had a risk ratio of 9.2 (P = 0.019). Sixty Hertz magnetic fields showed no association with cancer incidence. A new exposure metric, high frequency voltage transients, did show a positive correlation to cancer incidence. A cohort cancer incidence analysis of the teacher population showed a positive trend (P = 7.1 x 10(-10)) of increasing cancer risk with increasing cumulative exposure to high frequency voltage transients on the classroom's electrical wiring measured with a Graham/Stetzer (G/S) meter. The attributable risk of cancer associated with this exposure was 64%. A single year of employment at this school increased a teacher's cancer risk by 21%. The cancer incidence in the teachers at this school is unusually high and is strongly associated with high frequency voltage transients, which may be a universal carcinogen, similar to ionizing radiation.

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... The exterior's electromagnetic properties affect therefore, in contrast to the Faraday cage principle, the internal electrical charge distribution among neurons to a very significant extent. The Faraday cage principle, being absent in the case of the skull, may be the central aspect to disturbance of neurochemical responses such in the cases observed near high-power lines and in other situations within significantly electrified environments [2,12,[19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36]. This is observed in that the autonomous properties of interneuronal communication are originally primarily dependent on the individuals' health and condition and that these result in a highly individual pattern of neuronal activity. ...
... In the case of electrification, these individual interneuronal communication patterns are potentially affected by external electromagnetic signals altering neurochemical responses, such as altering melatonin levels. The postulated alteration of the charge distribution explained by the Faraday cage principle, which in it's turn affects the brains neurochemical patterns, may therefore during long-term exposure affect the signaling system from the brain to the body via the autonomic nervous system (ANS), giving rise to complications at the physiological level such as diabetes [27], biological effects of adverse nature [27,28], and in turn be the foundation of the patterns of childhood leukemia observed in various studies [30][31][32][33]. These very mechanisms may be accounted through a more frequent generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species which through its generation from electromagnetic fields induces mutations and affecting cell cycle mechanisms [34]. ...
... Nevertheless, in an attempt to elucidate the possible effects posed by electricity on human health [2,[19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37], the level of intensity of the radiation may naturally be of central importance. However, the time-dependent exposure to the weak radiation from electrified environments may be even more important. ...
... The term dirty electricity refers to the electromagnetic energy flowing along a conductor that deviates from a pure 50/60 Hz sine wave and has both harmonic and transient properties. The name 'dirty electricity' originates from the term 'dirty power' used in industry for the high frequency voltage transients that are caused by interruptions in the electrical current flow from connected electrical equipment and that can damage equipment (Milham and Morgan, 2008). These deviations from the 50/60 Hz sine wave are generally in the lower radiofrequent (RF) spectrum, and instead of the misplaced term 'dirty electricity' should more correctly be referred to as 'electromagnetic fields generated by RF transients' or 'high frequency voltage transients'. ...
... HFVT levels on the main circuits can be measured using standard RF and low frequency EMF measurement equipment . However, a dedicated microsurge meter has also been developed which measures the magnitude of the rate of change of voltage (as R.M.S.) as a function of time, preferentially in the higher frequency transients between 4 and 150 kHz (Milham and Morgan, 2008). This microsurge meter expresses the higher frequency transients in somewhat obscure G/S units, which range from 1 to 1999 (Graham, 2003). ...
... In general, a positive correlation exists between the level of 50/60 Hz electromagnetic fields in environments and HFVT levels, and as such ELF exposure measures used in many epidemiological studies (Wood, 1993; Roy and Martin, 2007; Schuz et al., 2009) may in fact be a surrogate for HFVT exposures (Milham and Morgan, 2008). ...
Article
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Environmental exposure to high-frequency voltage transients (HFVT), also termed dirty electricity, has been advocated among electro(hyper)sensitive interest groups as an important biological active component of standard electromagnetic pollution. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, in which only seven articles were identified. Exposure to HFVT was associated with increased cancer risks, while preferential removal of 4-100 kHz HFVT from 50-60 Hz ELF circuits was linked to a variety of improvements in health (plasma glucose levels in diabetic patients, symptoms of multiple sclerosis, asthma and other respiratory illnesses, and insomnia), well-being (tiredness, frustration, general health, irritation, sense of satisfaction, mood), and student behavior. However, all these published studies were subject to significant methodological flaws in the design of the studies, the assessment of exposure, and the statistical analysis, which prevented valid assessment of a causal link between this exposure metric and adverse effects. Environmental exposure to HFVT is an interesting EMF exposure metric, which might explain the spurious results from epidemiological studies using 'standard' ELF and RF exposure metrics. However, at present, methodological problems in published studies prohibit the valid assessment of its biological activity.
... Another possible source for the 50 GS threshold may be the claim (45) to have identified a dose-response between exposure to DE and cancer risk in a Californian middle school. However, even if this were a valid inference (in this paper, the evidence was re-examined), it does not appear that this result could be used as support for the identification of 50 GS units as a threshold between safe and unsafe exposures for (at least) the following reason: the dose-response described in Table V (45) correlates GS unit years (i.e., exposure over a prolonged period of time) and cancer prevalence rather than simply with GS units. ...
... To date, the only study that is available to quantitatively evaluate the study of the association between DE and health risk is the 2008 study on cancer risk in the teacher population of the La Quinta Middle School (45). In the 2010 review in Ref. (35), problems with the external comparison with the general population and issues with case definitions and exposure assessment prohibiting assessment of DE as the causal agent were highlighted. ...
