Article

In vivo spectrophotometric evaluation of skin barrier recovery after topical application of soybean phytosterols

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Abstract

The skin's uppermost thin layer, stratum corneum, plays a crucial role in protecting the body against unwanted influences from the environment. Disruption of the stratum corneum, by tape stripping or chemical injury, results in epidermal recovery of the skin barrier. Soy phytosterols are widely used in the cosmetic field as active ingredients in creams and lipsticks. Furthermore, they deserve an important place among nutracosmeceuticals; in fact, after their absorption from the diet they are transferred from the plasma to the skin, playing an important role in the constitution of skin surface lipids. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of the topical application of soybean phytosterols on skin barrier recovery in human volunteers using the extent of methyl nicotinate (MN)-induced erythema in damaged skin as a parameter to evaluate the rate of stratum corneum recovery. MN was chosen as an erythematogenous substance for its capability to cause an erythema whose intensity and duration are proportional to the quantity of the substance that has entered the living epidermis over time. MN-induced erythema was monitored using reflectance spectrophotometry as a noninvasive instrumental technique. The results show clearly that soy phytosterols exert positive results on skin repair; in fact, three days after tape stripping, the sites treated with a formulation containing phytosterols showed an appreciable recovery of barrier function compared to those treated with a vehicle control without soy phytosterols.

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... Skin refl ectance spectra were recorded using a refl ectance visible spectrophotomer, X-Rite model 968 (XRite Inc. Grandville, MI), having 0° illumination and a 45° viewing angle, calibrated and controlled as previously reported (19). Refl ectance spectra were obtained over the wavelength range of 400-700 nm using illuminant C and a 2° standard observer. ...
... The photosensitivity % values were calculated from the erythema index obtained 24 hours after UVB exposure for each subject participating in the study. (19). To better evaluate the skin tolerance of the tested acids, three different concentrations commonly used in light, medium, and deep peeling were topically applied. ...
Article
The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness and the safety of different topical agents (glycolic acid, mandelic acid, and grape juice acid mixture) in skin exfoliation by objective instrumental methods. To evaluate the exfoliating effects of these substances, a new experimental in vivo protocol based on DHA (dihydroxyacetone)-induced skin pigmentation was used. Skin acceptability towards acid application was investigated by the evaluation of skin erythema induced by topical application of these substances at increased concentrations. Furthermore, their photosensitizing effects were evaluated by determining the increase in sensitivity to UV-light exposure in cutaneous sites previously treated with acids. These in vivo evaluations were monitored by reflectance spectophotometry. From the results obtained, we observed the differing capacities of the tested acids to increase the rate of skin regeneration, with a significant reduction in the time required to obtain skin renewal. The study pointed out that glycolic acid (10% w/w) induced a faster skin exfoliation, a more intense erythema, and a higher photosensitizing effect in comparison with the mandelic acid and grape juice acid mixtures. Further evidence showed that the mandelic acid and grape juice acid mixtures were able to induce a slower and safer peeling action in comparison with glycolic acid. Finally, our results suggest that the methodologies and protocols used in this study may help in choosing the most appropriate topical agents for skin exfoliating treatments.
... Hollingsworth (2001) and Hicks and Moreau (2001) reviewed the recent development of functional foods containing phytosterols. Besides the cholesterollowering effect of phytosterols, soy phytosterols are used as nutracosmeceuticals (Carmelo and Francesco 2008), because the absorption and distribution bring them from the plasma to the skin, where they play an important role in the constitution of skin-surface lipids. The skin's uppermost thin layer, the stratum corneum, plays a crucial role in protecting the body against unwanted influences from the environment. ...
... The skin's uppermost thin layer, the stratum corneum, plays a crucial role in protecting the body against unwanted influences from the environment. Topical application of soybean sterols had positive results on the repair of damaged skin (Carmelo and Francesco 2008) in a model system. For food uses, a water-dispersible plant phytosterols powder can be prepared using emulsifiers, thickeners, homogenization, and spray-drying (Auriou 2003). ...
Chapter
This chapter includes information on the composition of soybeans, soybean oil, and other soybean lipids, especially as affected by environment, variety, and genetic modification. Other topics discussed are the physical properties of soybean oil, grading of soybeans, oil extraction, and the effect of various extraction techniques on oil quality and the various soy protein ingredients. Basic refining and processing of soybean oil includes degumming, neutralization, bleaching, hydrogenation, and deodorization, but alternative refining methods are also discussed along with soybean refinery coproducts (lecithin, deodorizer distillate, and soapstock). The major uses of soybean oil are itemized and trading rules for crude and refined soybean oil are provided. The major food products produced from soybean oil are cooking and salad oils, frying fats, mayonnaise, margarine, shortening, confectionary and imitation dairy products, and “low-calorie fat substitutes.” The oxidative quality of soybean oil is reviewed, including flavor reversion, factors affecting oil oxidation, measures of control and measures of finished oil quality, storage and handling, and special processing for off-quality soybean oil. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the health aspects of soybean oil, including the health effects of cholesterol, unsaturated oils, trans-isomers, and total fat intake.
