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In vitro evaluation of the effect of nicotine, cotinine and caffeine on oral microorganisms

Department of Physiological Sciences, Area of Pharmacology, Anesthesiology and Therapeutics, Dentistry School of Piracicaba, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.
Canadian Journal of Microbiology (Impact Factor: 1.22). 07/2008; 54(6):501-8. DOI: 10.1139/w08-032
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine on the viability of some oral bacterial species. It also evaluated the ability of these bacteria to metabolize those substances. Single-species biofilms of Streptococcus gordonii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, or Fusobacterium nucleatum and dual-species biofilms of S. gordonii -- F. nucleatum and F. nucleatum -- P. gingivalis were grown on hydroxyapatite discs. Seven species were studied as planktonic cells, including Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Propionibacterium acnes, Actinomyces naeslundii, and the species mentioned above. The viability of planktonic cells and biofilms was analyzed by susceptibility tests and time-kill assays, respectively, against different concentrations of nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine. High-performance liquid chromatography was performed to quantify nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine concentrations in the culture media after the assays. Susceptibility tests and viability assays showed that nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine cannot reduce or stimulate bacterial growth. High-performance liquid chromatography results showed that nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine concentrations were not altered after bacteria exposure. These findings indicate that nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine, in the concentrations used, cannot affect significantly the growth of these oral bacterial strains. Moreover, these species do not seem to metabolize these substances.

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    • "These results are consistent with data concerning the antibacterial activity of caffeine against human pathogens or common free-living microbes.Raj & Dhala (1965), for example, reported that 5 000 µg×ml –1 (about 25 mM) caffeine inhibited many different free-living bacteria as well as human pathogens.Ramanaviciene et al. (2003)stated that a 1% (about 50 mM) caffeine solution substantially reduced the growth rate of E. coli and that of an ordinary constituent of crop microflora – P. fluorescens. AlthoughCogo et al. (2008)reported that caffeine did not alter the growth of human oral microbiota , the highest concentration in their treatment was 400 µg×ml –1 (about 2 mM). To our knowledge, the only species of plant pathogenic bacteria that has been tested before for the susceptibility to caffeine is P. syringae pv. "
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