Article
Full-text available
Conclusions of epidemiological studies describing adverse health effects as a result of exposure to electromagnetic fields are not unanimous and often contradictory. It has been proposed that an explanation could be that high frequency voltage transients (dirty electricity [DE]) which are superimposed on 50/60Hz fields, but are generally not measured, is the real causal agent. DE has been linked to many different health and wellbeing effects, and on the basis of this an industry selling measurement and filtering equipment is growing. We reviewed the available peer-reviewed evidence for DE as a causal agent for adverse human health effects. A literature search was performed in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and additional publications were obtained from reference lists and from the grey literature. This search resulted in 25 publications; 16 included primary epidemiological and/or exposure data. All studies were reviewed by both authors independently, and including a re-review of studies included in a review of data available up to July 31 2009 by one of the authors. DE has been measured differently in different studies and comparison data are not available. There is no evidence for 50 Graham/Stetzer (G/S) units as a safety threshold being anything more than arbitrary. The epidemiological evidence on human health effects of DE is primarily based on, often re-used, case descriptions. Quantitative evidence relies on self-reporting in non-blinded interventions, ecological associations, and one cross-sectional cohort study of cancer risk which does not point to DE as the causal agent. The available evidence for DE as an exposure affecting human health at present does not stand up to scientific scrutiny.
... However, the low risk ratios in most studies (53.0) suggested that magnetic fields might be a surrogate for a more important metric. In 2008, dirty electricity was shown to be a potent universal carcinogen in a cohort study of teachers (Milham and Morgan, 2008) at a California middle school. Cancer incidence analysis of the teacher population showed a positive trend of increasing cancer risk with increasing cumulative exposure to high-frequency voltage transients measured on the classroom's electrical wiring, with high risk ratios (49.0) for a number of cancers. ...
... This preferentially measures the higher frequency transients. Dirty electricity has been associated with diabetes (Havas, 2008), asthma (Sbraggia, 2003), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Milham, 2011) and cancer (Milham and Morgan, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The epidemics of obesity and diabetes most apparent in recent years had their origins with Thomas Edison's development of distributed electricity in New York City in 1882. His original direct current (DC) generators suffered serious commutator brush arcing which is a major source of high-frequency voltage transients (dirty electricity). From the onset of the electrical grid, electrified populations have been exposed to dirty electricity. Diesel generator sets are a major source of dirty electricity today and are used almost universally to electrify small islands and places unreachable by the conventional electric grid. This accounts for the fact that diabetes prevalence, fasting plasma glucose and obesity are highest on small islands and other places electrified by generator sets and lowest in places with low levels of electrification like sub-Saharan Africa and east and Southeast Asia.
... Recent science has shown dirty electricity to be bioactive. (1,2) That is, it directly disturbs human biological systems. Dirty electricity and other types of chaotic electrical energy (3) have been associated with auto-immune disease (1,4,5,6) neurological conditions (1,4,5,6) , poor sleep (1 ,6) , attentional disorders (1,4,5,6) , anxiety (1,4,5,6) and dozens of chronic symptoms associated with inflammation (1,4,5,6) . ...
... ADHD (1) Diabetes (3) Anxiety (1) Fatigue (1) Asthma (1,4) Irritability (1) Cancer (2) Pain (1) Concentration (1) Mood (1) Cancer (1) Multiple Sclerosis (1) Depression (1) Sleep Issues (1) Dirty Electricity -another name for EMI: Dirty electricity is a term coined by the electrical utility industry to describe electromagnetic interference (EMI) caused by plugging in electronics, which typically need to convert alternating current (AC) electricity into the direct current (DC) to operate. The term was first mentioned in the science by Dr. Magda ...
Preprint
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A dramatic rise in chronic disease, medical conditions and stress symptoms have arisen in the US. Between 1990-2015 Americans experienced a surge of more than 400 million cases of just 36 fast growing germ-less chronic conditions. Environmental factors such as chemicals, pesticides, heavy metals and electromagnetic radiation (EMR) are suspected. One growing form of EMR, dirty electricity, is discussed here and causally-linked to many of the exploding health and stress symptoms. Connections between dirty electricity (also called power-line EMI) are established by both statistical correlation and the identification of a plausible mechanism. This electrical energy acts like an exogenous trigger and is associated with free radical production, proliferations of peroxynitrite and the initiation of a self-sustaining biological system, undermining homeostasis called p-Factor.
... The survey also included 'dirty electricity', the phenomenon that certain modern electronic items disrupt the perfect 50 Hz AC sinus of our electricity grid at home and work. Such power surges may trigger electrostress linked symptoms experienced by sensitized people (Milham & Morgan 2008;Havas 2009). It was helpful that we already had a standardized list of EHS symptoms established by the research concluded in 2008: Electrohypersensitivity (EHS) in the Netherlands -A Questionnaire survey (Schooneveld and Kuiper 2008). ...