... NS-21 (Plunkett Pharmaceuticals, Ltd., Sydney, Australia) is a natural cortisone-free cream that includes calendula [9], Aloe vera [4], allantoin, vitamin E [10], beta-glucan [11], hydrolyzed soy protein [12], grape seed oil [13,14], zinc [15], honey [16], emu oil [17], avocado oil [18,19], jojoba oil [20], rose hip oil [21,22], urea [23] and so on. Separately, these ingredients are topical agents and are used to treat dermatitis, suggesting that NS-21 may have a potential ability to promote healing and prevent ARD. ...
... For the wound healing process, the ingredients of NS-21 also include vitamin E [10], honey [16] and Zn-Cu [15]. Plant oils may play a role in promoting skin barrier homeostasis as well as antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties to help wound healing [21], such as grape seed oil [13,14], soybean oil [12,36], avocado oil [19], jojoba oil [20,37,38] and rose hip oil [21,22]. The results from the abovementioned studies as well as the current study suggest that NS-21 may be a potential candidate for skin moisture maintenance during RT or CCRT. ...
Article
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Background: To evaluate the practicality of NS-21 cream with regard to its skin-related toxicity in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) who are undergoing concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) or radiotherapy (RT). Methods: Between July 2015 and November 2017, 30 HNC patients who underwent RT or CCRT were randomly allocated to receive either NS-21 or control treatment on their irradiated skin three times per day, starting at the initiation of RT or CCRT and ending 2 weeks after the completion of RT or until the appearance of grade 3 acute radiation dermatitis (ARD). Dermatitis was recorded weekly according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0. Skin humidity was monitored by a digital moisture meter. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) and logit link function method were used for statistical analysis. Results: No serious adverse events were observed in either group. Itching dermatitis occurred on the right lower neck in one patient of the NS-21 group during the 3rd week of CCRT, but the severity was mild. The median skin moisture value at the time of the final treatment was significantly different between the study and control groups (30.6 vs. 27.3, p = 0.013). Additionally, there was an inverse relationship between skin moisture and ARD grade (B = -0.04, p = 0.005). The incidence of ARD at the time of the last treatment was not significantly different between the study and control groups (6.7% vs 26.7%, p = 0.165). The risk of grade 3 ARD for skin that had received an irradiation dose of 47-70 Gy was higher than that of skin that had received an irradiation dose ≤46 Gy (OR = 31.06, 95% CI =5.95-162.21, p < 0.001). Nevertheless, the risk of ARD was not significantly different between the groups (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.08-1.74, p = 0.212). Conclusions: NS-21 was well tolerated and effective for the maintenance of skin moisture; however, there was no statistically significant reduction in the risk of ARD in HNC patients undergoing RT or CCRT when compared with HNC patients in the control group. Trial registration: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Far Eastern Memorial Hospital ( FEMH-IRB , 104048-F), Registered 1st June 2015.
... β-Sitosterol is the major phytosterol in plant oils. It provides a biological function like cholesterol and provides pharmacological and biological activities useful for the treatment of various skin illnesses, such as swelling and erythema [22,30] because of its structural similarity to cholesterol [31,32]. It was reported as a safe chemical without undesirable side effects [32,33]. ...
... It was reported as a safe chemical without undesirable side effects [32,33]. Several studies tested the effects of phytosterols as anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and cell migration stimulators and have confirmed its positive effects on skin barrier recovery and skin wound repair [14,16,31,32,34,35]. Since the S. mukorossi seed oil contains abundant β-sitosterol, it also showed the potential to be a skin wound healing enhancer. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sapindus mukorossi seed oil is commonly used as a source for biodiesel fuel. Its phytochemical composition is similar to the extracted oil from Sapindus trifoliatus seeds, which exhibit beneficial effects for skin wound healing. Since S. mukorossi seed shows no cyanogenic property, it could be a potential candidate for the treatment of skin wounds. Thus, we evaluated the effectiveness of S. mukorossi seed oil in the treatment of skin wounds. We characterized and quantified the fatty acids and unsaponifiable fractions (including β-sitosterol and δ-tocopherol) contained in S. mukorossi seed-extracted oil by GC-MS and HPLC, respectively. Cell proliferation and migratory ability were evaluated by cell viability and scratch experiments using CCD-966SK cells treated with S. mukorossi oil. The anti-inflammatory effects of the oil were evaluated by measuring the nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 cells. Antimicrobial activity tests were performed with Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans using a modified Japanese Industrial Standard procedure. Uniform artificial wounds were created on the dorsum of rats. The wounds were treated with a carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/hyaluronic acid (HA)/sodium alginate (SA) hydrogel for releasing the S. mukorossi seed oil. The wound sizes were measured photographically for 12 days and were compared to wounds covered with analogous membranes containing a saline solution. Our results showed that the S. mukorossi seed oil used in this study contains abundant monounsaturated fatty acids, β-sitosterol, and δ-tocopherol. In the in vitro tests, S. mukorossi seed oil prompted cell proliferation and migration capability. Additionally, the oil had significant anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities. In the in vivo animal experiments, S. mukorossi seed oil-treated wounds revealed acceleration of sequential skin wound healing events after two days of healing. The size of oil-treated wound decreased to half the size of the untreated control after eight days of healing. The results suggest that S. mukorossi seed oil could be a potential source for promoting skin wound healing.
