Self-reported sleep duration is associated with the metabolic syndrome in midlife adults. Sleep, 31, 635-643

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
Sleep (Impact Factor: 4.59). 06/2008; 31(5):635-43.
Source: PubMed


Short and long sleep duration have been linked to various risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and presence of the metabolic syndrome, which is a cluster of physiologically interrelated risk factors for cardiometabolic disease.
Cross-sectional community-based cohort study.
One thousand two hundred fourteen participants from the Adult Health and Behavior Project registry (aged 30 to 54 years).
Participants were divided into 4 groups based upon their reported sleep duration. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the American Heart Association/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's criteria. Logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that sleep duration is a significant correlate of the metabolic syndrome and its components.
The observed metabolic syndrome rate (22%) was similar to that of published health statistics for American adults. After covariate adjustment, the odds for having the metabolic syndrome increased by more than 45% in both short and long sleepers, compared with those sleeping 7 to 8 hours per night. Sleep duration was also associated individually with abdominal obesity, elevated fasting glucose, and hypertriglyceridemia. After further adjustment for use of antihypertensive medication, prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components remained elevated in short sleepers only.
These data suggest that sleep duration is a significant correlate of the metabolic syndrome. Additional studies are needed to evaluate temporal relationships among these measures, the behavioral and physiologic mechanisms that link the two, and their impact on subsequent cardiometabolic disease.

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    ABSTRACT: The present study aims to determine the prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and sleep habits and their associated factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in Trinidad. This was a cross-sectional multicenter study. There were 291 patients with type 2 diabetes studied. Sleep habits were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sleep disorder questionnaire. Demographic, anthropometric and biochemical data were also collected. The sample had a mean age of 58.8years; 66.7% were female. The mean BMI was 28.9kg/m(2). The prevalence of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS) was 11.3%. The prevalence of patients with short sleep (⩽6h) was 28.5%. The prevalence of patients with poor sleep was 63.9%. Poor sleep was associated with age, intensive anti-diabetic treatment and longer duration of diabetes. Short sleep was associated with intensive anti-diabetic treatment and BMI, while EDS was associated with increased BMI. In a sample of patients with type 2 diabetes, a high prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and unhealthy sleep habits was found. There needs to be an increased awareness of sleep conditions in adults with type 2 diabetes by doctors caring for these patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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    • "Consistent with our findings, it has previously been shown that longer sleep durations are associated with relatively higher triacylglycerol levels and lower HDL-cholesterol levels [40]. In a crosssectional study comprised mostly of participants free from diabetes, it was also observed that individuals sleeping >8 h per night had a borderline significantly lower HDL-cholesterol level relative to individuals sleeping 7–8 h per night [39]. However, in a similar study to ours, but which included only women with diabetes, Williams et al. [17] found no association between sleep duration and lipid levels, although HDL-cholesterol levels did appear to increase with increasing sleep duration, but only among normotensive individuals. "
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    • "In addition to mortality risk, similar U-shaped associations have been found between sleep duration and multiple morbidities, including heart disease [20], stroke [21], hypertension [22], diabetes [23], depression [18], obesity and metabolic syndrome [24]. As reviewed below, short and long sleep are associated with inflammation [25], which might contribute to these morbidities. "
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