... One of these learned that EMF reduction alleviated his problem. That is consistent with an observation of Magda Havas (2009) and Milham and Morgan (2008) suggesting that dirty electricity in household wiring can trigger diabetes type-2. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Electromagnetically sensitized people may develop symptoms and health problems when exposed to certain types of electromagnetic fields (EMF), known as electrical hypersensitivity (EHS). Over time, the effects may become stronger if such exposure continues. The Dutch EHS Foundation is committed to finding ways to understand these phenomena and to doing something about it. This study reports the results of a research questionnaire distributed among EHS people before and after that they had taken measures to reduce their exposure to EMF. Information requested included (1) the types of symptoms that people reported, and (2) the effects of EMF reduction strategies on the disappearance of EHS symptoms and improvement of well-being. We assembled a 'long list' of curable symptoms based on the data received before field management: these included poor quality of sleep, fatigue, bad concentration ability, rest-lessness, and 'tight band around the head'. We also assembled a 'shortlist' of the five most cited health problems alleviated after EMF reduction. We also made a 'shortlist' of EMF reduction methods that proved most effective: these include replacement of Dect phones by corded phones, reducing the use of mobile phone, disconnecting WiFi routers, and reducing PC and TV time. Respondents usually reported more than one symptom. There are no EMF reduction measures, which satisfied every individual. We propose that people may be assigned the 'status' of EHS when having suffered from a certain number of health symptoms cited here, which were alleviated by EMF reduction and shielding. We aim to achieve appropriate medical attention for electro-sensitive people and help in creating electromagnetically clean living and working conditions.
... The survey also included 'dirty electricity', the phenomenon that certain modern electronic items disrupt the perfect 50 Hz AC sinus of our electricity grid at home and work. Such power surges may trigger electrostress linked symptoms experienced by sensitized people (Milham & Morgan 2008;Havas 2009). It was helpful that we already had a standardized list of EHS symptoms established by the research concluded in 2008: Electrohypersensitivity (EHS) in the Netherlands -A Questionnaire survey (Schooneveld and Kuiper 2008). ...
... One of these learned that EMF reduction alleviated his problem. That is consistent with an observation of Magda Havas (2009) and Milham and Morgan (2008) suggesting that dirty electricity in household wiring can trigger diabetes type-2. ...
... melanoma 597 prostate 598 testicular 599 cardiovasc. disease 600 601 602 603 child growth retardation 604 dementia 605 606 depression and suicide 607 608 609 610 611 612 hypothyroidism, obesity 613 leukaemia 614 615 616 lipoatrophia semicircularis 617 lymphoma 618 male infertility 619 miscarriage 620 621 motor neuron disease 622 623 Parkinson's disease 624 625 626 breast cancer 627 628 cancers (possible): multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, prostate, testicular 629 630 cardiovascular diseases 631 632 childhood leukaemia 633 634 635 636 637 glycaemia, diabetics 638 639 640 leukaemia 641 642 643 644 645 malignant melanoma 646 647 648 649 MS impairment 650 thyroid and uterine cancer 651 ADHD 652 behaviourial problems 653 brain tumours 654 655 656 657 658 659 cancer, testicular 660 661 cardiovascular diseases 662 663 664 665 666 cataracts 667 668 669 670 671 672 dyslipidemia, obesity 673 impaired cognition 674 675 676 677 impaired memory 678 679 leukaemia, NH lymphoma 680 681 682 male infertility 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 miscarriage 690 691 ophthalmic effects 692 parotid gland malignancy 1061 uveal melanoma 693 Maternal and paternal exposure and teratogenic diseases or outcomes in offspring childhood brain tumours 694 childhood leukaemia 695 696 reduced male births 697 other adverse effects 698 699 ...
Book
Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity is categorised as a multisymptomatic 'el-allergy' in the Nordic classification of 2000 (R.68.8). Its symptoms are 'certainly real' and it can be a 'disabling condition' (W.H.O., 2005). It was first recorded in the mid 20th century as an occupational illness, but it has now spread into the general population through environmental exposure from increasing levels of electromagnetic fields and radiation. This Summary covers current research on this syndrome, covering EM Sensitivity and EM Hypersensitivity. It includes tables of symptoms, EMF sources and exposure guidelines, along with references to scientific studies. This New Edition adds updates, international doctors' protocols, aspects of quantum biology, evidence for sensitivity in animals and plants, case studies, disability issues and human rights.
... A single year of employment at this school increased a teacher's cancer risk by 21% (Milham and Morgan, 2008). Figure 1 shows an oscilloscope tracing of dirty electricity. ...
Article
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Abstract The expected decline of health indicators with economic recessions and improvement with economic growth in the nineteenth century Sweden was reversed in the twentieth century, giving the counterintuitive pattern of higher mortality and lower life expectancy in economic expansions and improvement of these indices in recessions. The change or "tipping point" occurred at the end of the nineteenth century or early in the twentieth century when electrification was introduced into Sweden. All 5 of the reversals of annual industrial electric energy use in the US between 1912 and 1970 were accompanied by recessions with lowered GDP, increased unemployment, decreased mortality and increased life expectancy. The health indices were not related to residential electricity use. The mortality improvement between 1931 and 1932 by state in the US strongly favored urban areas over rural areas. Rural unemployment by state in 1930 was significantly positively correlated with residential electrification percentage by state in 1930. The health effects of economic change are mediated by electrical exposure.
... Dirty electricity was shown to be a potent universal carcinogen in a study of cancer in teachers at a La Quinta, California, middle school (Milham & Morgan, 2008). A single year of employment at the La Quinta school increased cancer incidence by 21%. ...
Article
Full-text available
Dirty electricity, also called electrical pollution, is high-frequency voltage transients riding along the 50 or 60 Hz electricity provided by the electric utilities. It is generated by arcing, by sparking and by any device that interrupts current flow, especially switching power supplies. It has been associated with cancer, diabetes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in humans. Epidemiological evidence also links dirty electricity to most of the diseases of civilization including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and suicide, beginning at the turn of the twentieth century. The dirty electricity level in a public library was reduced from over 10 000 Graham/Stetzer (G/S) units to below 50 G/S units by installing plug-in capacitive filters. Before cleanup, the urinary dopamine level of only one of seven volunteers was within normal levels, while four of seven phenylethylamine levels were normal. After an initial decline, over the next 18 weeks the dopamine levels gradually increased to an average of over 215 μg/g creatinine, which is well above 170 μg/g creatinine, the high normal level for the lab. Average phenylethylamine levels also rose gradually to slightly above 70 μg/g creatinine, the high normal level for the lab. Neurotransmitters may be biomarkers for dirty electricity and other electromagnetic field exposures. We believe that dirty electricity is a chronic stressor of electrified populations and is responsible for many of their disease patterns.