... NS-21 (Plunkett Pharmaceuticals, Ltd., Sydney, Australia) is a natural cortisone-free cream that includes calendula [9], Aloe vera [4], allantoin, vitamin E [10], beta-glucan [11], hydrolyzed soy protein [12], grape seed oil [13,14], zinc [15], honey [16], emu oil [17], avocado oil [18,19], jojoba oil [20], rose hip oil [21,22], urea [23] and so on. Separately, these ingredients are topical agents and are used to treat dermatitis, suggesting that NS-21 may have a potential ability to promote healing and prevent ARD. ...
... For the wound healing process, the ingredients of NS-21 also include vitamin E [10], honey [16] and Zn-Cu [15]. Plant oils may play a role in promoting skin barrier homeostasis as well as antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties to help wound healing [21], such as grape seed oil [13,14], soybean oil [12,36], avocado oil [19], jojoba oil [20,37,38] and rose hip oil [21,22]. The results from the abovementioned studies as well as the current study suggest that NS-21 may be a potential candidate for skin moisture maintenance during RT or CCRT. ...
... Phytosterols also offer mosturization and barrier protection, as well as provide nutrition for healthy skin (Fowler et al., 2010). A previous study proved that topical administration of soy phytosterols helped to repair skin cells and recover skin barrier function on the skin damage (Puglia and Bonina, 2008). ...
Article
Kenaf is an alternative fiber crop which is economically viable and ecologically friendly. Kenaf seeds oil, kenaf seeds extract, and kenaf leaves extract were found to have a high content of bioactive compounds to offer antioxidants and medicinal benefits, which could be a potential source in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The application of encapsulation technologies on kenaf derivatives can help to develop new highly effective cosmetic formulations. Different encapsulation technologies were applied on kenaf derivatives to improve the stability and functionality for cosmeceutical application. Technologies such as nanoemulsion, nanostructured lipid carriers, co-extrusion, and spray drying of kenaf seed oil were found to enhance its stability and manage the release of unsaturated oils in cosmetic formulations. Besides, the applications of solid lipid nanocarriers, liposomes, niosomes, and Pickering emulsion were discussed in this paper to show its potential in the encapsulation of kenaf derivatives. This review described the chemical composition and nutritional quality of the kenaf derivatives, and the technologies for cosmetic formulation to enhance our knowledge to use these by-products in the cosmetic application and their advantages. This review has important implications to stimulate its possible utilization and application of kenaf in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry.
... Normalization of the enhanced skin surface pH in aged humans (80+ years of age) by acidic skin care products improves EPB function, SC integrity/cohesion and recovery. In addition, the beneficial effect of cosmetically applied oils and lipids is commonly accepted [34][35][36][37]. ...
Article
Objective: Xerosis is a serious problem among the very old. It is a dermatological challenge caused by significant alterations in stratum corneum (SC) function and structure. Two negative changes in aged skin are: (i) the enhanced skin surface pH and (ii) the altered SC lipid content, composition and ordering. Methods: Therefore, we investigated the way in which an acidic skin care product with different plant oils affects SC function, structure and lipid profile in older subjects with dry skin. Before and after a three-week application period, different biophysical measurements were performed: transepidermal water loss, SC hydration and skin surface pH. In addition, the SC lipid matrix was evaluated by analysis of the intercellular lipid lamellae and the SC lipid profile. Results: After treatment, a significant increase in lipid lamellae in the intercellular space of the SC was observed in the area treated with the test product compared to the untreated area. Furthermore, the ceramide level was found to be increased, although ceramides were not provided by the acidic test formulation. Conclusion: In summary, topical application of a pH 4.0 product containing plant oils improves epidermal barrier formation and SC lipid ordering and ratio in aged dry skin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... There are also studies that prove the effectiveness of soybean phytosterol in recovering the stratum corneum (SC), the thin uppermost layer of skin, when subjected to chemical injury [6]. Thus, it is suitable to act as a substitute for 2 The Scientific World Journal active ingredients in cosmeceutical products. ...
Article
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Okara, soybean waste from tofu and soymilk production, was utilised as a natural antioxidant in soap formulation for stratum corneum application. D-optimal mixture design was employed to investigate the influence of the main compositions of okara soap containing different fatty acid and oils (virgin coconut oil A (24-28% w/w), olive oil B (15-20% w/w), palm oil C (6-10% w/w), castor oil D (15-20% w/w), cocoa butter E (6-10% w/w), and okara F (2-7% w/w)) by saponification process on the response hardness of the soap. The experimental data were utilized to carry out analysis of variance (ANOVA) and to develop a polynomial regression model for okara soap hardness in terms of the six design factors considered in this study. Results revealed that the best mixture was the formulation that included 26.537% A, 19.999% B, 9.998% C, 16.241% D, 7.633% E, and 7.000% F. The results proved that the difference in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation significantly affects the hardness of soap. Depending on the desirable level of those six variables, creation of okara based soap with desirable properties better than those of commercial ones is possible.
