Timing of Tourniquet Release in Total Knee Arthroplasty When Using a Postoperative Blood Salvage Drain

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Palo Alto Health Care Stystem, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA.
The Journal of arthroplasty (Impact Factor: 2.67). 05/2008; 24(4):539-42. DOI: 10.1016/j.arth.2008.01.302
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a postoperative blood salvage drain and timing of tourniquet release on the maximal hematocrit drop after total knee arthroplasty. Thirty-seven total knees were prospectively randomized into either an early or late tourniquet release group. Hematocrit drop and drainage amounts were recorded. We found no significant difference in maximal hematocrit drop, drainage amounts, or total surgical time between the groups. We conclude that the use of a blood salvage drain should not influence the surgeon's preference on timing of tourniquet release in total knee arthroplasty.

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    • "Releasing the tourniquet right after cementing the prosthesis for hemostasis would cause longer operation time than releasing it after wound closure. However, the influence of the timing of release on blood loss is still controversial [25, 29]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The use of an intraoperative tourniquet for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a common practice. However, the effectiveness and safety are still questionable. A systematic review was conducted to examine that whether using a tourniquet in TKA was effective without increasing the risk of complications. A comprehensive literature search was done in PubMed Medicine, Embase, and other internet database. The review work and the following meta-analysis were processed to evaluate the role of tourniquet in TKA. Eight randomized controlled trials and three high-quality prospective studies involving 634 knees and comparing TKA with and without the use of a tourniquet were included in this analysis. The results demonstrated that using a tourniquet could decrease the measured blood loss but could not decrease the calculated blood loss, which indicated actual blood loss. Patients managed with a tourniquet might have higher risks of thromboembolic complications. Using the tourniquet with late release after wound closure could shorten the operation time; whereas early release did not show this benefit. The current evidence suggested that using tourniquet in TKA may save time but may not reduce the blood loss. Due to the higher risks of thromboembolic complications, we should use a tourniquet in TKA with caution.
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    ABSTRACT: The apparent synovial hypertrophy in some cases of noninflammatory knee osteoarthritis suggests that total synovectomy may provide beneficial inflammatory and pain relief after total knee arthroplasty. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of synovectomy on the postoperative pain, bleeding and functional outcome after surgical treatment of knee osteoarthritis. A total of 50 patients with bilateral, non inflammatory, primary knee osteoarthritis were included in the study. Bilateral total knee replacement was performed at the same session. Total synovectomy and total knee arthroplasty (study group) were applied to a randomly selected side, and the total knee arthroplasty alone (as control group) was applied to the contralateral side of the same patient. The overall efficacy of both procedures was assessed postoperatively by determination of blood loss from the drain, pain and functional scores. The Visual Analogue Scale of pain and the Knee Society Knee Score were used to compare the two groups at 3rd, 6th and 12th months, postoperatively. During the postoperative 48 h, the mean blood loss in the study group (with synovectomy) was significantly higher than the control group (P=0.005). However, in the postoperative follow-up time, there was no significant difference in pain relief and in the Knee Society Score between the two groups. Performing synovectomy in patients with primary knee osteoarthritis does not seem to have any clinical advantage besides it might increase blood loss and recurrent hemarthrosis postoperatively. Thus, during arthroplasty surgery, it should not be performed routinely.
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