... Other studies report no apparent changes in these biological markers after applying other experimental models in the laboratory (Wang et al., 2006; Chauhan et al., 2006; Valbonesi et al., 2008). Recently, numerous studies have appeared describing the relationship between exposure to electro-magnetic sources, such as extremely low frequency (ELF) EMFs and radio frequency (RF), and various thyroid gland pathologies such as cancer (Milham and Morgan, 2008), alterations in the production of thyroid hormones (Rajkovic et al., 2003; Koyu et al., 2005; Es¸mekayaEs¸mekaya et al., 2010) and other dysfunctions (Bergamaschi et al., 2004). Cellular levels of HSP-90 and HSP-70 in the thyroid gland are known to be linked to homeostasis (Wallin et al., 1992) and levels of cytotoxicity in certain glandular pathologies (Samadi et al., 2009; Paggi et al., 1995). ...
Article
Full-text available
Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45 GHz may modify the expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP) in the thyroid gland. Using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, we studied levels of HSP-90 and HSP-70. We also used hematoxilin eosin to look for evidence of lesions in the gland and applied the DAPI technique of fluorescence to search for evidence of chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation in the thyroid cells of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-four rats were individually exposed for 30 min to 2.45 GHz radiation in a Gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell at different levels of non-thermal specific absorption rate (SAR), which was calculated using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique. Ninety minutes after radiation, HSP-90 and HSP-70 had decreased significantly (P<0.01) after applying a SAR of 0.046±1.10 W/Kg or 0.104±5.10(-3) W/Kg. Twenty-four hours after radiation, HSP-90 had partially recovered and HSP-70 had recovered completely. There were few indications of lesions in the glandular structure and signs of apoptosis were negative in all radiated animals. The results suggest that acute sub-thermal radiation at 2.45 GHz may alter levels of cellular stress in rat thyroid gland without initially altering their anti-apoptotic capacity.
... However,t he levelo fd irty electricity is generally higher than that of base stations or wireless applications (Samuel, 2010). Some studies also claim that dirty electricity is aubiquitous pollutant and harmful for biological systems (Samuel, 1985;Milham and Morgan, 2008). The purposeofthis study is the investigation of the effects of GSM 900 frequency band. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mobile phones are becoming increasingly important in our everyday lives. The rising number of mobile phones reflects a similar increase in the number of base stations. Because of this rapid evolution, the establishment and planning of new base stations has become mandatory. However, the rise in the number of base stations, in terms of human health, is potentially very harmful. It is important to analyze the radiation levels of base stations until we can confirm that they are definitely not harmful in the long term. Mapping of electromagnetic field (EMF) is also important from a medical point of view because it provides useful information, for example, on the detection of diseases caused by EMF. With the help of this information the distribution of diseases over different regions can be obtained. In this article, the electromagnetic radiation levels of base stations were measured at 80 different points in Erciyes University (ERU), Turkey and detailed information about the measurement tools and measurement method were given. It was observed that no area in ERU exceeded the national and international limits. It is also observed that the effects of base stations vary according to duration and degree of exposure. Therefore, if people are exposed to a very low-intensity electromagnetic field for a very long time, serious health problems can occur.
... In our study, we did not analyze health but intend to do this in as a follow-up study. At present we are convinced that the effects of DE are real as the recent studies show that DE may provoke the development of cancers [8] and type 3 diabetes (electrically sensitive diabetes) [9]. Our measurements show that GS filters effectively reduce levels of DE. ...
Article
Electromagnetic fields from electronic equipment are detrimental environmental factors. Recently, a new type of electromagnetic pollution referred to as "dirty electric-ity" was discovered to affect human health. The current research measures levels of dirty electricity in one sec-ondary school in Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. A Microsurge II meter that measures high frequency tran-sients and harmonics between 4 to 100 kHz (expressed as Graham-Stetzer units) was used in this study. Levels of dirty electricity were elevated in all areas of the school and the installation of Graham-Stetzer filters significantly re-duced these levels. Taking into account the detrimental effects of the dirty electricity on human health, plugging one Graham-Stetzer filter into each classroom is highly recom-mended.
... Currently, the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased in many countries (Qian et al., 2019;Carlberg et al., 2016) and numerous occupational and environmental agents have been proposed as thyroid carcinogens Albi et al., 2017;Baccarelli et al., 2000). There are numerous studies that associate RF radiation with changes in gland morphology (Misa-Agustiño et al., 2015;Rajkovic et al., 2006) and activity (Mortazavi et al., 2009;Eşmekaya et al., 2006), as well as increased cancer incidence (Milham and Morgan, 2008). ...