... H formulation is able to recover a quantity greater than 90% of skin barrier integrity eight days after tape stripping (p<0,05). Puglia and Bonina [31] demonstrated the increased recovery rate of skin barrier function observed in FITO application in stripped cutaneous sites and they hypothesized a "cholesterol-like" mechanism involving phytosterol species (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol) contained in FITO formulation. In fact, these compounds are triterpenes similar to cholesterol, both in structure and in function; Bhattacharyya et al. [32] demonstrated that the phytosterols and cholesterol that were absorbed from the diet into the plasma were transferred into the skin for excretion. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we evaluated different strategies to optimize the percutaneous absorption of niacinamide (NA) and soy phytosterols (FITO) by making use of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and penetration enhancers, such as the hydrogenated lecithin. The evaluation of the skin permeation of NA and FITO has been effected in vitro using excised human skin (i.e., stratum corneum-epidermis or SCE). Furthermore, we evaluated the in vivo effect that NA and FITO has on skin barrier recovery after the topical application; using the extent of methyl nicotinate (MN)-induced erythema in damaged skin as a parameter to determine the rate of stratum corneum recovery. Results pointed out the importance of these strategies as valid tools for NA and FITO topical delivery. In fact, soy lecithin based formulations were able to increase the percutaneous absorption of the two active ingredients, while SLN guaranteed an interesting delayed and sustained release of FITO. In vivo evaluation showed clearly that the formulation containing both the actives (NA and FITO) is able to recover about 95% of skin barrier integrity eight days after tape stripping. This effect is probably due to the "synergistic effect" of NA and FITO.
... Their ingestion decreases plasma levels of pro-inflammatory components, including C-reactive protein, phospholipase A 1 , IL-6, TNF-α, NF-kB and other cytokines and transcription factors (Othman and Moghadasian 2011). In addition, many studies have reported the efficacy of plant sterols as topical anti-inflammatory agents (Gómez et al., 1999;Navarro et al., 2001;Medeiros et al., 2007;Puglia and Bonina, 2008). ...
Article
The leaves of Pereskia aculeata Miller (Cactaceae), known as Barbados gooseberry, are used in Brazilian traditional medicine as emollients and to treat skin wounds and inflammation. This study investigated the topical anti-inflammatory activity of the hexane fraction (HF) obtained from the methanol extract of the leaves of this species in models of acute and chronic ear dermatitis in mice. Mice ear edema was induced by topical application of croton oil, arachidonic acid, capsaicin, ethyl-phenylpropiolate and phenol; and by subcutaneous injection of histamine. Ear biopsies were obtained to determine the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α cytokines by ELISA assay. Histopathological analysis was also performed to evaluate the HF activity in croton oil multiple application test. In addition, acute dermal irritaton/corrosion test in rats was accomplished. HF chemical characterization was performed by GC-MS analysis. HF intensively reduced the inflammatory process induced by all irritant agents used, except for arachidonic acid. This activity is related, at least in part, to the reduction of IL-6 and TNF-α cytokines levels. Moreover, when the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone was used, HF failed to respond to the croton oil application.The results strongly suggested a glucocorticoid-like effect, which was reinforced by the presence of considerable amounts of sterol compounds identified in HF. The acute dermal irritaton/corrosion test showed no signs of toxicity. This study showed that the acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity of P. aculeata leaves is very promising, and corroborates to better understand their ethnopharmacological applications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
... Phytosterols have potential beneficial effects on obesity, protect against atherosclerosis, and prevent tumor growth [29] [30]. These compounds, as additives in cosmetics, can help repair a damaged skin barrier, while b-sitosterol has been shown to reduce symptoms of atopic dermatitis [31] [32] Of the total lipophilic extractives identified, the free sterol content varied between 0.001% w/w (A. alba seed extract) and 1.1% w/w (P. ...
Article
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The chemical content and composition of the lipophilic extracts from seeds of some fir species: Abies alba, A. cephalonica, A. concolor and A. koreana, as well as of a few spruce species: Picea abies, P. orientalis and P. pungens, were examined. The amount of lipophilic extractives diverse among the tree species; from 9.8% to 41%. The chemical characterization showed significant differences, not only in the content, but also in the composition of extractives. However, most of the identified compounds like resin alcohols, -aldehydes, and -acids, as well as fatty acids, were detected in seed extracts of all the examined tree species. The dominating identified compound group was esterified fatty acids (2.5-55.4% w/w of dry extract), occurring mainly as tri- and diglycerides, as well as free acids. The main representatives of this group were linoleic and oleic acids. The resin acids, among which the main were abietic, neoabietic, dehydroabietic and palustric acids, were also detected at high levels, from 1.8% to 16.9% of the dry seed extracts. Phytosterols, tocopherols, resin hydrocarbons and resin esters, as well as fatty alcohols were also identified. The coniferous tree seeds as a renewable natural material could represent a prospective raw material for producing valuable chemicals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... In addition, the abundant lipid fractions of A. speciosa, C. guianensis, and O. bataua, have peculiar compositions, especially in the non-saponifiable fraction, that could provide interesting bioactive molecules. A few pieces of literature have highlighted the importance of these compounds for the development of skin care applications, providing examples for phytosterols [81], limonoids [82], astilbin, and engeletin [83,84]. However, such a complex of knowledge is the tip of an iceberg of hitherto undiscovered bioactivities and constituents in the phytocomplexes of these plant species. ...
