An experimental study on the effectiveness of massage with aromatic ginger and orange essential oil for moderate-to-severe knee pain among the elderly in Hong Kong

Complementary Therapies in Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.55). 07/2008; 16(3):131-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.ctim.2007.12.003
Source: PubMed


To assess the efficacy of an aromatic essential oil (1% Zingiber officinale and 0.5% Citrus sinesis) massage among the elderly with moderate-to-severe knee pain.
Fifty-nine older persons were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experimental study group from the Community Centre for Senior Citizens, Hong Kong. The intervention was six massage sessions with ginger and orange oil over a 3-week period. The placebo control group received the same massage intervention with olive oil only and the control group received no massage. Assessment was done at baseline, post 1-week and post 4 weeks after treatment. Changes from baseline to the end of treatment were assessed on knee pain intensity, stiffness level and physical functioning (by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index) and quality of life (by SF-36).
There were significant mean changes between the three time-points within the intervention group on three of the outcome measures: knee pain intensity (p=0.02); stiffness level (p=0.03); and enhancing physical function (p=0.04) but these were not apparent with the between-groups comparison (p=0.48, 0.14 and 0.45 respectively) 4 weeks after the massage. The improvement of physical function and pain were superior in the intervention group compared with both the placebo and the control group at post 1-week time (both p=0.03) but not sustained at post 4 weeks (p=0.45 and 0.29). The changes in quality of life were not statistically significant for all three groups.
The aroma-massage therapy seems to have potential as an alternative method for short-term knee pain relief.

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    • "The nature of the pain was different. In the laboratorybased studies, the essential oils were inhaled rather than topically applied to pain sites as in the community-based studies [34] [35]. The method of administering the essential oils and the duration of the aromatherapy were factors affecting the impact of the aromatherapy programme in pain management. "
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the effectiveness of an aromatherapy programme for older persons with chronic pain. The community-dwelling elderly people who participated in this study underwent a four-week aromatherapy programme or were assigned to the control group, which did not receive any interventions. Their levels of pain, depression, anxiety, and stress were collected at the baseline and at the postintervention assessment after the conclusion of the four-week programme. Eighty-two participants took part in the study. Forty-four participants (37 females, 7 males) were in the intervention group and 38 participants (30 females, 8 males) were in the control group. The pain scores were 4.75 (SD 2.32) on a 10-point scale for the intervention group and 5.24 (SD 2.14) for the control group before the programme. There was a slight reduction in the pain score of the intervention group. No significant differences were found in the same-group and between-group comparisons for the baseline and postintervention assessments. The depression, anxiety, and stress scores for the intervention group before the programme were 11.18 (SD 6.18), 9.64 (SD 7.05), and 12.91 (SD 7.70), respectively. A significant reduction in negative emotions was found in the intervention group (P < 0.05). The aromatherapy programme can be an effective tool to reduce pain, depression, anxiety, and stress levels among community-dwelling older adults.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · BioMed Research International
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    • "In a study that used peppermint oil as an inhaler, Ozgoli et al. showed it could reduce labor pain and anxiety in the first stage of delivery in primiparous women (14). Yip and Ying Tam’s study (2008) showed that Citrus aurantium was effective in reduction of moderate and severe knee pain (15). A study conducted between 2000 and 2002 by Mousely in England involved 80 pregnant women and showed that aromatherapy using lavender and frankincense extract had a positive effect on labor pain and anxiety reduction (16). "
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    ABSTRACT: Considering that vaginal delivery is a painful process, the present study investigated the effects of Citrus aurantium on the severity of first-stage labor pain in primiparous women. This study was a randomized clinical trial conducted with 126 eligible primiparous patients. The pain severity of patients was measured at the time of enrolling in the study. In the intervention group, (aromatherapy) gauze squares were soaked in 4 ml of C. aurantium distillated water, and in the control group, gauze squares were soaked in 4 ml of normal saline; each gauze square was attached to the respective patients' collar. The intervention was repeated every 30 min. Pain severity was measured after the intervention at 3–4, 5–7, and 8–10 cm cervix dilatations. The two groups were standardized with regard to age, profession, education, desire to conceive, and number and severity of uterine contractions. The Bishop's score was also calculated. Before intervention, pain severity was the same for both groups, but following intervention, pain severity reduced in the intervention group at 3–4 centimeter (P < 0.05), 7–5 centimeter (P < 0.05), and 8–10 centimeter (P < 0.05) dilatations compared with that in the control group. The findings of the study revealed that aromatherapy using C. aurantium distillated water alleviates labor pain. This method is recommended because of its ease of use and low cost and because it is a non-aggressive method to reduce labor pain.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research (IJPR)
    • "In nonsurgery-related situations, a rigorous study demonstrated that some EOs have analgesic activity (ginger and orange) for a limited period of time; in fact the statistically significant effect observed immediately after application soon wore off. Ginger is one of the most popular herbal remedies and is recommended for rheumatic conditions in Chinese medicine [22]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aromatherapy is the controlled use of plant essences for therapeutic purposes. Its applications are numerous (i.e., wellbeing, labour, infections, dementia, and anxiety treatment) but often they have not been scientifically validated. The aim of the present study is to review the available literature to determine if there is evidence for effectiveness of aromatherapy in surgical patients to treat anxiety and insomnia, to control pain and nausea, and to dress wound. Efficacy studies of lavender or orange and peppermint essential oils, to treat anxiety and nausea, respectively, have shown positive results. For other aspects, such as pain control, essential oils therapy has shown uncertain results. Finally, there are encouraging data for the treatment of infections, especially for tea tree oil, although current results are still inconclusive. It should also be considered that although they are, allergic reactions and toxicity can occur after oral ingestion. Therefore, while rigorous studies are being carried out, it is important that the therapeutic use of essential oils be performed in compliance with clinical safety standards.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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