Article
In this study we analyzed the response of parafollicular cells in rat thyroid gland after exposure to radiofrequency at 2.45 GHz using a subthermal experimental diathermy model. Forty-two Sprague Dawley rats, divided into two groups of 21 rats each, were individually exposed at 0 (control), 3 or 12 W in a Gigahertz Transverse Electro-Magnetic (GTEM) chamber for 30 min. After radiation, we used simple or fluorescence immunohistochemistry to measure calcitonin cells or cellular stress levels, indicated by the presence hyperplasia of parafollicular cells, heat shock protein (HSP) 90. Immunomarking of calcitonin-positive cells was statistically significant higher in the thyroid tissue of rats exposed to 2.45 GHz radiofrequency and cell hyperplasia appeared 90 min after radiation at the SAR levels studied. At the same time, co-localized expression of HSP-90 and calcitonin in parafollicular cells was statistically significant attenuated 90 min after radiation and remained statistically significantly low 24 h after radiation, even though parafollicular cell levels normalized. These facts indicate that subthermal radiofrequency (RF) at 2.45 GHz constitutes a negative external stress stimulus that alters the activity and homeostasis of parafollicular cells in the rat thyroid gland. However, further research is needed to determine if there is toxic action in human C cells.
... The study did not include the new metric, called GS units, measured with Graham/Stetzer meter, and reflecting average rate of change of high frequency voltage transients from electrical power wiring, that are caused by interruption of electrical current flow ("dirty electricity"). A recent study found that dirty electricity was related to increased cancer risk [45]. ...
Article
Background: The present study was initiated to examine the claims of the residents of the Druze Isifya Village in Northern Israel that their high cancer rates were associated with the past exposures to radiation from radio and cellular transmitters. Objective: To investigate the association between past exposure to RF/MW transmitters and cancer risks, taking into account familial cancer history, occupational exposures and indicators of life-style. Methods: We carried out a population-based case-control study involving 307 residents, of whom 47 were diagnosed between 1989 and 2007 with different types of cancer and 260 controls. Cancer diagnoses were obtained from medical the records. Exposure status of individual houses were determined from a map, based on the distances between each house and RF/MW antennas, and were calculated using geographic information systems (GIS) tools. Data on additional risk factors for cancer, like smoking and occupation, were obtained from individual questionnaires. The analysis was adjusted for measures of life style and occupational exposure, and Binary multiple logistic regressions was used, for all cancer sites and for individual cancer types for those cancers with at least 5 documented cases. Results: Past occupational exposures to chemicals (e.g., pesticides) and electronics, were found to be strongly associated with increased cancer risks (all sites: OR=2.79; CI=1.14-6.82; P<0.05), but no discernible trend in overall cancer risk was associated with proximity to sources of past RF/MW radiation exposure (n=47 OR=1.00; CI=0.99-1.02; P>0.4). Colorectal cancer showed a negligible elevated adjusted risk associated with radiation intensity (n=11 OR=1.03; CI=1.01-1.05; P<0.01). Conclusion: There was evidence for an increased risk of cancers which were associated with chemicals in manufacturing and agriculture and electronics, where there may have been exposures to EMF, but the study did not confirm the suspicion of increased cancer risks associated with radiation for most cancer types in this village. Misclassification of past exposures could explain the negative finding.
... This matter is completely ignored by the author, despite extensive debate on it in the literature [5][6][7][8]. It should be noted that the ''plausible electrical exposure agent'' (high frequency voltage transients) [9] put forward by the author is in fact far from considered scientifically proven [10], nor does this concept include a description of a plausible biological mechanism of effect. Secondly, different latency times for different diseases are also ignored in the presented analyses. ...
... However, this observation should not be generalized; a noise signal is not always benign. Milham and Morgan [41] showed that a sinusoidal ELF (60-Hz) signal was not associated with the induction of cancer in humans, but when that sinusoidal signal was augmented by a noise signal, basically transients that added higher frequencies, an increase in cancer was noted in humans exposed over the long-term. Thus, the addition of noise in this case was associated with the appearance of a health issue. ...
Article
Many national and international exposure standards for maximum radiation exposure from the use of cell phone and other similar portable devices are ultimately based on the production of heat particularly in regions of the head, that is, thermal effects (TE). The recent elevation in some countries of the allowable exposure, that is, averaging the exposure that occurs in a 6 min period over 10 g of tissue rather than over 1 g allows for greater heating in small portions of the 10-g volume compared to the exposure that would be allowed averaged over 1-g volume. There is concern that ‘hot’ spots, that is, momentary higher intensities, could occur in portions of the 10-g tissue piece, might have adverse consequences, particularly in brain tissue.
... Dirty electricity has been associated with increased risk of various types of cancers among teachers in a California school (Milham & Morgan, 2008), with higher blood sugar levels among diabetics, and with exacerbation of tremors and difficulty walking among those with multiple sclerosis (Havas, 2006b). People who are adversely affected by dirty electricity are classified as electrically hypersensitive. ...
Article
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People who live near wind turbines complain of symptoms that include some combination of the following: difficulty sleeping, fatigue, depression, irritability, aggressiveness, cognitive dysfunction, chest pain/pressure, headaches, joint pain, skin irritations, nausea, dizziness, tinnitus, and stress. These symptoms have been attributed to the pressure (sound) waves that wind turbines generate in the form of noise and infrasound. However, wind turbines also generate electromagnetic waves in the form of poor power quality (dirty electricity) and ground current, and these can adversely affect those who are electrically hypersensitive. Indeed, the symptoms mentioned above are consistent with electrohypersensitivity. Sensitivity to both sound and electromagnetic waves differs among individuals and may explain why not everyone in the same home experiences similar effects. Ways to mitigate the adverse health effects of wind turbines are presented.