Article
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This review concerns five species of trees and palm trees that occur as dominant plants in different rainforest areas of the Amazon region. Due to their abundance, these species can be exploited as sustainable sources of botanical materials and include Carapa guianensis Aubl., family Meliaceae; Eperua falcata Aubl., family Fabaceae; Quassia amara L., family Simaroubaceae; and Attalea speciosa Mart. and Oenocarpus bataua Mart., family Arecaceae. For each species, the general features, major constituents, overall medicinal properties, detailed dermatological and skin care applications, and possible harmful effects have been considered. The major products include seed oils from A. speciosa and C. guianensis, fruit oil from O. bataua, and active compounds such as limonoids from C. guianensis, flavonoids from E. falcata, and quassinoids from Q. amara. The dermatologic and cosmetic applications of these plants are growing rapidly but are still widely based on empiric knowledge. Applications include skin rehydration and soothing; anti-inflammatory, antiage, and antiparasite effects; hair care; burn and wound healing; and the amelioration of rosacea and psoriasis conditions. Despite a limited knowledge about their constituents and properties, these species appear as promising sources of bioactive compounds for skin care and health applications. An improvement of knowledge about their properties will provide added value to the exploitation of these forest resources.
... Studies have shown that tocopherols are involved in moisturizing the horny layer, increasing epithelization of surface wounds, anti-inflammation and protection of the skin against UV radiations (Casas, 2007). Topical application of formulations with phytosterols helps in skin repair (Puglia and Bonina, 2007) and seemed to exhibit anti-aging properties (Grether-Beck et al., 2008). ...
Article
Mafura butter (MB) obtained from seeds of Trichilia emetica Vahl is widely used in traditional cosmetic formulations throughout Southern Africa. It is gaining increasing popularity in the modern cosmetic industry due to growing consumer demand for natural cosmetics. However, the butter has a high melting point and low spreadability, which limits its emollient properties. In the present study, MB was chemically and enzymatically interesterified with camellia oil (CO, Camellia oleifera C.Abel) at different ratios (90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 w/w) to produce formulations with improved physicochemical and cosmeceutical properties. Chemical interesterification (CI) was performed using sodium methoxide catalyst, while enzymatic interesterification (EI) was carried out with three different immobilized enzymes, including Lipozyme® TL IM, Lipozyme® RM IM and Lipozyme® 435. The original and interesterified blends were examined for fatty acid (FA) and triglycerides compositions, slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), tocopherol and sterol contents, toxic heavy metal contents, radical scavenging activity (RSA) and in vitro ultraviolet radiation protection ability. Both CI and EI reduced SMP and SFC of interesterified products, resulting in products with improved consistency. Interesterification distributed cosmeceutically relevant unsaturated FA such as oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid in the products, depending on the ratios of MB and CO. The tocopherol and phytosterol contents in MB was 495.08 ± 19.02 and 842.61 ± 35.77 μg/g, respectively, while it was 438.6 ± 20.89 and 163.57 ± 20.47 μg/g, respectively in CO. The CI dramatically reduced the tocopherol contents up to 50 % in the products, while EI did not affect its content significantly. The ICP-MS analysis revealed that MB, CO and interesterified products does not contain toxic metals such as Sn and Hg, while Cr (< 0.18 ppm) and Pb (< 0.14 ppm) were present within the acceptable limits. Interesterified products showed promising RSA (with IC50 values in the range of 10.15 ± 0.79–12.30 ± 1.15 mg/mL), however, had a low in vitro sun protection factor (SPF < 0.2).
... Topical application of soybean oil extracts has been shown to decrease the TEWL of forearm skin [11]. This feature may be linked to the presence of soy phytosterols, which have shown a positive effect on skin barrier recovery [124]. On the other hand, anthocyanin contents in the seed coat of black soybean were shown to have anti-human tyrosinase activity and antioxidative activity [85]. ...
Article
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Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter). Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of these plant oils according to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the skin, promotion of wound healing and repair of skin barrier.
... Plant sterols are also provides moisture, barrier protection and antioxidant ability which present nutrition for health and skin (Fowler Jr. et al. 2010). Puglia and Bonina (2008) presented a work to evaluate the effect of topical application of soy phytosterols on skin damage and recovery of skin barrier. Two formulations were used; phystosterols + di-n-butyl adipate solution and vehicle only; in order to compare the efficiency of active component with untreated site of skin damage. ...
Article
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Consumer consciousness on the concept of natural-based ingredients triggers the natural cosmetics market to grow. The active compounds in natural ingredients offer valuable bioactivities such as antioxidant, photoprotection, anti-aging and anti-inflammatory actions that useful for skincare, hair care and dental care. This review presents an overview on natural ingredient, especially plant-derived, used in cosmetic products and the examples of Malaysian plants used for cosmetic purposes. © 2018 Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. All Rights Reserved.
... Ölsäure) und gesättigten Fettsäuren (z.B. Laurinsäure und Caprylsäure) ebenso wie in ihrem Gehalt an Vitaminen (Vitamin E, Vitamin A), Flavonoiden, Triterpenen und Phytosterolen (siehe Ceramide) [107], sowie ihren antiseptischen Eigenschaften (z.B. Laurinsäure) [108][109][110]. ...
