Increased organophosphate scavenging in a butyrylcholinesterase mutant

School of Life Sciences and The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501, USA.
Chemico-Biological Interactions (Impact Factor: 2.58). 05/2008; 175(1-3):376-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2008.04.012
Source: PubMed


Nicotiana benthamiana plant lines expressing a reengineered human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with enhanced cocaine hydrolase activity were created. Subsequent purification and biochemical analysis revealed that compared to wild-type butyrylcholinesterase, the cocaine hydrolase displayed increased affinity to the organophosphate (OP) pesticides paraoxon (6.8 4x 10(-10)M vs. 1.11 x 10(-8)M) and malaoxon (9.81 x 10(-8)M vs. 5.99 x 10(-7)M). Furthermore, the cocaine hydrolase retained identical anticholinesterase binding profiles for all other compounds tested. Thus we have demonstrated a potential large-scale production platform for a multivalent antidote for cocaine and anticholinesterase poisoning.

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    • "Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience April 2012 | Volume 5 | Article 54 | 1 MOLECULAR NEUROSCIENCE Falugi and Aluigi Non-neuromuscular cholinesterases et al., 1998; Geyer et al., 2008; Pezzementi and Chatonnet, 2010 "
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    ABSTRACT: The biological function of the cholinesterase (ChE) enzymes has been studied since the beginning of the twentieth century. Acetylcholinesterase plays a key role in the modulation of neuromuscular impulse transmission in vertebrates, while in invertebrates pseudo cholinesterases are preeminently represented. During the last 40 years, awareness of the role of ChEs role in regulating non-neuromuscular cell-to-cell interactions has been increasing such as the ones occurring during gamete interaction and embryonic development. Moreover, ChE activities are responsible for other relevant biological events, including regulation of the balance between cell proliferation and cell death, as well as the modulation of cell adhesion and cell migration. Understanding the mechanisms of the regulation of these events can help us foresee the possible impact of neurotoxic substances on the environmental and human health.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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    • "molecules have been produced using mammalian cell cultures [7] as well as transgenic goats [8] and plant expression systems [9]. While expression of high levels of recombinant proteins exhibiting similar catalytic activity as the native forms has been achieved, novel epitopes and different glycosylation patterns, characteristic of the expression system employed, can greatly impact in vivo stability and immunogenicity and ultimately the viability of any potential recombinant therapeutic. "
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    ABSTRACT: Human serum and recombinant butyrylcholinesterase (rHuBChE) are the most advanced prophylactics against organophosphate (OP) toxicity due to nerve agent or insecticide exposure. For ethical reasons, such potential multi-use treatments cannot be tested in humans and will require extensive testing in animal models and the "Animal Rule" 21 (21 CFR 601.90) for regulatory approval. This will involve multiple injections of rHuBChE into heterologous animals, e.g. macaques, rodents with inevitable immunogenicity and subsequent elimination of the enzyme on repeat injections. In order to accurately assess pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of a candidate rBChE in an "antibody free" system, a homologous macaque (Ma) model has been developed. In these studies, macaques received single or multiple intravenous injections of native MaBChE as well as unmodified or PEG-conjugated forms of rMaBChE produced in CHO cells. Compared to the poor plasma retention of unmodified rBChE (MRT: <10h), three injections of 1.5-2.3mg/kg of PEG-conjugated tetrameric rBChE resulted in high circulatory stability (MRT: >134h) and lack of immunogenicity similar to native MaBChE. PEG-conjugation of the monomeric rMaBChE form also exhibited pharmacokinetic profiles comparable to the tetrameric form (MRT: >113h). However, despite the increased bioavailability of PEG-rBChE, antigenicity studies using sandwich ELISA showed that while macaque BChE was not immunogenic in macaques, PEGylation of rMaBChE did not prevent binding to anti-BChE antibodies, suggesting PEGylation may not be sufficient to mask non-human epitopes on rBChE. This homologous model can provide necessary preclinical protection data for the use of PEG-rHuBChE in humans and bodes well for a safe and efficacious CHO-derived rHuBChE therapeutic.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Chemico-biological interactions
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    ABSTRACT: Concerns about the safety of paralytics such as succinylcholine to facilitate endotracheal intubation limit their use in prehospital and emergency department settings. The ability to rapidly reverse paralysis and restore respiratory drive would increase the safety margin of an agent, thus permitting the pursuit of alternative intubation strategies. In particular, patients who carry genetic or acquired deficiency of butyrylcholinesterase, the serum enzyme responsible for succinylcholine hydrolysis, are susceptible to succinylcholine-induced apnea, which manifests as paralysis, lasting hours beyond the normally brief half-life of succinylcholine. We hypothesized that intravenous administration of plant-derived recombinant BChE, which also prevents mortality in nerve agent poisoning, would rapidly reverse the effects of succinylcholine.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · PLoS ONE
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