... The combined effect of cell phones, cordless phones, cell towers, Wi-Fi and wireless internet, has already been shown to raise the risk for billions of people around the world for cancer and for neurobehavioural, reproductive and developmental impairments. Evidence suggests there are special risks for persons with occupational exposures to RF/MW as well as ELF, and recent evidence also suggests risks from exposure to high frequency voltage transients (52). ...
Article
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Background. There are reports that intense prolonged occupational exposure to non-ionizing radiation may increase risks for cancer. We previously have reported a sentinel cluster,of 7 workers with high exposures and short latent periods, and individual patients with brain cancer high occupational exposures and short latent periods. We present a sentinel case series (n=47, 40M, 7F) of cancer patients, referred to our medical unit with occupational exposures to non-ionizing radiation of all types. Objectives. Our aims were to report the findings on tumour types,age of first diagnosis, and latency, to describe their exposures and to examine the hypothesis that latencies for all tumour types (solid tissue, hematolymphatic, testicular) were coherently related to high occupational exposures starting at young ages. Methods. We divided the patients into groups by latency. We categorized each patient’s exposures in regard to types of radiation, far or near field exposure and direct body contact. For some we had data on frequencies, for others we provided assessments. We also present the patient data categorized by age of diagnosis.We used a case-case type comparison to examine latencies for tumour types [solid, hematolymphatic (HL), testicular]. Results. 15 patients developed cancer with latent periods of less than 5 years and 12 patients with latent periods between 5 and 10 years. The remaining 20 patients had longer latent periods between first occupational exposure to EMF and diagnosis of cancer. 6 patients (12.7%) had multiple tumours. 12 patients (25.5%) reported cancer cases in co-workers. In the <5 years latency group there were 8 hematolymphatic cancers, 3 testicular cancers and 6 solid tumours [head & neck (including brain) and GI tract]. In all latency groups there were patients who were exposed to intense levels of electromagnetic fields (EMF), to several types of EMF, or to EMF in combination with ionizing radiation (IR) or other exposures, and patients who had direct body contact with the equipment, were in direct focus of high radiation, or worked in small, electronically dense environments. Case classification by age showed shorter latencies with younger ages, but this association is complicated by the fact that shorter latencies co-vary with younger ages especially for testicular tumours. But patients with testicular and hematolymphatic tumours had shorter latencies than those with solid tumours. Conclusion. Man of the patients were young and had extremely short latent periods, especially for HL and testicular cancers. The fact that latent periods for testes were very short, HL longer and solid still longer suggests a coherent and biologically plausible pattern of latency in relation to the onset of exposure to EMF and other agents. The findings strengthen the hypothesis that these exposures may possibly be the major cause of many of these tumours. The findings state the case for (1) better modelling of exposure sources and penetration into the body and (2) preventive and protective measures based on control of exposure at source, barriers, and personal protection. Eur. J. Oncol., 16(1),21-54,2011 Keywords: non ionizing radiation (NIR), electromagnetic fields (EMF), occupational exposures, cancer, short latencies
... 1. Residential power frequency magnetic field exposure and childhood leukemia (Wartenberg, 2001;Alhbolm et al., 2001) that increased de novo with electrification (Milham and Ossiander, 2001); that may have an epigenetic component that alters DNA repair genes (Yang et al., 2008); and may be increased with metallic plumbing and ground current (Wertheimer et al., 1995); 2. Intermediate frequencies (kHz range) and various types of cancers (Milham and Morgan, 2008); 3. Occupational exposure to ELF EMFs and breast cancer among both men and women; leukemia; and brain tumors (Demers et al., 1991;Tynes et al., 1992;Floderus et al., 1993;Armstrong et al., 1994;Lee et al., 1996;Miller et al., 1996;Havas, 2000). ...
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This paper attempts to resolve the debate about whether non-ionizing radiation (NIR) can cause cancer–a debate that has been ongoing for decades. The rationale, put forward mostly by physicists and accepted by many health agencies, is that, “since NIR does not have enough energy to dislodge electrons, it is unable to cause cancer.” This argument is based on a flawed assumption and uses the model of ionizing radiation (IR) to explain NIR, which is inappropriate. Evidence of free-radical damage has been repeatedly documented among humans, animals, plants and microorganisms for both extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and for radio frequency (RF) radiation, neither of which is ionizing. While IR directly damages DNA, NIR interferes with the oxidative repair mechanisms resulting in oxidative stress, damage to cellular components including DNA, and damage to cellular processes leading to cancer. Furthermore, free-radical damage explains the increased cancer risks associated with mobile phone use, occupational exposure to NIR (ELF EMF and RFR), and residential exposure to power lines and RF transmitters including mobile phones, cell phone base stations, broadcast antennas, and radar installations.
... The average RF intensity over periods of time coming from a smart meter is not as great as that from a cell phone held to the head ( Table 1 in Carpenter 15 ), and like other point sources of RF, falls off rapidly with distance. Milham and Morgan 16 have described high frequency voltage transients as "dirty electricity" and have implicated these rather than the 60 Hz magnetic fields in some adverse health effects. It is possible that some feature of the smart meter emissions related to these brief but very intense RF pulses increases the likelihood of triggering EHS in susceptible individuals. ...
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David O. Carpenter, MD, is the director of the Institute for Health and the Environment at the University at Albany and professor of environmental health sciences within the School of Public Health. He is the ceoeditor of the Bioinitiative Report (www.bioinitiative.org), a comprehensive review of the health effects of electromagnetic fields.