Article
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Background Dry skin is a frequent and multifaceted condition which can be associated with skin irritation, itch, patient discomfort and manifest skin disease. In spite of being frequent, little is known about the epidemiology of dry skin in the population. Objective To determine the prevalence of dry skin in the German adult population. Methods Data of 48,630 employed persons were assessed on a cross‐sectional level in whole body examinations by experienced dermatologists during company‐based skin screenings conducted in 343 German companies. Next to the current dermatologic findings age, gender, allergies, atopic diseases and the skin type were assessed. Results In total, n = 14,300 persons (29.4 %) were rated as having xerotic skin. Older age but not gender were associated with xerosis. In the regression analyses controlling for age and gender, dry skin was a significant predictor for: Axillary dermatitis (OR 4.51; CI 2.70–7.54), atopic eczema (OR 3.99; CI 3.42–4.65), exsiccation eczema (OR 2.96; CI 2.40–3.65), psoriasis (OR 1.57; CI 1.38–1.78), plantar warts (OR 1.42; CI 1.26–1.60), seborrheic dermatitis (OR 1.28; CI 1.16–1.42), and atopic disposition (OR 1.17; CI 1.12–1.22). Conclusion Dry skin is a frequent condition in the adult general population and needs special attention. Known risk factors may facilitate identifying patients at risk for deterioration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Ölsäure) und gesättigten Fettsäuren (z.B. Laurinsäure und Caprylsäure) ebenso wie in ihrem Gehalt an Vitaminen (Vitamin E, Vitamin A), Flavonoiden, Triterpenen und Phytosterolen (siehe Ceramide) [ 107 ], sowie ihren antiseptischen Eigenschaften (z.B. Laurinsäure) [108][109][110]. ...
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Zusammenfassung 1 Hintergrund und Rationale Die Xerosis cutis (Synonym: Xerodermie, trockene Haut, hydrolipidarme Haut) ist mit > 10 Millionen Betroffenen nicht nur eine der häufigsten dermatologischen Diagnosen in Deutschland, sondern auch Leitsymptom vieler dermatologischer, internistischer und neurologischer Erkrankungen. Trotz der medizinischen Relevanz der topischen Basistherapie für die Xerosis cutis gibt es in Deutschland für ihr Management bisher keinen wissenschaftlich belegten Diagnostik‐ und Therapiealgorithmus. 2 Ziel Dieses Positionspapier vermittelt Ärzten fachübergreifend einen an individuellen Symptomen orientierten, praxisnahen Leitfaden für die Prävention, Diagnostik und Therapie der Xerosis cutis. 3 Methodik Im Rahmen eines strukturierten Entscheidungsprozesses wurden von erfahrenen dermatologischen Experten zunächst praxisrelevante Fragestellungen definiert und systematisch aufgearbeitet. Auf der Basis von Evidenz und Expertenkonsens wurden daraus diagnostische und therapeutische Algorithmen mit Empfehlungen für die Praxis entwickelt und konsentiert. 4 Ergebnis Die Xerosis cutis kann grundsätzlich klinisch diagnostiziert werden. Auslöser und/oder Grunderkrankungen müssen abgeklärt und vermieden bzw. spezifisch behandelt werden. Bei der Wahl der geeigneten Basistherapie ist es wichtig, dass nicht nur die Hauthydratation verbessert, sondern auch die Barrierefunktion der Haut wiederhergestellt wird. Sie sollte daher aus einer Kombination von rückfeuchtenden und rückfettenden Inhaltsstoffen bestehen. Je trockener die Haut, desto lipidhaltiger sollte die Hautpflege sein (bevorzugt Wasser‐in‐Öl‐Formulierungen). Die individuelle Auswahl der Inhaltsstoffe orientiert sich nach kausaler Prüfung an den Symptomen Schuppung (v.a. Urea), Fissuren/Rhagaden (v.a. Urea oder Dexpanthenol), Rötung (v.a. Licochalcone A) und Pruritus (v.a. Polidocanol), sowie an der Lokalisation und dem Alter der Patienten. Inhaltsstoffe bzw. Inhaltsstoffkombinationen mit guter Studienevidenz sind zu bevorzugen. Die mit Abstand beste Evidenz bei der Xerosis cutis weist Urea auf, dessen Wirksamkeit in Kombination mit anderen natürlichen Feuchthalte‐Komponenten und Ceramiden noch gesteigert werden kann. Zur Arbeitserleichterung am Patienten und zum besseren Erlernen wurde das Xerosimeter entwickelt, das die praktische Umsetzung der Diagnostik und Verlaufskontrolle, eine Klassifikation der Inhaltsstoffe und einen strukturierten Therapiealgorithmus enthält. 5 Schlussfolgerung Das hier vorgeschlagene strukturierte symptom‐ und evidenzorientierte Vorgehen mit Diagnostik‐ und Behandlungspfad soll für die Prävention und frühzeitige Behandlung der Xerosis cutis sensibilisieren. Damit können die Lebensqualität verbessert und Folgeerkrankungen verhindert werden.
... Phytosterole ( [105]. ...
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Falten reduzieren, die Haut straff halten und einen frischen Teint herbeizaubern — diese Versprechungen machen Cosmeceuticals. Sie enthalten meist effektivere Inhaltsstoffe als herkömmliche Kosmetika.
... Natural oils differ in their content of triglycerides, free polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) and omega-6 fatty acids (including linoleic acid, gamma linolenic acid (GLA), eicosadienoic acid, arachidonic acid), monounsaturated oleic acids (e.g., oleic acid) and saturated fatty acids (e.g., lauric acid and caprylic acid) as well as in their content of vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin A), flavonoids, triterpenes and phytosterols (see ceramides) [107] and in their antiseptic properties (e.g., lauric acid) [108][109][110] (Table 7). Important cosmetic issues to be considered include the speed with which a given oil spreads on the skin, how rapidly it is absorbed and how long its emollient effect persists. ...
