Emil Kraepelin's legacy: Systematic clinical observation and the categorical classification of psychiatric diseases
Center for Public Mental Health, Dept. Psychiatrie en Neuropsychologie, University of Maastricht, Post Bus 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands.European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 3.53). 07/2008; 258 Suppl 2(S2):1-2. DOI: 10.1007/s00406-008-2000-7
The year 2006 marked the 150 birth year of two key figures in the history of modern psychiatry, Sigmund Freud and Emil Kraepelin. Although the celebration of Freud’s contributions overshadowed those of Kraepelin, his contribution to modern psychiatry still has strong relevance. The Symposium papers presented in this Special Issue of the European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience took place in the Kraepelin Library of the Munich’s Ludwig
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ABSTRACT: Lay perceptions of "successful aging" are important for understanding this multifaceted construct and developing ways to assist older adults to age well. The purpose of this qualitative study was to obtain older adults' individual perspectives on what constitutes successful aging along with their views regarding activities and interventions to enhance its likelihood. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 community-dwelling adults older than 60 years. Participants were recruited from retirement communities, a low-income senior housing complex, and a continued learning center in San Diego County, CA. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a "Coding Consensus, Co-occurrence, and Comparison" grounded theory framework. The mean age of participants was 80 years (range: 64-96 years), with 59% being women.Two primary themes were identified as key to successful aging, i.e., self-acceptance/self contentment(with subthemes of realistic self-appraisal, a review of one's life, and focusing on the present) and engagement with life/self-growth (with sub themes of novel pursuits, giving to others, social interactions, and positive attitude). A balance between these two constructs seemed critical. A need for interventions that address support systems and personally tailored information to make informed decisions and enhance coping strategies were also emphasized. Older adults viewed successful aging as a balance between self-acceptance and self-contentedness on one hand and engagement with life and self-growth in later life on the other. This perspective supports the concept of wisdom as a major contributor to successful aging. Interventions to enhance successful aging may include those that promote productive and social engagement along with effective coping strategies.
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ABSTRACT: This article is based on German and Japanese sources and shows how around 1900 European psychiatric concepts and practices embedded themselves into emerging scientific Japanese discourses. The article argues that now forgotten German–Japanese exchanges in the field of psychiatric pathology, together with the historical development of psychiatric care, were central mechanisms for the establishment of a distinctly psychiatric discourse in Japan prior to its broad institutionalization. Three discursive strategies were key: Japanese and German experts from a range of medical fields reinvented a body of traditions loosely related to actual pre-modern cultural practices; they engaged in comparative evaluations of psychiatric conditions; and, through the simple but effective transformation of specific concepts and termini at the margins of European psychiatry, these experts contributed to the transfer not only of a psychiatric discourse but also affected the power relations on a national and international scale as European psychiatry permeated into new territory, namely the Japanese landscape of emerging modern scientific disciplines.
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