... According to World Health Organization (WHO) specialists, today electromagnetic pollution of environment is on a level typical for its current pollution by harmful chemical substances. The harmful effects of industrial and high frequency EMFs on human health are confirmed by many studies [4]- [6]. Therefore the limit values of the electromagnetic field parameters are regulated by international organizations like ICNIRP [7] and WHO, and also by local legal acts and hygiene standards [8], [9]. ...
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... Some authors have argued that evidence for a relationship between RFE and cancer is at most weak (Wakeford 2004, Frei et al. 2012, Deltour et al. 2012, Inskip et al. 2010, Little et al. 2012, Poulsen et al. 2013. However, recent studies continue to report evidence of increased cancer risk and RFE (Hardell et al. 2013, Duan et al. 2011, mainly among heavy users Hardell 2014, 2015) and including thyroid cancer (Milham and Morgan 2008). On the other hand, a few studies in animals and cells showed that RFE exposure caused neoplastic transformations, such as increased proliferation and tumorigenesis (Yakymenko and Sidorik 2010, Naziroglu et al. 2012, Yang et al. 2012, while previous studies showed no effect (Whitehead et al. 2005, Oberto et al. 2007, Smith et al. 2007, Sommer et al. 2007, Tillmann et al. 2007, Hirose et al. 2008. ...
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... Values above 2000 have been associated with cancers. 9 Just as dirty water, dirty air, and contaminated food can make people ill, dirty electricity seems to have the same effect. . When it is contaminated with higher frequency transients and harmonic it resembles the curve on the right. ...
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... Electricity-generated EMFs are described as 50 or 60 Hz, and RF is expressed as a designated frequency. However, electricity-induced fields include harmonics of the base frequency, as well as high-voltage transient fields when currents are turned on and off (7). Ground currents are common, usually a result of wiring flaws and magnetic induction from nearby power lines (8). ...
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The paper offers a non-exhaustive perspective, as well as a spectrum of performed measurements, in the field of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Shielding Wi-Fi is shown to be an effective means of counteracting its health risks. The effects of cell phone towers positioning next to living and working spaces is presented and analyzed. Electrical pollution mitigation is described, as well as the problem of earth bound stray electrical currents. Effective actions and measures to be taken for the benefit of future generations are suggested and justified.
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This study presents the measurement results of intermediate frequency (IF) noise in mains electrical system at workplaces. Measurements were taken both directly connected to the mains power network and from inside the facilities by measuring electromagnetic fields. The results show great differences from one place to another, indicating large usage of switching power supplies, even possible problems in electrical wiring or faulty or inadequately shielded/filtered electrical equipment. This study also encompassed experiments with the compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs), from which the electromagnetic disturbances (EMD) were. With the EU ban for incandescent light bulbs, CFLs are becoming a main source of lighting in European working and living places. This study addresses the public concern that has been raised in regard to the CFLs contribution to the EMDs in electrical power network. Also the human health component is entertained in the study. The multidimensional approach of this study was to address EMDs in electrical power network both from the aspect of the quality of the network itself and from the aspect of human health – a concern recently raised by the public.
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Microwave generating equipment first became common during World War 2 with the development of radar. Soviet bloc countries reported that individuals exposed to microwaves frequently developed headaches, fatigue, loss of appetite, sleepiness, difficulty in concentration, poor memory, emotional instability, and labile cardiovascular function, and established stringent exposure standards. For a variety of reasons these reports were discounted in Western countries, where the prevailing belief was that there could be no adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) that were not mediated by tissue heating. The reported Soviet effects were at lower intensities than those that cause heating. However, there were several accidental exposures of radar operators in Western countries that resulted in persistent symptoms similar to those described above. The Soviets irradiated the US Embassy in Moscow with microwaves during the period 1953-1975, and while no convincing evidence of elevated cancer rates was reported, there were reports of "microwave illness". Officials passed these complaints off as being due to anxiety, not effects of the microwave exposure. There is increasing evidence that the "microwave syndrome" or "electro-hypersensitivity" (EHS) is a real disease that is caused by exposure to EMFs, especially those in the microwave range. The reported incidence of the syndrome is increasing along with increasing exposure to EMFs from electricity, WiFi, mobile phones and towers, smart meters and many other wireless devices. Why some individuals are more sensitive is unclear. While most individuals who report having EHS do not have a specific history of an acute exposure, excessive exposure to EMFs, even for a brief period of time, can induce the syndrome.
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Abstract Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) include everything from cosmic rays through visible light to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electricity. While the high frequency fields have sufficient energy to cause cancer, the question of whether there are human health hazards associated with communication radiofrequency (RF) EMFs and those associated with use of electricity remains controversial. The issue is more important than ever given the rapid increase in the use of cell phones and other wireless devices. This review summarizes the evidence stating that excessive exposure to magnetic fields from power lines and other sources of electric current increases the risk of development of some cancers and neurodegenerative diseases, and that excessive exposure to RF radiation increases risk of cancer, male infertility, and neurobehavioral abnormalities. The relative impact of various sources of exposure, the great range of standards for EMF exposure, and the costs of doing nothing are also discussed.