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Background and rationale: Xerosis cutis (also referred to as xeroderma, dry skin, asteatosis) affects more than 10 million individuals in Germany. It is among the most common dermatological diagnoses and a cardinal symptom of many dermatological, internal and neurological diseases. Even though it has been established that basic skin care plays a significant role in the management of patients with xerosis cutis, there are as yet no evidence-based algorithms for diagnosis and treatment. Objective: The present position paper provides physicians across all specialties with a practical, symptom-based approach to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of xerosis cutis. Methods: Within a structured decision-making process, a panel of experienced dermatologists first defined questions relevant to everyday clinical practice, which were then addressed by a systematic review of the literature. Based on the evidence available as well as expert consensus, diagnostic and treatment algorithms were subsequently developed and agreed upon. Results: Xerosis cutis is generally diagnosed on clinical grounds. Possible trigger factors must be avoided, and comorbidities should be adequately and specifically treated. Suitable skin care products should be chosen with a view to improving skin hydration and restoring its barrier function. They should therefore contain both rehydrating and lipid-replenishing components. The "drier" the skin appears, the greater the lipid content should be (preferably using water-in-oil formulations). The choice of ingredients is based on a patient's individual symptoms, such as scaling (e.g., urea), fissures/rhagades (e.g., urea or dexpanthenol), erythema (e.g., licochalcone A) and pruritus (e.g., polidocanol). Other factors to be considered include the site affected and patient age. Ingredients or rather combinations thereof for which there is good clinical evidence should be preferentially used. The best evidence by far is available for urea, whose efficacy in the treatment of xerosis is further enhanced by combining it with other natural moisturizing components and ceramides. The "xerosimeter" is a tool developed in an effort to facilitate patient management and for training purposes. It not only includes practical tools for diagnosis and follow-up but also a classification of ingredients and a structured treatment algorithm. Conclusion: The structured symptom- and evidence-based approach proposed herein contains a road map for diagnosis and treatment of xerosis cutis. It aims to raise awareness in terms of prevention and early treatment of this condition and may thus improve quality of life and prevent potential sequelae.
... A previous study further showed the protective effects of vitamin E on keratinocyte damage in a cell culture experiment [21], while Harrabi et al. [22] reported that the policosanol level in seed oils may contribute to their antioxidant. Phytosterols have also shown positive effects on skin barrier recovery [23]. These data indicate that these compounds, present in USM, may promote skin protection. ...
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IntroductionComposition of soybean and soybean oilRecovery and refining of soybean oilOil composition modification by processing and biotechnologyPhysical properties of soybean oilOxidation evaluation of soybean oilNutritional properties of soybean oilFood uses of soybean oilReferences
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To test the hypothesis that plant sterols found in the skin surface lipids of humans originated from diet after their absorption from intestine into plasma and then transferred to skin, we studied the 24-h excretion of plant sterols and cholesterol from skin and in feces in a hyperlipoproteinemic (type IIa) patient fed formula diets providing varying quantities of plant sterols (0-30 g/day) and cholesterol (0-1000 g/day). Upon feeding a sterol-free diet, the beta-sitosterol excretion from the skin decreased progressively, from about 6 mg/day to 0.08 mg/day by 83 days and then completely disappeared. With addition of plant sterols (about 30 g/day) to the diet, beta-sitosterol reappeared in the skin surface lipids and rose to nearly 5 mg/day by 6 weeks. With feeding of the sterol-free diet, the fecal excretion of beta-sitosterol and the 2 other plant sterols decreased gradually and by week 4 disappeared completely from the feces and continued to be absent from the feces as long as the diet was free of plant sterols. The results demonstrated clearly that plant sterols which were absorbed into the plasma from the diet were excreted into the skin surface lipids after being transferred from the plasma to the skin.
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Three stratum corneum lipids, ceramides, cholesterol (CHOL), and free fatty acids (FA), are required for permeability barrier homeostasis. Recent studies have shown that application of one or two of these lipids to perturbed skin delays barrier recovery; only equimolar mixtures allow normal recovery. We asked here whether any physiological lipid mixtures improve barrier repair, as assessed by transepidermal water loss. Whereas an equimolar ratio of ceramides, CHOL, and FA (either the essential fatty acid, linoleic acid, or the nonessential FAs, palmitic or stearic acids) allows normal repair, further acceleration of barrier repair occurs as the ratio of any of these ingredients is increased up to 3-fold. Similar preliminary results were obtained in damaged human skin. Likewise, while acylceramides alone delay barrier recovery, acylceramides: CHOL mixtures within a specific range of molar rations dramatically improve barrier repair. Furthermore, glycosyl ceramides, sphingomyelin, and triglycerides substitute effectively for ceramides and FA, respectively, but neither phospholipids nor cholesterol esters substitute for FA and CHOL, respectively. These studies show the specific requirements of selected stratum corneum lipid mixtures for optimized barrier repair in murine skin, with further validation in human skin. Utilization of physiologic lipids according to these parameters could lead to new forms of topical therapy for dermatoses (e.g., psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and irritant dermatitis) triggered by abnormal barrier function.
