Scald Burns in Young Children—A Review of Arizona Burn Center Pediatric Patients and a Proposal for Prevention in the Hispanic Community

Arizona Burn Center, Maricopa Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.
Journal of burn care & research: official publication of the American Burn Association (Impact Factor: 1.43). 07/2008; 29(4):595-605. DOI: 10.1097/BCR.0b013e31817db8a4
Source: PubMed


Arizona Burn Center staff observed an increasing number of pediatric scald burn admissions. Therefore, a retrospective study was conducted to identify scald demographics and etiologies. Focus groups were subsequently conducted to determine burn prevention knowledge in the target community. Arizona Burn Center scald admission variables (ages 0-5 years) reviewed included age, sex, ethnicity, TBSA, body parts burned, occurrence month and location, caregiver present, child and caregiver activities when injured, payor source, length of stay, parental language, and zip code. High-risk zip code area focus groups were then conducted. There were a total of 170 pediatric patients, aged 0 to 5 years, admitted to the burn center during 2005 to 2006. Of this total, 124 of the patients were admitted for scald burns, accounting for 59% of all pediatric burn admissions. Scald burn patient's demographics included male (52%), female (48%) with a mean age of 1.7 years. Majority ethnicity was Hispanic (63%). The mean TBSA was 8% with mean length of stay of 8 days. The remaining pediatric admissions for children aged 0 to 5 were for burns caused by fire or flame 15%, contact with a hot object 13%, friction burns 7%, chemical burns 3%, and electrical burns 3%. Demographics for the combined etiologies included an identical sex breakdown with male (52%) and female (48%). The majority ethnicity in the nonscald group was also Hispanic at 59% with a mean length of stay of 7 days and an average TBSA of 9.5%. Main etiologies of scald burns included hot water (25%), soup (24%), and coffee or tea (21%). Most common child behaviors were pulling hot substance from stove (24%), from countertop (13%), and having liquid spilled on them (13%) typically while caregiver was cooking. Mean TBSA was 8% with mean length of stay (8 days). Scalds occurred in the kitchen (83%) and mainly in child's home (94%). Mother was primary caregiver (78%). Payor source was Medicaid (86%) and the average admission cost was dollars 60,075. Only 36% of parents spoke Spanish as their primary language. Scalds (43%) usually occurred during year's first quarter (P < .001). Focus group participants (85%) reported receiving no prior burn prevention education and preferred to receive prevention instruction in small groups through established community agencies. Results suggest that culturally sensitive, bilingual scald prevention education, targeting Hispanics, is needed to create awareness of the frequency, severity, and danger associated with pediatric scalds.

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    • "Among younger children, the most common age for burn appears to be between 1 and 2 years [2] [3] [5]. An increasing trend of burns requiring hospitalization in infants less than 1 year of age is observed and published [6] [7] [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In general, voluminous data exists concerning burns in children, but the data focusing specially on children less than 1 year of age is sporadic. We therefore focused on examining the special features of burns in children less than 1 year of age. A retrospective study of all outpatient treated burn patients <1 year old at the Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki, Finland, from January 2005 to December 2009 was performed. During the 5-year period we identified 106 outpatient treated infants with burns, representing 15% of all pediatric burns during the study period. The majority was male and aged 9-12 months. Most of the burns occurred at home, and in most cases a caregiver was present in the injury room. Scalds were the most common type of injury followed by contact burns. The most common source of scald was from cups containing hot drink, and the most common source of contact burn was hot stoves or oven doors. Special attention needs to be targeted toward the prevention of burns in children less than 1 year of age. The majority of the injuries could have been prevented with more vigilance.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
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    • "In the Netherlands, where Turkish and Moroccan immigrants make up the largest ethnic minority groups, relatively larger numbers of young Turkish and Moroccan children present with burns in hospitals and burn centers than children of ethnic Dutch origin [6] [13]. Cultural background as well as parents' low proficiency in the majority language (e.g., unsafe cooking traditions and limited knowledge about burn prevention [5]) may explain why children from ethnic minorities have an increased risk of burns [14] [15] [16] [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have shown that ethnic minority children in the developed world are at greater risk of sustaining burns compared to children from non-ethnic minority backgrounds. However, little is known about the experiences of hospital health care staff with ethnic minority children and parents. A qualitative interview study was conducted to gain more insight into burn care for ethnic minority children and the potential challenges this presents. Semi-structured interviews on burn care for ethnic minority children were conducted in 2009 with health care staff (N=17) working in two burn centers in the Netherlands. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a framework method. Health care staff identified the following issues in burn care for ethnic minority children and their parents: (1) linguistic barriers to communication with parents about pressure garments, dressing changes, skin grafting procedures, and psychosocial support; (2) biological/genetic features of differing pigmentation of skin and skin healing; (3) cultural differences between parents and health care staff; (4) insecurity or irritation about linguistic and cultural barriers. Burn health care staff should have knowledge of biological/genetic features of dark skin, awareness of cultural differences, and transcultural communication skills to deliver culturally competent care tailored to the needs of ethnic minority children and their parents.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
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    ABSTRACT: Burns are devastating injuries that disproportionately affect people in developing countries, including children. In addition to a high mortality rate, survivors are burdened with life-long physical and emotional scars. The etiology and nature of burn injuries varies significantly by country, and this chapter explores the predominant causes and patterns of burn injury in both the developing and industrialized worlds. Gender differences play a significant role in the risk of burn injuries, across a spectrum with a predominance of women injured in fires from cooking and heating fuels in the developing world and industrial accidents primarily affecting men in developed nations. Children are particularly vulnerable to burn injuries, accounting for almost 50% of all burn patients in some studies. A majority of pediatric burns are scald injuries usually affecting very young children below the age of 5 years, and we discuss the behavioral patterns underlying this finding. Finally, the elderly form a rapidly increasing proportion of the population in many countries, and are often burdened with comorbidities that are likely to pose significant challenges in burn care.
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