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The authors report the association between exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) and cancer in a nested case-control study of electric utility workers in Quebec, Canada (follow-up, 1970–1988), and France (follow-up, 1978–1989), among whom 2,679 cases of cancer were identified. Exposures were assessed through a job-exposure matrix based on about 1,000 person-weeks of measurements from exposure meters worn by workers. Exposures were considerably higher in Quebec than in France. No association was found between PEMFs and cancers previously suspected of association with magnetic fields (leukemia, other hematopoietic cancers, brain cancer, or melanoma). However, there was a clear association between cumu lative exposure to PEMFs and lung cancer, with odds ratios rising to 3.11 (95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.60–6.04) in the highest exposure group (84 cases). This association was largely confined to Quebec, where there was a monotonic exposure- response relation with an odds ratio of 6.67 (95% Cl 2.68–16.57) in the highest exposure group (32 cases). The association is substantial and was not explained by smoking or other occupational exposures. However, several factors limit the strength of the evidence for a causal relation: lack of precision in what the meters measured; little previous evidence for this association; and no elevated risk for lung cancer in the utility workers overall in comparison with the general population. Am J Epidemiol 1994; 140:805–20.
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Deteriorating power quality is becoming increasingly common in developed countries. Poor power quality, also known as dirty electricity, refers to a combination of harmonics and transients generated primarily by electronic devices and by non-linear loads. We have assumed, until recently, that this form of energy is not biologically active. However, when Graham/Stetzer™ filters were installed in homes and schools, symptoms associated with electrical hypersensitivity (such as chronic fatigue, depression, headaches, body aches and pains, ringing in the ears, dizziness, impaired sleep, memory loss, and confusion) were reduced. Five case studies are presented that include one healthy individual; one person with electrical hypersensitivity; another with diabetes; and a person with multiple sclerosis. Results for 18 teachers and their classes at a school in Toronto are also presented. These individuals experienced major to moderate improvements in their health and wellbeing after Graham/Stetzer filters improved power quality in their home or work environment. The results suggest that poor power quality may be contributing to electrical hypersensitivity and that as much as 50% of the population may be hypersensitive; children may be more sensitive than adults and dirty electricity in schools may be interfering with education and possibly contributing to disruptive behavior associated with attention deficit disorder (ADD); dirty electricity may elevate plasma glucose levels among diabetics, and exacerbate symptoms for those with multiple sclerosis and tinnitus. Graham/Stetzer filters and meters enable individuals to monitor and improve power quality in buildings and they provide scientists with a tool for studying the effects of dirty electricity. For the first time we can progress from simply documenting electrical hypersensitivity to alleviating some of the symptoms. These results are dramatic and warrant further investigation. If they are representative of what is happening worldwide, then dirty electricity is adversely affecting the lives of millions of people.
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The authors report the association between exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) and cancer in a nested case-control study of electric utility workers in Quebec, Canada (follow-up, 1970–1988), and France (follow-up, 1978–1989), among whom 2,679 cases of cancer were identified. Exposures were assessed through a job-exposure matrix based on about 1,000 person-weeks of measurements from exposure meters worn by workers. Exposures were considerably higher in Quebec than in France. No association was found between PEMFs and cancers previously suspected of association with magnetic fields (leukemia, other hematopoietic cancers, brain cancer, or melanoma). However, there was a clear association between cumu lative exposure to PEMFs and lung cancer, with odds ratios rising to 3.11 (95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.60–6.04) in the highest exposure group (84 cases). This association was largely confined to Quebec, where there was a monotonic exposure- response relation with an odds ratio of 6.67 (95% Cl 2.68–16.57) in the highest exposure group (32 cases). The association is substantial and was not explained by smoking or other occupational exposures. However, several factors limit the strength of the evidence for a causal relation: lack of precision in what the meters measured; little previous evidence for this association; and no elevated risk for lung cancer in the utility workers overall in comparison with the general population. Am J Epidemiol 1994; 140:805–20.
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An excess of electrical wiring configurations suggestive of high current-flow was noted in Colorado in 1976--1977 near the homes of children who developed cancer, as compared to the homes of control children. The finding was strongest for children who had spent their entire lives at the same address, and it appeared to be dose-related. It did not seem to be an artifact of neighborhood, street congestion, social class, or family structure. The reason for the correlation is uncertain; possible effects of current in the water pipes or of AC magnetic fields are suggested.
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A small cohort of 410 office workers (263 men and 147 women, ever employed) exposed to strong magnetic fields by three 12 kV transformers located beneath their first-floor office developed eight incident cancers over a 15 year exposure period. Only one cancer was ascertained in the 254 workers employed for less than 2 years, compared to seven cancer cases ascertained in the 156 workers employed for 2 years or more (p = 0.0057; Fisher's exact test). An analysis of linear trend of cancer incidence using average years employed as an exposure score was positive (p = 0.00337) with an odds ratio of 15.1 in workers employed over 5 years. A positive trend of cancer cases with duration of employment is seen for males and females separately and together (p < 0.05). For workers employed more than 2 years, the standardized cancer incidence ratio was 389 (95% confidence interval 156-801). Cumulative magnetic field exposure may be of etiologic importance in explaining the cancer incidence pattern in this cohort.
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Periodic concerns about excesses of cancer among teachers in California schools prompted our examination of cancer incidence in California school employees. Records of school employees between 1987-1992 were linked to the California Cancer Registry of incident cases diagnosed 1988-1992. Sex-, race-, and age-adjusted standardized incidence ratios were calculated for specific cancer sites. Analyses stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, and job assignment were also performed. Melanoma of the skin, thyroid cancer, prostate cancer, and female cancers of the breast, uterus, and ovary all occurred more frequently than expected in these school employees. In contrast, cancers of the respiratory system, oral cavity, digestive system, urinary system, and uterine cervix occurred less frequently. The incidence of cancers thought to be related to hormones and/or higher socioeconomic status appeared elevated while cancers often linked to smoking and/or alcohol intake occurred less frequently in this large cohort of professional school employees.
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