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The aim was to assess the feasibility of cutaneous microdialysis as a method to study percutaneous penetration of methyl nicotinate through human skin in vitro and in vivo. Microdialysis was applied in vitro in excised human skin, in isolated dermis, in reconstructed human epidermis and in vivo in the volar forearm skin of volunteers using methyl nicotinate (MN) as a model compound. After topical application of MN, aliquots of the perfusate were collected and analyzed for the presence of MN spectrophotometrically and by HPLC. In vivo, visual scoring and laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) were used to monitor the effects on skin blood flow. In vitro, MN was detected in the dialysate after a 1 min exposure of excised skin to concentrations as low as 25 mM. Higher concentrations up to 500 mM showed increased levels. Prolongation of the application time to 60 min resulted in increased levels of MN in the perfusate as the duration of application increased. Reconstructed epidermis and isolated dermis showed an almost 2- and 20-fold higher penetration compared to excised skin, respectively. In vivo, LDPI measurements showed a rapid increase in skin blood flow after application of 25 to 100 mM MN for 1 min. MN was only detectable in the microdialysate after application of 100 mM for 10 min (two of three subjects). Cutaneous microdialysis may be a tool for comparative studies linking responses in human skin in vivo to in vitro data using the same technique and endpoint.
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The aim of this study was the evaluation, in vitro and in vivo, of indomethacin (IND) release through the skin from nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). NLC were prepared by ultrasonication, and were characterized in order to determine drug content, and particle size; finally the NLC were processed to hydrogels (A and B). The IND release pattern from NLC hydrogels was evaluated in vitro, to determine its percutaneous absorption through excised human skin (stratum corneum and epidermis, SCE), and in vivo. To evaluate the in vivo IND release, two methods were employed: (1) the IND topical anti-inflammatory activity was determined at different time-points after its cutaneous application; in this case, the UVB-induced erythema on healthy human volunteers, chosen as inflammatory model, was monitored by reflectance visible spectrophotometry; (2) the extent of IND absorption into human skin was performed by the tape-stripping technique. The in vitro percutaneous absorption studies showed lower fluxes of IND through SCE membranes from NLC hydrogels (A and B) in comparison to an aqueous dispersion (C) and a hydro-alcoholic gel (D) both containing free IND. The findings from the former in vivo method showed that the anti-inflammatory effect, following IND topical application, was more prolonged with IND-loaded NLC gel formulation (A) if compared to formulation C and D. The results from tape stripping technique confirmed the trend obtained by the former in vivo method and indicated that IND topical bioavailability in the stratum corneum varied substantially depending upon the formulations (A-D).
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The efficacy and safety of a bath oil containing soya oil and anti-pruritic lauromacrogols have been demonstrated in experimental and clinical studies. In order to generate more efficacy and safety-related data on the day-to-day use in paediatric practice, a post-marketing surveillance study has been conducted. More than 3500 patients--the vast majority (61.4%) aged 0-4 years--were included in this investigation. Atopic eczema was diagnosed in 86.4% of the cases. The average duration of treatment was 42 days. The results confirm that the anti-pruritic bath oil is both well-tolerated and effective in treating dry and itchy skin diseases. The sum score of symptoms decreased during the treatment period from 7.21 to 2.71 mean score points. The physicians assessed the global efficacy in 89.4% of the cases as 'very good' or 'good'. Anti-pruritic properties of the combination were rated 'very good' or 'good' in 84.3%. The local tolerability was stated to be 'good' or 'very good' in 96.8% of the patients. In total, only 10 out of the 3566 patients, 0.28% respectively, experienced discomfort.Moreover, the physicians estimated that the bath oil therapy helped to reduce therapeutics like steroids in nearly 60% of patients. The potential to reduce use of external steroids and other specific therapeutics is also of particular relevance from a pharmacoeconomic point of view.
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The primary function of the skin is to protect the body for unwanted influences from the environment. The main barrier of the skin is located in the outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum. The stratum corneum consists of corneocytes surrounded by lipid regions. As most drugs applied onto the skin permeate along the lipid domains, the lipid organization is considered to be very important for the skin barrier function. It is for this reason that the lipid organization has been investigated quite extensively. Due to the exceptional stratum corneum lipid composition, with long chain ceramides, free fatty acids and cholesterol as main lipid classes, the lipid organization is different from that of other biological membranes. In stratum corneum, two lamellar phases are present with repeat distances of approximately 6 and 13 nm. Moreover the lipids in the lamellar phases form predominantly crystalline lateral phases, but most probably a subpopulation of lipids forms a liquid phase. Diseased skin is often characterized by a reduced barrier function and an altered lipid composition and organization. In order to understand the aberrant lipid organization in diseased skin, information on the relation between lipid composition and organization is crucial. However, due to its complexity and inter-individual variability, the use of native stratum corneum does not allow detailed systematic studies. To circumvent this problem, mixtures prepared with stratum corneum lipids can be used. In this paper first the lipid organization in stratum corneum of normal and diseased skin is described. Then the role the various lipid classes play in stratum corneum lipid organization and barrier function has been discussed. Finally, the information on the role various lipid classes play in lipid phase behavior has been used to interpret the changes in lipid organization and barrier properties of diseased skin.
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